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History  of  Buffalo 

AND 

Erie  County 

1914-1919 


Compiled  by 
DANIEL  J.  SWEENEY,  Editor 


PUBLISHED  BY 

COMMITTEE   OF  ONE  HUNDRED 

FiNLEY  H.  Greenj:,  Chairman 

UNDER   AUTHORITY    OF   THE    CITY'    OF   BUFFALO 
JULY   4,  1919 


■M538 


Copyright.  1920. 

By 

Daniel  J.  Sweeney 


APR 


1320 


To   THE 

Soldier  Mothers  of  Buffalo  and  Erie  County 

Who  Bravely  Gave  Their  Boys  to  the 

Cause  of  Universal  Democracy, 

This  Book,  in  the 

Grateful  Remembrance  of  a  Patriotic  Community, 

IS  Respectfully  Dedicated 


Chapter 


I 

II 

III 

IV 

V 

VI 

VII 

VIII 

IX 

X 

XI 

XII 

XIII 

XIV 

XV 

XVI 

XVII 

XVIII 

XIX 

XX 

XXI 

XXII 

XXIII 

XXIV 

XXV 

XXVI 

XXVII 

XXVIII 

XXIX 

XXX 

XXXI 

XXXII 

XXXIII 

XXXIV 

XXXV 

XXXVI 

XXXVII 

XXXVIII 

XXXIX 

XL 

XLI 

XLII 

XLIII 

XLIV 

XLV 


CONTENTS 

Page 

Preface 11 

Introductory — Buffalo 13 

With  Minds  Unshod  of  War 20 

Monroe  Doctrine  Rocks  on  Its  Base 24 

Scenting  the  Battle  Afar 27 

Preparedness  Seed  is  Sown 29 

U.  of  B.  Company  in  National  Guard 32 

Governor  Whitman  at  First  Preparedness  Meeting 34 

Patriotism  Unleashed  by  June  Day  Parade 37 

Unequipped  Regiments  Called  to  Mexico 41 

Troop  I  Off  to  Border — Colonels  Wolf  and  Babcock  Relieved 44 

Germany's  First  Peace  Proposal 46 

Mayor's  Americanization  Committee  at  Work 48 

City  Welcomes  Returning  Soldiers 51 

Allies  Decline  Peace  Terms 53 

Chamber  of  Commerce  Urges  Armed  Guards  for  Local  Plants 55 

Elmwood  Music  Hall  Mass  Meeting  Declares  for  War 58 

Naval  Militia  Off  to  War— Soldiers  Guard  Water  Front 62 

Rush  for  Marriage  Licenses  Congests  City  Clerk's  Office 64 

Flag  Raising  Ceremonies  and  Pulpit  Appeals 67 

Uncle  Sam's  Plan  to  Raise  a  National  Army 70 

Louis  P.  Fuhrmann— Buffalo's  War  Mayor  1914  to  1917 72 

Volunteer  Army  to  Administer  Selective  Service  Law 74 

Tony  Monanco  by  Name :  Water  Boy  by  Occupation 76 

I  Am  An  American 78 

Registration  Day,  June  5,  1917 80 

Twenty  Exemption  Districts  for  Erie  County 83 

Exemption  District  Machinery  in  Operation 90 

Rann's  Appeal  Agent  Volunteers 92 

Unlimited  Service  by  Members  of  Buffalo  Bar 95 

District  Board  Number  Three 97 

"The  Rose  of  No  Man's  Land" 100 

Coal  Shortage  Through  Winter  of  1917-1918 103 

Peace  Proposal  of  Pope  Benedict  XV 105 

Guardsmen  Spend  Summer  of  1917  in  Buffalo  Camp 107 

Festival  of  Light  and  Song — A  Formal  Good-By Ill 

National  Army  of  the  United  States 117 

Amid  Cheers  and  Tears  Guardsmen  Leave  Home 121 

George  S.  Buck,  War  Mayor  1918-1919 125 

Fort  Porter  Plays  Its  Part  in  World  War 128 

Base  Hospital  No.  23 130 

Wheatless  Days  in  Buffalo  Hotels 135 

With  Don  Martin  in  London 138 

Lieut.  Harold  B.  Wertz,  First  Division  U.  S.  A 140 

Smoke  Ammunition  from  the  Buffalo  News 141 

And  the  Navy  Took  Them  Over 145 

Aboard  an  American  Transport 150 

3 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 


Chapter  Page 

XLVI     77th  Division  Within  Thunder  of  Guns 152 

XLVII     Seeing  Paris  with  Don  Martin 154 

XLVI  1 1     Germany's  March  Drive  Crushes  British  Defense 157 

XLIX     Lightless,  Heatless,  Gasless  Days 159 

L     Buffalo  Women  Face  the  Hun 163 

LI     American  AlHed  Exposition  and  Bazaar 169 

LII     Second  Red  Cross  Drive 171 

LIII     "Can  They  Get  to  Calais?" 175 

LIV     Buffalo  Draft  Men  of  78th  Division  in  France 179 

LV     In  Mrs.  Vanderbilt's  Paris  Hospital  with  Doris  Kellogg 181 

LVI     Buffalo  Marines  in  Battle  of  Belleau  Wood 183 

LVII     House  Warming  Party  for  77th  Division  at  Baccarat 192 

LVIII     Smashing  the  Marne  Salient 194 

LIX     Maj.  Donovan  at  the  Battle  of  the  Ourcq 199 

LX     First  American  Army  Formed 204 

LXI     Girls  at  Canteens  Carry  on  Through  the  Hot  Summer 205 

LXII     Germany's  Dead  Mark  Trail  of  American  Advance 209 

LXIII     108th  Infantry  Enters  Front  Line  at  Mt.  Kemmel 211 

LXIV     77th  Division  in  the  Hell  Hole  Valley  of  the  Vesle 217 

LXV     Battle  of  St.  Mihiel— Death  of  Capt.  Piatt 223 

LXVI     Planning  the  Decisive  Battle  of  the  War 229 

LXVII     General  Nolan  of  Akron — Hero  of  Apremont 231 

LXVIII     77th  Division  Enters  Argonne— Col.  Jewett  Decorated 238 

LXIX     Maj.  Whittlesey's  Battalion,  77th  Division 242 

LXX     Lieut.  Wilhelm,  Buffalo,  in  "Lost  Battalion" 244 

LXXI     Lost  Battalion's  Dead  Still  Hold  the  Position 248 

LXXII     Buffalo  Artillerymen  Wreck  Forges  on  the  Meuse 253 

LXXIII     Breaking  the  Great  Hindenburg  Line 255 

LXX IV     Death  of  Don  Martin— A  Soldier  of  the  Pen 265 

LXXV     Sinkingof  the  "Mary  Alice" 268 

LXXVI     77th  Division  Before  Grand  Pre      270 

LXX VI I     Grand  Pre  Proves  a  Buffalo  Sepulcher 272 

LXXVIII     Twenty  Days  on  the  Meuse  With  the  Old  65th 281 

LXXIX     St.  Souplet  and  Across  Le  Selle 285 

LXXX     On  a  Field  of  Carnage  Donovan  Fell 289 

LXXXI     Putting  the  Last  One  Over  With  the  Old  65th 292 

LXXXII     General  Pershing's  Story  of  the  Final  Days      294 

LXXXIII     Buffalo  Tank  Corps  Fighters— Treat 'em  Rough 299 

LXXXIV     Handling  Gas  on  the  Western  Front 301 

LXXXV     Honors  for  Greatest  Gains  to  77th  Division 303 

LXXXVI     U.  of  B.  and  Canisius  Student  Army  Corps 305 

LXXXVII     Battling  Above  the  Clouds 307 

LXXXVIII     On  the  Western  Front  11  A.  M.,  November  11,  1918 313 

LXXXIX     Paris  With  the  Lid  Off 318 

XC     Celebrating  the  Kaiser's  Funeral 320 

XCI     Lieut.  Colonel  Pooley  Leads  Regiment  into  Germany 322 

XCII     Buffalo  Boys  Stand  by  as  German  Fleet  Surrenders 325 

XCIII     When  Johnny  Came  Marching  Home 327 

XCIV     Putting  Handcuffs  on  Disloyalty 340 

XCV     Four  Minute  Men  of  Buffalo   .  i 343 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 


Chapter  Page 

XCVI     The  Schools— The  Children— The  Teachers 345 

XCVII     Pasting  the  City  with  War  Stamps 357 

XCVIII     Buffalo  Chapter,  American  Red  Cross 368 

XCIX     Boy  Scouts  Lend  a  Helping  Hand 380 

C     The  Military  Training  Camps  Association 383 

CI     The  United  States  Grain  Corporation 387 

CII     What  We  Paid  for  Heat,  Food  and  Clothing 390 

cm     Work  of  the  Food  Administrator 397 

CIV    National  League  for  Woman's  Service 404 

CV     The  World  War  in  Verse 405 

CVI     New  74th  Regiment  Infantry,  N.  G.  S.  N.  Y 412 

CVII     New  65th  Regiment  Infantry,  N.  G.  S.  N.  Y 414 

CVIII     Buffalo  at  Home  and  Her  Visitors 417 

CIX     Home  Defense  Committee  of  Erie  County 422 

CX     Child  Welfare  Program  in  War  Time 424 

CXI     Belgian  Relief  Fund  Committee 426 

CXII     Buffalo  Police  Reserves 427 

CXIII     For  France  and  Her  Allies 428 

CXIV     The  Buffalo  Thrift  Kitchen 430 

CXV     Local  Hygiene  Lecture  Campaign 433 

CXVI     Five  Liberty  Loan  Campaigns 434 

CXVII     Independence  Day,  July  4,  1919 487 

CXVIII     In  Conclusion 490 

Buffalo  and  Erie  County  Roster 

Our   Heroic  Dead 495 

Erie  County's  Volunteer  Chaplains 508 

U.  S.  Army— Buffalo  Roll  Call 509 

108th  Regiment  U.  S.  Infantry 612 

106th  Field  Artillery 618 

102d  Trench  Mortar  Battery 623 

U.S.  Navy 624 

U.  S.  Marines 664 

Base  Hospital  No.  23— Male  Members 675 

Buffalonians  in  Polish  Army 676 

Red  Cross  Leaders 679 

Red  Cross  Nurses 680 

Buffalo  Doctors  Commissioned  in  Army  and  Navy 682 

Volunteer  Medical  Service  Corps — Buffalo  Women 683 

Young  Men's  Christian  Association 684 

Salvation  Army 685 

Knights  of  Columbus 685 

Jewish  Welfare  Workers 685 

Volunteers  in  U.  S.  Telephone  Service 686 

Erie  County's  Service  Roster 687 


THE     CITY     COUNCIL     FOR     YEAR     1919 
Arthur  W.  Kreinheder  John  F.  Malone 

George  S.  Buck,  Mayor 
Frederick  G.  Baglev  Charles  M.  Heald 


ERIE    COUNTY    LEADERS    OF    WAR    WORK    ACTIVITIES 

Howard  A.  Forman  Walter  P.  Cooke  James  B.  Stafford 

Fuel  Administrator  Chairman  Liberty  Loan  Committee  Food  Administrator,  Buffalo 

Charles  Kennedy  Robert  W.  Pomeroy  Edward  H.  Butler 

Food  Administration  Grain  Corporation  Chairman  Red  Cross  Drives  Chairman  War  Savings  Stamp  Committee 

Oliver  Cabana,  Jr.  William  A.  Rogers  Frank  S.  McGraw 

Food  Administrator,  Erie  County  Chairman   United  War  Workers  Chairman  Red  Cross  Committee 


ERIE    COUNTY'S    DISTINGUISHED 
Col.  Henry  C.  Jewett 

316th  Engineers — 91st  Division 
Hero  of  Montfaucon 


MILITARY    LEADERS 

Col.  William  J.  Donovan 

165th  Infantry 


Rev.  John  C.  Ward 

Chaplain  lOSth  Infantry 
Hero  of  Hindenburg  Line  and  St.  Souplet 


Brig.  Genl.  Dennis  E.  Nolan 

Of  Genl.  Pershing's  Staff 
Hero  of  Apremont 


■42d  Division 
Hero  of  the  Ourcq  and  the  Argonne 


Lieut.  Col.  William  R.  Pooley 

7th  Infantry — lid  Division 
First  Erie  County  Commander  to  cross  the  Rhine 


Daniel  J.  Sweeney 
Editor 

World  War  History  Committee 


FiNLEV  H.  Greene 
Chairman 

World  War  History  Committee 


PREFACE 

BUFFALO  will  one  day  realize  the  tremendous  gi'owth  and  development  which  its  geo- 
graphical location  makes  inevitable.  As  the  years  go  by  and  we  roll  along  toward 
that  period  of  community  greatness,  Buffalonians  will  search  through  the  wi-itten  pages 
to  visualize  in  pride  or  humility  their  community  ancestry,  just  as  the  individual  beams  or 
scowls  ovei-  his  family  tree.  While  men  do  not  live  in  the  past  there  is  always  a  companion- 
ship and  an  abiding  interest  in  those  who  cut  the  path  ahead  of  us,  and  history  is  ever  a 
congenial  friend  on  the  library  shelf. 

In  these  late  days  of  1918  and  early  days  of  1919  we  are  too  close  to  the  World  War  to  com- 
pile a  history  of  the  war,  but  we  can  aim  to  produce  a  narrative  in  which  we  shall  outline  and 
depict  the  activities  of  the  men  and  women  of  Buffalo  and  the  surrounding  towns  during  the 
years  from  1914  to  1919 — an  historical  period.  In  that  narrative  we  shall  endeavor  to  portray — 
perhaps  'twill  be  in  a  homely  and  inartistic  way — but  as  accurately  as  man  can,  the  events 
at  home  and  abroad  in  which  Buffalonians  and  their  neighbors  participated. 

In  the  chapters  as  they  unfold  the  reader  may  expect  to  find :  first,  the  record  of  the  aver- 
age American's  early  indifference  to  war  reflected  in  Buffalo;  then  the  indefatigable  efforts  of  a 
few  patriots  to  arouse  the  community  to  the  need  for  preparedness,  the  organization  of  the 
National  Army,  the  camps  and  the  training  of  men,  the  overseas  expeditions  and  the  glorious 
epic  of  Buffalo  and  Erie  County  boys  on  the  battlefields  of  France  and  Belgium,  suffer- 
ing wounds  inflicted  by  gas  and  shrapnel  and  machine  gun  bullets;  fighting  and  dying,  but 
ever  with  their  faces  forward.  And  the  reader  may  expect,  also,  to  find  chronicled  the  tre- 
mendous task  which  fell  to  the  men,  the  women  and  the  children  at  home  in  the  struggle 
that  was  waged  to  make  all  the  world  safe  for  democi-acy. 

This  book  was  written  when  the  facts  were  fresh  in  the  minds  of  those  who  have  so  gen- 
erously contributed  to  it.  Indeed,  this  preface  was  in  the  course  of  preparation  by  the 
editor  in  the  office  of  the  City  Clerk  in  the  City  and  County  Hall  on  that  November  day, 
1918,  when  the  erroneous  report  of  the  signing  of  the  armistice  threw  the  community  into 
pandemonium. 

Outside!  All  around!  Even  about  the  City  Hall,  removed  fi'om  the  main  arteries  of 
travel,  the  crowds  were  surging  back  and  forth  in  the  streets.  Crowd  leaders  were  endeavor- 
ing to  marshal  their  followers  in  the  semblance  of  parade  formation.  Here  and  thei-e  por- 
tions of  what  once  might  have  been  a  band  gave  out  voluminously,  if  not  harmoniously,  the 
strains  of  martial  music.  Confetti  was  everywhere,  and  from  the  highest  windows  of  the 
office  buildings  on  the  corner  girls  were  thi'owing  out  spai'kling  clouds  of  paper  clipped  to 
snowflake  size.  Happiness  in  confusion  appeared  to  have  achieved  its  greatest  triumph. 
Enthusiasm  was  at  its  topmost  pitch.  The  marchers,  as  their  respective  banners  indicated, 
were  drawn  from  the  great  munition  plants,  from  the  high  schools,  from  the  law  offices,  from 
the  department  stores  and  made  up  a  cosmopolitan  crowd  from  the  avenues  and  institutions 
where  men  and  women  earn  their  livelihood,  or  prepare  themselves  therefor. 

It  was  among  such  surroundings  I  plodded  on  in  the  task  pi-eviously  undertaken  of 
preparing  in  an  official  way  for  historical  reference  the  story  of  Buffalo's  part  in  the  war. 

11 


12  Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 

Contemporaneous  writers  whose  individual  capacity  for  the  task  far  overshadows  mine 
abound.  But  unfortunately  perhaps  for  this  work,  it  happened  that  I  had  been  closely 
associated  with  Buffalo's  wai-  program  from  the  first  day  until,  at  least,  the  present  hour. 

Compilations  of  this  sort  are  usually  the  result  of  painstaking  effort.  I  surely  will  bow  in 
grateful  appreciation  if  this  one  shall  be  deemed  worthy  of  that  last  word  of  commendation. 
The  book  can  claim  a  foundation  of  information  obtained  at  first  hand,  and  to  that  extent 
it  will  be  a  substantial  edifice.  Though  its  ornamentations  may  not  be  suggestive  of  the 
broadest  culture  nor  the  highest  scholarship,  it  will  deal  with  men  as  they  were  and  events  as 
they  transpired  among  the  masses  of  our  citizenship.  An  inspiring  skyline,  a  knowledge 
that  it  is  a  story  of  the  splendid  sacrifices  and  brilliant  achievements  of  a  patriotic  people 
will  tend,  I  am  sure,  to  hold  even  the  balance  so  that  just  recognition  may  be  accorded  to 
each,  whether  his  task  was  performed  under  the  rays  of  heroic  splendor  on  the  battlefield  or 
in  the  equally  arduous  but  less  dangerous  and  more  dimly  illuminated  walks  of  civic  war  work. 

This  record  is  not  set  down  for  the  men  and  women  of  to-day.  They  have  heai-d  the  shouts 
I  have  heard,  and  viewed  all  the  scenes  I  have  seen.  Most  of  them  have  been  participants 
in  the  local  activities  to  the  same  extent.  They  therefore  need  no  wi-itten  narration.  To  them 
this  would  be  simply  a  ponderous  volume,  for  the  most  part  unattractive  and  without  fasci- 
nation. But  for  the  children,  the  men  and  women  of  Buffalo  of  to-morrow,  it  is  hoped  it  will 
serve  a  useful  pui'pose. 

The  reader  may  be  compelled  to  pass  wearily  over  many  of  its  pages.  The  editor  furnishes 
a  narrative.  Style  for  its  own  sake  often  captivates  while  the  story  runs  barren  of  in- 
terest. Most  of  us  seek  the  pages  that  throb  and  glow.  I  cherish,  perhaps  vainly,  but 
nevertheless  earnestly,  the  hope  that  the  grim,  chill  statistics  of  this  municipal  history  will 
be  softened  by  the  radiance  of  valorous  deeds  that  shed  a  glory  about  it,  and  that  those  who 
come  after  us  will  feel  a  certain  contentment  in  the  fact  that  the  activities  of  Buffalo  and 
Erie  County,  during  the  crucial  days  of  the  Great  World  War,  have  been  pi'eserved  in  impar- 
tial data  for  the  information  of  posterity. 

The  Editor. 


BUFFALO 

BUFFALO,  like  every  other  American  city,  began  in  1914  to  write  an  epochal  chapter  in  its  his- 
tory, unconscious,  of  course,  of  the  tremendous  events  impending.  George  D.  Emerson 
and  Frank  H.  Severance,  who  spun  the  web  which  carries  us  back  to  the  earliest  days  of  our 
community  existence  and  who  set  out  the  historical  monuments  hereabout,  tell  us  that  prior  to 
the  outbreak  of  the  Civil  War,  a  facetious  individual  remarked  that  Buffalo  had  had  three  notable 
events  in  its  history;  namely,  the  destruction  of  the  village  by  the  British  and  Indians,  December 
30,  1813;  the  hanging  of  the  three  Thayers  in  1825,  made  famous  by  the  late  George  Ferris,  one- 
time editor  of  the  Courier,  and  the  big  flood  of  1844.  Neither  Mr.  Emerson  nor  Mr.  Severance 
concurs  in  the  opinion  that  those  events  should  be  classified  as  notable,  though  conceding  that 
they  have  "impressed  themselves  indelibly"  upon  the  annals  of  the  municipality.  One  of  them, 
at  least,  the  first  named,  is  epochal.  The  Civil  War  established  the  second  epoch,  and  in  this 
year  of  1919  we  have  just  emerged  from  the  third. 

Of  course,  for  the  purposes  of  this  book  and  for  the  men  and  women  of  this  day,  it  is  not  essen- 
tial that  the  memorable  events  of  other  eras  be  set  down,  but  the  men  and  women  of  to-morrow 
may  have  a  desire  and  surely  have  a  right  to  know  what  manner  of  municipality  we  had  at  the 
time  the  great  World  War  involved  and  enveloped  us. 

The  Niagara  Frontier  as  a  maker  of  history  prior  to  this  date,  Mr.  Emerson  says,  is  entitled 
to  a  much  higher  rank  than  is  usually  accorded  to  it  by  the  average  historian  and  a  careful  survey 
of  the  various  sections  of  the  city  of  Buffalo  reveals  many  spots  which  are  associated,  some  with 
national  history,  all  with  the  history  of  this  locality.  Buffalo  Ci'eek,  or  River,  as  it  is  known  in 
these  later  years,  had  been  Buffalo  Creek  from  time  immemorial,  so  long  that  the  mind  of  man 
runneth  not  to  the  contrary;  when,  how  or  from  whom  or  what  it  received  the  name,  is  buried 
in  the  forgotten  legends  of  the  past.  The  city,  located  along  this  creek  or  river,  received  its 
name,  however,  from  the  stream  around  which  it  has  been  built. 

In  point  of  known  events,  South  Buffalo  is  the  oldest  part  of  the  present  city.  On  Buffalo 
Creek,  some  three  or  four  miles  from  its  mouth,  the  first  Seneca  Indian  villages  were  established 
during  the  Revolutionary  War,  refugees  settling  there  in  1779-80,  after  Sullivan's  raid  had  de- 
stroyed their  old  homes  in  the  Genesee  Valley.  In  earlier  epochs  the  Eries  had  their  home  in 
this  region,  but,  as  a  nation,  they  were  wiped  out  of  existence  in  the  disastrous  campaign  with  the 
Senecas  in  a  bloody  and  decisive  battle  which  took  place  near  the  head  of  Honeoye  Lake.  In 
the  neighborhood  of  these  villages  was  built  a  council  house,  in  which  councils  of  national  im- 
portance were  held  and  treaties  of  commensurate  significance  made.  Associated  with  it  are  the 
names  of  Young  King,  Farmer's  Brother,  Red  Jacket,  and  other  Indian  celebrities.  In  this 
vicinity  was  also  the  Seneca  Mission  church,  built  1826,  abandoned  1843,  and  gradually  destroyed 
during  succeeding  years.  Indian  Church  Road  now  runs  through  the  churchyard  and  near  the 
site  of  the  building.  In  the  old  cemetery  were  the  original  graves  of  Red  .Jacket  and  other  chiefs, 
and  of  Mary  Jamison.  Their  bones  were  long  since  removed  to  other  resting  places — Mary 
Jamison  to  "Glen  Iris,"  the  beautiful  home  of  the  Hon.  William  P.  Letchworth,  at  Portage,  in 
1874,  the  chiefs  to  Forest  Lawn  in  1884  and  1894. 

St.  Paul's  Episcopal  Parish  built  the  first  Buffalo  church,  raising  its  structure  at  the  corner  of 
Church  and  Erie  streets  in  1819.  In  that  church  the  congregation  of  St.  Paul's  worshiped  until 
18.50  when  the  present  stone  edifice  bounded  by  Pearl,  Church  and  Erie  streets  was  built.  In 
1823  the  First  Presbyterian  Society  erected  a  church  on  the  opposite  corner — Niagara  and  Church; 
that  church  was  rebuilt  in  1827  and  in  1891  the  Society  reared  the  now  commanding  edifice  on 
The  Circle. 

The  present  City  Hall  was  opened  for  official  purposes  in  1876,  being  erected  on  a  site  formerly 
used  as  a  cemeteiy. 

13 


14  Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 

Out  of  small  beginnings  has  come  the  City  of  Buffalo  of  to-day,  a  great  municipality  sur- 
rounded by  highly  developed  smaller  cities,  as  well  as  by  villages  and  towns,  all  of  which  have 
taken  an  important  part  in  the  world-wide  struggle  for  the  preservation  of  democracy. 

In  place  of  the  muddy  roads  of  earlier  days  Buffalo  now  has  more  than  600  miles  of  paved  streets; 
instead  of  the  two  or  three  churches  of  1820,  it  has  260  churches,  representing  the  widest  freedom 
of  religious  thought  and  belief.  The  city  is  located  at  an  elevation  of  from  580  to  690  feet  above 
the  level  of  the  sea.  Seventeen  different  railroads,  thirteen  of  them  trunk  lines,  enter  the  city. 
It  has  seven  interurban  traction  lines,  and  issues  annually  building  permits  of  a  value  in  excess 
of  $10,000,000.  It  has  66  public  schools;  three  colleges  and  the  University  of  Buffalo.  It  has 
more  than  40  parochial  schools  and  several  private  schools,  apart  from  the  shorthand  and  business 
colleges.  Its  hotel  accommodations  are  up-to-date  and  extensive,  including  60  registered  hotels. 
It  has  nineteen  hospitals  and  six  English  daily  newspapers. 

Further  data  covering  the  municipality  and  facts  in  its  history  are  here  set  forth  in  statistical 
array : 

Lake  front  (miles) 3.7 

Realty  transfers  (yearly)     ...  10.000 

Suburban  villages  20 

River  front  (miles)  .  .  17.35 

Libraries  (public) — 7  branches      ...  3 

Libraries  {distributing  agencies) 166 

Postal  branches    ,  76 

Letter  Carriers  396 

Banks — 5  state,  2  national,  5  trust  companies,  4  savings,  and  11  branch  banks  27 

Savings  and  loan  associations  26 

Bank  clearances  (1917) $982,563,624 

Autos  in  use 30,000 

Articles  manufactured  in  city  (of  all  different  lines) 56% 

Express  companies  .  5 

Power  companies 2 

Auditoriums  (municipal) 2 

Theaters  (regular) 9 

Picture  theaters 72 

Street  car  passengers  carried 191,200,048 

Public  school  enrollment    .  66,293 

Steamship  companies 14 

Passenger  boat  lines    .  4 

Dwellings  in  Buffalo 76,391 

BUFFALO,    THE    MUNICIPALITY 

First  settled  in 1795 

Incorporated  as  a  village  April    2,  1813 

Incorporated  as  a  city  April  20,  1832 

Area,  square  miles       42,161 

Population,  1910  census 423,715 

Population,  State  census,  1915     .  454,630 

Population,  1919,  estimated  .  500,000 

Registered  voters,  male  and  female  108,589 

Assessed  valuation,  fiscal  year  beginning  .July  1,  1919,  and  ending  .June  30,  1920         .     ,    $560,099,750 

Tax  rate,  all  purposes.  1919-1920 $26.88 

Bonded  debt     .    .  $38,435,919.26 

Miles  of  streets  636.858 

Miles  of  street  railway  223.40 

Miles  of  water  mains 610.32 

Miles  of  sewers 568.2383 

Miles  of  boulevard  driveways 26.600 

Breakwater,  feet  " 33,600 

Parks 17 

Boulevards 10 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 


15 


Acreage — parks  and  boulevards 1,300 

City  playgrounds 17 

City  baseball  diamonds      22 

City  football  grounds 10 

City  tennis  courts 5g 

City  skating  ponds      21 

Police  stations      15 

Regular  police      800 

Fire  stations 56 

Fire  companies 56 

Firemen 915 

City  employees,  including  laborers 7,865 

Average  daily  water  consumption,  gallons  per  capita 339 

Gas  lights 9,288 

Arc  lights      5,459 

Gasoline  lights 270 

Miles  of  paved  streets 424 

Buffalo  is  the  terminus  of  the  State  Barge  Canal. 

10,000  vessel  clearances  annually. 

300,000,000  bushels  of  grain  handled  annually. 

More  than  2,000,000  tons  of  pig  iron  produced  annually. 

Mills  produce  25,000  barrels  of  flour  daily. 

2,500  manufacturing  plants. 

22  grain  elevators,  with  total  capacity  of  28,250,000  bushels. 

4  public  markets. 

Between  November,  1914,  and  January,  1919,  the  wage  earnings  increased  70%. 


REPRESENTATIVES    IN    CONGRESS 


Fortielh  District 
S.  Wallace  Dempsey,  1914-1919 

Forty-first  District 
Charles  B.  Smith,  1914-1919 


Forty-second  District 
Daniel  A.  Driscoll,  1914-1917  William  F.  Waldow,  1917-1919 

U.   S.   OFFICIALS    AT    BUFFALO 

POSTMASTER 
William  F.  Kasting,  1914  to  June,  1916  George  J.  Meyer,  June,  1916  to  1919 

COLLECTOR    OF    CUSTOMS 
George  Bleistein,  1914-1918  George  Davidson,  July,  1918-1919 

COLLECTOR    OF    INTERNAL    REVENUE 
Vincent  J.  Riordan,  1914-1919 

U.    S.    DISTRICT    ATTORNEY 
Stephen  V.  Lockwood,  1914-1919 

U.    S.    MARSHAL 
Henry  L.  Fassett,  1914-1915  John  D.  Lynn,  Nov.,  1915-1919 

U.    S.    APPRAISER 
John  T.  Ryan,  1914-1919 


CITY  AND   COUNTY  OFFICERS  1914-1919 

CITY    OFFICERS 

BOARD    OF    ALDERMEN— 1914-1915 

John  P.  Sullivan,  President,  1914 

George  J.  Burley,  President,  1915 

D.  J.  Sweeney,  City  Clerk 


1st   Ward- 

-JoHN  P.  Sullivan 

15th  Ward 

2d    Ward- 

-Michael  J.  Healy 

16th  Ward 

3d    Ward- 

-Edward  P.  Costello 

17th  Ward 

4th  Ward- 

-Arthur  J.  Shea 

18th  Ward 

5th  Ward- 

-Timothy  P.  Coughlin 

19th  Ward 

6th  Ward- 

-Edward  Stengel,  Joseph  Suttner 

20th  Ward 

7th  Ward- 

-Edward  J.  Endres 

21st  Ward 

8th  Ward- 

-Edward  Sperry 

22d    Ward- 

9th  Ward- 

-Anthony  J.  Walkowiak 

23d    Ward- 

10th  Ward- 

-Frank  Roskwitalski 

24th  Ward 

11th  Ward- 

-Peter  Mildenberger 

25th  Ward 

12th  Ward- 

-George  J.  Burley 

26th  Ward 

13th  Ward- 

-Otto  L.  Geyer 

27th  Ward- 

14th  Ward- 

-John  Fries 

-George  Kohl 
-Frank  T.  Dance 
-Joseph  H.  Houck 
-Conrad  J.  Meyer 
-Arnold  T.  Armbrust 
-Frederick  H.  Holtz 
-William  G.  Humphrey 
-John  Purcell 
-George  G.  Davidson,  Jr. 
-Jospeh  p.  Broderick 
-George  J.  Haffa 
-Thomas  H.  McDonough 
-Edward  P.  Kelly 


BOARD     OF     COUNCILMEN— 1914-1915 
Boleslaw  Dorasewicz,  President 
William  J.  Coad  William  E.  Glass 

Francis  T.  Coppins  Allan  I.  Holloway 

Boleslaw  Dorasewicz  Theofil  Kaitanowski 


Horace  C.  Mills 
William  J.  Warwick 
William  O.  Weimar 


January  1,  1916,  the  Commission  form  of  Government  was  inaugurated 

COUNCIL 

Louis  P.  Fuhrmann,  Mayor,  1916-1917 

George  S.  Buck,  Mayor,  1918-1919 

Councilmen 
Charles  M.  Heald,  1916-1919  Arthur  W.  Kreinheder,  1916-1919 

Charles  B.  Hill,  1916-1917  John  F.  Malone,  1916-1919 

Frederick  G.  Bagley,  1918-1919 
D.  J.  Sweeney,  Secretary 

HEALTH    COMMISSIONER 
Francis  E.  Fronczak 

FIRE    COMMISSIONERS  — 1914-1915 

Simon  Seibert  Edward  C.  Burgard  William  Person 

Bernard  J.  McConnell,  Chief,  1914  to  October  10,  1918 

Edward  P.  Murphy,  Chief.  October  10,  1918,  to  1919 

POLICE    COMMISSIONERS^1914-1915 

Fred  F.  Klinck  James  B.  Wall 

Michael  Regan,  Chief,  1914-1915  Henry  J.  Girvin,  Chief,  1918  to  May  1,  1919 

John  Martin,  Chief.  1916-1917  James  W.  Higgins,  Chief,  1919 


16 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War  17 

comptroller 

John  F.  Cochrane,  1914-1917 

COMMISSIONER    OF    FINANCE    AND    ACCOUNTS 
Charles  B.  Hill,  1916-1917  Charles  M.  Heald,  1918-1919 

TREASURER 

John  Reimann,  1914-1915  Isaac  N.  Stewart,  1916-1919 

ASSESSORS 

John  T.  Mahoney,  1914-1917  John  C.  Betz 

William  J.  Burke  Charles  J.  Reuling,  1918-1919 

AUDITOR 
Joseph  M.  Gleason 

COMMISSIONER    OF    PUBLIC     WORKS 
Francis  G.  Ward,  1914-1915  Arthur  W.  Kreinheder,  1916-1919 

ENGINEERING    COMMISSIONER 
George  H.  Norton 

WATER    COMMISSIONER 
Henry  L.  Lyon,  1914-1915  Thomas  W.  Kennedy,  1916 

George  C.  Andrews,  1917-1919 

STREET    COMMISSIONER 
Thomas  W.  Kennedy,  1914-1915  William  F.  Schwartz,  1916-1919 

SUPERINTENDENT    OF   EDUCATION 
Henry  P.  Emerson,  1914-1918  Ernest  C.  Hartwell,  1918-1919 

OVERSEER    OF    THE    POOR 
Louis  J.  Kenngott 

BUILDING    COMMISSIONER 
Frank  T.  Reynolds 

CITY  COURT 

William  P.  Brennan,  Chief  Judge 

Jiidyes 
George  L.  Hager  Peter  Maul 

Albert  A.  Hartzell  Thomas  H.  Noonan 

Patrick  J.  Keeler  Clifford  McLaughlin,  1918-1919 

Frank  W.  Standart,  1918-1919 

CHILDREN'S     COURT 
George  E.  Judge,  Judge 


18  Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 

BOARD   OF   SUPERVISORS 

Frank  A.  Dorn,  Chairman 
^.j^jjj)  Alonzo  G.  Hinkley,  Clerk 

I^JAMES  W.  FiTZHENRY,  1914,  1915   1916,  1917;  Thomas  G.  Lawley,  1918,  1919. 

2— John  C.  O'Leary,  1914,  1915,  1916,  1917,  1918,  1919. 

3— Thomas  W.  Scully,  1914,  1915,  1916,  1917,  1918,  1919. 

4— Edward  J.  Kappler,  1914,  1915,  1916,  1917;  Albert  Fox,  1918,  1919. 

5— John  T.  McBride,  1914,  1915,  1918,  1919;  Robert  Mulroy,  1916,  1917. 

6— Edward  Flore,  1914,  1915,  1916,  1917,  1918,  1919. 

7— Samuel  Frank,  1914,  1915,  1916,  1917,  1918,  1919. 

8— Frederick  W.  Theobold,  1914.  1915;  William  Pfeiffer,  1916,  1917,  1918,  1919. 

9— Patrick  J.  Hunt,  1914,  1915;  Jacob  Henseler,  1916,  1917;  Louis  D.  Herko,  1918,  1919. 
10— Michael  Tobolski,  1914,  1915.  1916,  1917;  Anthony  Dropik,  1918,  1919. 

11— James  M.  Mead,  1914;  Edward  Moylan,  1915;  Oliver  Hamister,  1916,  1917;  Dennis  J.  Dee,  1918,  1919. 
12— William  A.  Stambach,  1914,  1915;  Charles  M.  Bogold,  1916,  1917,  1918,  1919. 
13— Andrew  Sprenger,  1914,  1915;  Ernst  F.  Martinke,  1916,  1917;  Edwin  F.  Jaeckle,  1918,  1919. 
14— William  Kumpf,  1914,  1915;  George  L.  Schupp,  1916,  1917,  1918,  1919. 
15— Max  Kuczkowski,  1914,  1915;  John  H.  Dietrich,  1916,  1917,  1918,  1919. 
16— B.  Michalski,  1914,  1915;  Joseph  W.  Becker,  1916,  1917,  1918,  1919. 
17— William  J.  Beier,  .Jr.,  1914,  1915,  1916,  1917,  1918,  1919. 
18— Edward  C.  Franklin,  1914,  1915;  Frank  A.  Dorn,  1916,  1917,  1918,  1919. 
19— Charles  E.  Arber,  1914,  1915;  Charles  J.  Koch,  1916,  1917;  George  Wild,  1918,  1919. 
20— John  C.  Sturm,  1914.  1915,  1916,  1917;  Thomas  E.  Lawrence,  1918,  1919. 
21— George  Klein,  1914,  1915;  William  Fink,  1916,  1917,  1918,  1919. 

22— Charles  B.  Reinhardt,  1914,  1915;  Fred  A.  Bradley,  1916,  1917;  William  F.  Langley,  1918,  1919. 
23— Harvey  D.  Blakeslee,  Jr.,  1914,  1915;  Hervey  J.  Drake,  1916,  1917;  Robert  C.  Palmer,  1918,  1919. 
24— William  B.  Lawless,  1914,  1915;  Joseph  P.  Broderick.  1916,  1917,  1918,  1919. 
25— Carlton  E.  Ladd,  1914,  1915,  1916,  1917,  1918,  1919. 

26— Thomas  H.  McElvein,  1914,  1915,  1916,  1917;  Thomas  H.  McDonough,  1918,  1919. 
27— John  Lunghino,  1914,  1915;  Bartholomew  Oddo,  1916,  1917,  1918,  1919. 

Alden Otto  H.  Wende,  1914,  1915,  1916,  1917,  1918,  1919. 

Amherst Lee  W.  Britting,  1914,  1915,  1916,  1917,  1918,  1919. 

Aurora Asher  B.  Emery,  1914,  1915;  Richard  S.  Persons,  1916,  1917,  1918,  1919. 

Boston Philip  D.  Weber,  1914,  1915;  Howell  Drake,  1916,  1917,  1918,  1919. 

Brant WILLIAM  F.  Avey,  1914,  1915,  1916,  1917,  1918,  1919. 

Cheektowaga      .    .    .   Frank  Wildy,  1914,  1915,  1916,  1917;  William  C.  Heeb,  1918,  1919. 

Clarence      Theodore  Krehbiel,  1914,  1915,  1916,  1917,  1918,  1919. 

Golden William  F.  Frantz,  1914,  1915,  1916.  1917,  1918,  1919. 

Collins Frank  H.  Briggs,  1914,  1915.  1916,  1917,  1918,  1919. 

Concord George  E.  Stedman,  1914,  1915;  Glenn  N.  Oyer,  1916,  1917;  Alton  C.  Bates,  Ira  H. 

Vail,  1918,  1919. 
East  Hamburg       .    .   Frank  F.  Holmwood,  1914,  1915,  1916,  1917,  1918,  1919. 

Eden Edgar  M.  Bunting,  1914,  1915;    Charles  H.  Ide,  1916,   1917;    Henry  A.  Bley,   1918, 

1919. 

Elma Ernest  M.  Hill,  1914,  1915;  Benjamin  J.  Eldridge,  1916,  1917,  1918,  1919. 

Evans      Marve  Harwood,  1914,  1915,  1916,  1917;  Julius  M.  Schwert,  1918,  1919. 

Grand  Island     .    .    .   Adam  Kaiser,  1914,  1915,  1916,  1917;  Henry  W.  Long,  1918,  1919. 

Hamburg William  Kronenberg,  1914,  1915,  1916,  1917;  George  B.  Abbott,  1918,  1919. 

Holland Henry  Bangert,  1914,  1915,  1916,  1917;  O.  R.  Whitney,  1918,  1919. 

Lackawanna  City      .   Thomas  Delaney,  1914;  Michael  J.  Mescall,  1915,  1916,  1917;   Martin  T.  Ryan,  1918, 
1919. 

Lancaster John  L.  Staeber,  1914, 1915, 1916, 1917,  1918, 1919. 

Marilla Jesse  G.  B.artoo,  1914,  1915,  1916,  1917,  1918,  1919. 

Newstead Frank  M.  Stage,  1914,  1915;  George  A.  Funke,  1916,  1917,  1918,  1919. 

North  Collins     .    .    ^   Joseph  Thiel,  1914,  1915;  Howard  W.  Butler,  1916,  1917,  1918,  1919. 

Sardinia Robert  R.  Olin,  1914,  1915;  J.  Gilbert  Allen,  1916,  1917,  1918,  1919. 

Tonawanda    ....   Robert  A.  Toms,  1914,  1915,  1916,  1917;  Arthur  R.  Atkinson,  1918,  1919. 
Tonawanda  City   .    .  John  K.  Patton,  1914,  1915,  1916,  1917;  William  Stryker,  1918,  1919. 

Wales Fred  Kratt,  1914,  1915,  1916,  1917,  1918,  1919. 

West  Seneca  ...   Christian  L.  Schudt,  1914,  1915,  1916,  1917,  1918,  1919. 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War  19 


COUNTY    OFFICERS 

SHERIFF 

Frederick  G.  Becker,  1914  Edward  Stengel,  1915-1917 

Frederick  A.  Bradley,  1918-1919 

COUNTY    JUDGE 
Philip  A.  Laing,  1914  to  May,  1919  George  B.  Burd,  1919 

DISTRICT    ATTORNEY 
Wesley  C.  Dudley,  1914-1917  Guy  B.  Moore,  1918-1919 

SURROGATE 
Louis  B.  Hart 

COUNTY    TREASURER 
Franklin  E.  Bard,  1914-1918  Severn  A.  Anderson,  1919 

COUNTY    CLERK 
Simon  A.  Nash,  1914-1915  John  H.  Meahl,  1916-1919 

COUNTY    AUDITOR 
George  S.  Buck,  1914-1917  Frederick  C.  Gaise,  1918-1919 

COMMISSIONER    OF    CHARITIES    AND    CORRECTIONS 

William  Hunt 

STATE     SENATORS 

Forly-cl(j}dh  Dhtrict 
John  F.  Malone,  1914  '  Clinton  T.  Horton,  1915-1917 

Ross  Graves,  1917-1919 

Forty-ninth  District 
Samuel  J.  Ramsperger,  1914-1919 

Fiftieth  District 
Gottfried  H.  Wende,  1914  William  P.  Greiner,  1915-1917 

Leonard  W.  Gibbs,  1917-1919 

ASSEMBLYMEN 

First  District 
William  H.  Warhus,  1914  Allen  Keeney,  1915 

Alexander  Taylor,  1916-1918 

Second  District 
Clinton  T.  Horton,  1914  Ross  Graves,  1915-1916 

John  W.  Slacer,  1917-1918 

Third  District 
Albert  F.  Geyer,  1914  Nicholas  J.  Miller,  1915-1918 

Fourth  District 
Patrick  W.  Quigley,  1914  James  M.  Mead,  1915-1918 

Fifth  District 
Richard  F.  Hearn,  1914  Arthur  G.  McElroy,  1915 

John  A.  Lynch,  1916-1917  A.  A.  Patrzkowski,  1918 

Sixth  District 
Leo  F.  Tucholka,  1914  Peter  C.  Jezewski,  1915-1916 

A.  A.  Patrzykowski,  1917  George  H.  Rowe,  1918 

Seventh  District 
William  P.  Greiner,  1914  John  F.  Heim,  1915 

Joseph  Roemhild,  Jr.,  1916  Earl  G.  Danser,  1917 

H.  a.  Zimmerman,  1918 

Eiglilh  District 
Wallace  Thayer,  1914  Leonard  W.  Gibbs,  1915-1916 

H.  a.  Zimmerman,  1917  Nelson  W.  Cheney,  1918 

Ninth  District 
Frank  B.  Thorn,  1915  Nelson  W.  Cheney,  1916-1917 


20  Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 


CHAPTER  I 
WITH    MINDS    UNSHOD    OF    WAR 

ON  August  2,  1914,  Kaiser  Wilhelm  II,  Emperor  of  Germany,  set  his  military  machine 
against  Belgium  in  a  quest  for  world  domination.  His  recognized  aim  was  to  advance  the 
HohenzoUern  dynasty,  to  secure  a  place  in  the  sun,  to  establish  and  entrench  "Deutsch- 
land  Ueber  Alles  "  at  any  brutal  cost.  Buffalonians  at  that  time  were  enjoying  the  rare  advan- 
tages which  the  lake  and  river  recreation  spots  hereabout  afforded  in  the  heated  days  of 
midsummer.  The  Buffalo  newspapers  of  that  particular  morning  held  no  story  of  greater  local 
importance  than  a  recital  of  the  activities  and  pleasures  of  the  throngs  in  the  parks  and  at  the 
beach  resorts. 

Political  sensations  which  had  seeped  from  a  collapsed  water  works  pumping  station  and  clung 
around  sundry  aldermanic  delinquencies  were  the  discordant  notes  of  the  moment.  They  shared 
the  company  of  a  rampant  reappearance  of  a  periodical  investigation  which  beset  the  Depart- 
ment of  Public  Works.  These  formed  the  basis  for  a  charter  reform  campaign  which  held  public 
interest  just  at  that  time  over  all  the  other  questions  of  immediate  local  concern.  The  public 
mind  was  wholly  free  of  matters  of  grave  import.  The  cost  of  living  was  not  high.  Employ- 
ment was  plentiful.  Industry  was  thriving.  Buffalo  had  grown  rapidly  in  population  and  com- 
merce, and  the  people  were  contented  and  prosperous. 

The  story  of  war  in  Europe  which  came  over  the  cable  that  day  appealed  to  the  people  in  no 
heavier  vein  than  might  a  story  detailing  the  movements  of  a  set  of  manikins  or  fabled  brownies. 
War  was  something  the  world  seemed  to  have  passed  by  forever.  Disturbances  could  come? 
Yes!  But  it  was  difficult  to  realize  that  great  nations  like  those  of  Germany  and  France  and 
Russia  and  Great  Britain  would  engage  in  a  killing  conflict.  The  violent  death  of  Austria's 
Archduke,  Serbia's  invasion,  and  the  other  royal  rumblings  which  announced  the  advance  of 
Germany's  terrible  military  machine,  awakened  no  tragic  interest  among  the  people  here;  in 
fact,  so  substantially  imbedded  was  the  idea  of  war's  impossibility,  that  for  days  and  weeks 
many  thousands  of  Buffalonians  continued  in  the  belief  that  Germany's  purpose  and  Belgium's 
plight  were  not  real. 

Through  the  last  days  of  August,  through  September  and  October,  Buffalo's  interest  centered 
to  a  far  greater  degree — oh,  to  an  immensely  greater  degree! — in  the  progress  of  the  campaign 
for  the  adoption  of  a  commission  form  of  government  than  in  the  European  war.  Gradually, 
however,  we  were  coming  to  realize  that  the  war  was  real.  But  it  was  far  removed  from  us. 
Some  old  families  of  German  origin  received  word  of  relatives  engaged  in  the  conflict.  That 
fact  aroused  their  interest  in  the  progress  of  the  campaign.  Buffalo,  having  a  substantial  Cana- 
dian population,  found  another  proportional  source  of  interest  in  the  announcement  that  the 
British  Government  would  need  Canadian  troops.  England  called  early  for  her  continental 
forces,  and,  as  weeks  went  by  the  activity  across  the  Niagara  River  drew  our  attention  to  the 
spread  of  the  tremendous  struggle,  but  no  thought  of  American  participation  at  any  time  entered 
the  public  mind.  We  went  serenely  and  quietly  along  our  several  and  respective  occupational 
ways.  Our  concern  in  the  war  was  not  deep-rooted.  Buffalo  was  engaged  in  its  pursuits  of 
peace,  and  easily  anticipated  that  the  sober  and  sanei-  minds  of  Europe  would  presently  and  sud- 
denly end  it  all  satisfactorily.  That  thought  left  undisturbed  those  who  had  given  any  serious 
attention  to  the  matter.  Others  were  not  interested.  The  closing  months  of  1914  found  no 
great  war  concern  prevalent  in  the  city,  and  interest  was  less  in  other  localities  throughout  the 
United  States  about  in  proportion  to  the  distance  one  travelled  away  from  the  Canadian  border. 

In  the  minds  of  Buffalo  men  and  women,  through  all  the  years  of  the  Republic,  there  had  been 
implanted  the  story  of  only  one  lighteous  war — the  victorious  struggle  of  America  for  liberty 
and  independence.     They  knew  that  as  a  result  of  that  war  the  United  States  had  determined  to 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War  21 


remain  free  from  all  foreign  entanglements,  and  to  insure  our  non-activity  in  Old  World  conflicts 
our  forefathers  had  established  a  policy  long  known  as  the  Monroe  Doctrine.  We  warned  Eu- 
rope not  to  interfere  in  our  affairs;  and,  for  our  part,  pledged  the  United  States  to  abstain  from 
interference  in  Europe.  History,  on  numerous  occasions,  vindicated  the  wisdom  of  that  course. 
The  Monroe  Doctrine  became  one  of  the  institutions  of  America,  and,  although  since  the  days 
of  its  adoption  we  had  advanced  rapidly  among  the  nations  of  the  world,  and  although  the  modern 
means  of  communications,  the  mails,  the  wireless,  the  ocean  greyhounds,  and  the  increase  of  our 
trade  and  travel  had  brought  us  close  to  Europe  and  made  our  isolation,  perhaps,  more  imagi- 
nary than  real,  still  at  the  outbreak  of  this  struggle  there  was  no  sentiment  for  a  change  in  the 
policy  which  had  for  so  long  given  us  peace.     In  the  American  mind  it  was  an  irrefutable  mandate. 

This  brief,  though  perhaps,  unnecessary,  explanation  of  a  mental  picture  which  hung  in  the 
gallery  of  every  American  mind  may  be  founrl  useful  to  Buffalonians  in  after  years  as  they  study 
the  men  and  women  and  activities  of  this  period.  It  may  explain  to  them  why  the  outbreak  of 
the  war  caught  everybody  here  by  surprise.  Europe,  steeped  in  wrangles,  could  readily,  perhaps, 
contemplate  such  a  vicious  onslaught  on  the  ideals  of  civilization,  but  here  the  war  was  incom- 
prehensible. A  war  among  civilized  nations?  Impossible!  It  is  somewhat  difficult  to  write 
into  this  narrative  an  explanation  which  will  adequately  convey  to  those  who  are  to  come  after 
us  how  utterly  impregnable  were  the  American  minds  in  1914  to  the  booming  of  those  first  guns 
on  the  battlefields  of  France  or  the  rumble  of  the  trucks  through  Belgium  and  Luxemburg.  We 
were  simply  shock-proof  against  war.  The  slaying  of  the  Austrian  Aix-hduke,  Francis  Ferdinand, 
at  Sarajevo  on  June  28th  held  no  gi-eater  portent  to  most  of  our  minds  than  the  jumping  of  a  king 
on  the  checker  board  by  rival  players  in  a  neighboring  firehouse.  And  yet  in  the  echo  and  con- 
fusion of  that  assassination  were  the  hoofbeats  which  told  in  terrifying  terms  to  all  of  Belgium, 
France  and  England  of  the  coming  of  the  Prussian  War  Machine. 

Early  in  August,  Potsdam  declared  war.  Several  days  before — on  .July  28th— had  begun 
its— let  us  call  it  its  predetermined  assault  on  Serbia.  The  German  invasion  of  Belgium  started 
like  the  rush  of  a  mad  bull  and  was  consummated  with  Hunnish  cruelty.  As  the  Kaiser's  army 
trampled  over  the  courageous  forces  of  that  small  nation  and  swarmed  on  down  into  France 
interest  suddenly  became  aroused  and  it  may  be  said  to  have  become  general  in  the  United  States 
by  September  6th,  the  date  on  which  the  advance  of  Von  Kluck  towards  Paris  was  stopped  by 
the  French  under  Joffre  near  the  Marne  River.  The  concern  of  Buffalonians,  however,  was  the 
concern  of  disintei-ested  onlookers.  The  announcement  by  an  umpire  giving  the  names  of  the 
rival  batteries  for  the  day's  baseball  game  at  the  Ferry  Street  ball  pai-k  occasioned  about  the 
same  relative  interest  as  the  telegraph  despatches  outlining  the  progress  of  the  contending  forces 
on  the  French  and  Belgian  battlefields.  Each  side  was  championed  here  by  those  among  us  of 
foreign  birth  according  to  the  location  of  their  nativity,  but  the  masses  of  Buffalo,  at  that  early 
day,  saw  no  issue  involved  which  affected  our  individual  life  or  our  national  policy.  "Let  them 
fight  it  out,"  was  a  common  ejaculation  among  those  who  stopped  to  discuss  the  question.  There 
was  no  direct  assault  on  our  rights.  No  i-eason  why  we  should  become  entangled;  as  a  matter 
of  fact,  had  a  modern  and  local  Diogenes  gone  out  with  his  lantern  to  find  the  plain  spoken  man 
among  us  he  might  have  returned  with  the  imijression  that  only  oui-  sporting  blood  had  been 
aroused.  The  lackadaisical  folk  awoke.  That  seemed  to  be  all.  Among  city  officials,  at  the 
clubs,  in  the  hotel  foyers,  everywhere  the  same  indifference  over  the  war's  progress.  Only  where 
one  had  a  relative  involved  among  the  contending  forces  was  there  serious  battle  thought.  To 
most  of  us  it  was  a  purely  European  dispute.  It  never  entered  into  the  discussions,  not  even 
into  our  thoughts,  that  we  had  need  take  sides  in  such  a  conflict.  It  detracted  nothing  from 
our  amusements.  It  curbed  none  of  our  wastes.  We  were  prospei-ous,  generally  speaking,  for 
wages  were  good.  It  was  the  natural  thing  for  us  to  go  unshod  of  all  vital  concern  in  the  troubles 
of  France,  or  Germany  or  England.  We  did  sympathize  with  Belgium.  The  little  buffer  coun- 
try had  our  good  will  from  the  start,  just  as  the  little  fellow  carries  the  heart  of  the  onlooker  in 
every  conflict  with  a  "bully."     But  in  the  main  enterprise  we  took  no  side. 


22  Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 

The  Monroe  Doctrine  towered  out  before  us  second  only  to  the  doctrine  cut  in  stone  on  Mount 
Sinai.  Accordingly,  President  Wilson's  early  proclamation  of  neutrality  was  received  by  the 
people  as  a  natural  and  inevitable  course.  He  put  into  words  the  sentiment  of  the  people  as 
accurately  as  that  sentiment  will  ever  be  conveyed  from  the  hearts  to  the  minds  of  men.  **Every 
man  who  really  loves  America/'  his  message  ran,  "will  act  and  speak  in  the  true  spirit  of  neu- 
trality, which  is  the  spirit  of  impartiality  and  fairness  and  friendliness  to  all  concerned."  That 
spirit  had  already  found  a  lodging  place  here  and  the  President's  appeal  met  no  counter  currents. 
We,  surely,  at  that  moment  and  in  that  period  were  solidly  neutral. 

It  will  be  no  easy  thing  for  a  student  in  the  coming  years,  as  he  goes  over  the  events  of  these 
days,  to  disassociate  from  the  history  of  local  affairs  of  this  period  all  thoughts  of  war  and  the 
tremendous  crushing  out  of  life  as  the  fighting  machines  of  Europe  clawed  back  and  forth  over 
the  battlefields  of  France  and  Belgium.  It  is  difficult  for  even  a  contemporaneous  writer  to 
clear  his  mind  of  the  rumblings  from  across  the  ocean  as  he  endeavors  to  set  down  aright  the 
record  of  that  day  at  home.  But  the  masses  were  able  to  do  it.  Their  minds  functioned  in  more 
contented  fields.     Home,  family,  office— at  work,  in  recreation,  or  at  rest  no  trouble  was  astir. 

The  commission  charter  contest*  came  in  November  with  its  climacteric  fierceness.  The  rival 
forces  stormed  from  automobiles  on  the  street  corners,  and  before  the  swarming,  overalled  throng 


*On  January  1,  1916,  the  first  Council  of  the  City  of  Buffalo,  created  under  the  new  commission  form  of  government,  came  into  existence.  The 
scene  of  the  inauguration  was  the  old  Council  Chamber  on  the  third  floor  of  the  City  and  County  Hall.  The  chamber  that  day  looked  the  part 
of  a  display  room  of  a  metropolitan  florist,  or  the  main  gallery  at  the  annual  flower  show.  Nothing  like  it  had  ever  before  come  to  pass,  and  the 
well  wishes  on  which  the  new  government  floated  into  power  were  perfumed  with  the  fairest  fragrance  of  the  rose.  The  old  government  stepped 
out.  Let  it  be  said  the  retiring  officials  did  it  gracefully.  They  took  their  place  in  the  throng  that  sang  the  praises  of  the  new  government,  and 
joined  in  the  welcome  extended  to  the  incoming  representatives.  How  much  heart  they  had  in  the  task  is  not  of  much  moment.  They  stood 
the  ordeal,  and  gave  a  smile  and  Godspeed  to  their  successors. 

This  new  government  had  its  beginning,  though  not  its  origin,  with  the  war.  Some  months  prior  to  the  outbreak  of  hostilities  in  Europe, 
Senator  John  F.  Malone  fought  a  battle  for  its  adoption  in  the  Senate  Chamber  at  Albany.  The  campaign  for  its  acceptance  by  the  people  of 
Buffalo  was  at  the  height  of  the  drive  when  the  armies  of  the  younger  Moltke  crossed  the  Belgium  line  in  the  first  German  offensive.  The  commis- 
sion government  campaign  involved  the  overthrow  of  a  form  of  city  administration  which  had  existed  for  more  than  a  quarter  of  a  century  and 
through  which  had  become  entrenched  several  exceptionally  able  men,  listed  among  the  most  powerful  political  figures  in  the  local  public  affairs 
of  their  day.  They  were  the  controlling  factors  in  the  government;  and,  in  its  most  exciting  phase,  the  drive  for  the  new  Charter  was  a  drive  for 
the  destruction  of  the  political  power  and  position  of  those  men.  Two  of  the  leaders — John  P.  Sullivan  and  Col.  Francis  G.  Ward — fell  with  the 
success  of  the  new  government,  the  latter,  a  very  sick  man  throughout  the  final  stages  of  the  campaign,  died  within  a  week  after  the  election 
which  had  recorded  his  defeat.  The  third  member  of  that  triumvirate  was  Mayor  Louis  P.  Fuhrmann  Under  the  terms  of  the  new  charter  he 
continued  in  office  to  the  end  of  the  term  for  which  he  had  been  elected — January  1st,  1918-  He  was  a  candidate  for  re-election  in  November  of 
1917,  but  was  defeated  by  George  S.  Buck  by  a  plurality  of  10,000. 

Many  students  of  municipal  government,  of  whom  George  B.  Burd,  William  Burnett  Wright,  Frank  M.  Loomis,  A.  J.  Elias,  Knowlton 
Mixer,  Oliver  G.  LaReau,  Lewis  Stockton  and  Charles  J.  Staples  might  be  mentioned  as  leaders,  had  for  many  years  in  public  forums  of  one  kind 
or  another  advocated  the  consideration  of  this  simplified  form  of  municipal  management.  They  urged  it  in  season  and  out.  Mr.  Stockton  suc- 
ceeded on  one  or  two  occasions  in  having  it  submitted  to  a  popular  vote,  but  the  public  interest  was  not  sufficiently  aroused  to  make  the  showing 
an  impressive  one.  The  small  body  of  campaigners,  following  each  such  disastrous  occasion,  returned  undaunted  to  their  academic  discussion 
of  the  subject.     Their  motto  was  "Carry  On." 

The  Buffalo  Board  of  Aldermen  continued  to  create  antagonisms  as  boards  of  aldermen  and  other  legislative  bodies  frequently  do.  Mayor 
Fuhrmann  ran  afoul  of  the  aims  of  the  political  organization  of  his  party,  and  lost  the  support  of  William  H.  Fitzpatrick,  chairman  of  the  Demo- 
cratic County  Committee.  Fred  Greiner,  a  very  keen  and  forceful  political  leader,  then  at  the  head  of  the  Republican  organization,  was  not  con- 
cerned with  the  political  destinies  either  of  Mayor  Fuhrmann,  nor  those  in  control  of  the  legislative  branch  of  the  city  government.  Consequently 
he  had  no  heart  for  a  fight  against  the  reform  movement.  With  an  attitude  of  indifference  or  secret  hostility  existing  in  the  two  great  parties 
towards  the  existing  government  and  its  controlling  heads,  the  reform  element  pressed  on.  At  that  period  William  J.  Conners,  owner  of  the  Buffalo 
Courier  and  Buffal  >  Enquirer,  two  influential  newspapers,  opened  a  vigorous  campaign  for  the  adoption  of  the  new  form  of  government,  and  senti- 
ment was  sufficiently  aroused  to  force  its  enactment  over  the  opposition  of  the  city  officials.  Senator  Malone  at  Albany  guided  the  measure  through 
the  devious  and  precarious  channels  of  legislation. 

The  State  Constitution  requiring  the  signature  of  the  Mayor  of  the  city  to  all  special  legislation,  the  new  charter  suddenly  encountered  another 
hurdle  and  was  obliged,  in  the  course  of  its  legislative  progress,  to  come  to  Mayor  Fuhrmann  for  his  consideration  and  approval.  The  Mayor 
expressed  no  opinion  as  to  his  probable  course.  The  law  as  passed  carried  a  provision  that  it  should  not  be  effective  unless  approved  by  a  majority 
of  the  people  on  a  referendum  vote,  and,  apart  from  the  real  merits  of  the  measure  itself,  came  the  question  of  whether  or  not  the  people  should 
be  permitted  to  sav  if  thev  wanted  this  new  form  of  government.  The  speakers  in  support  of  the  measure  at  the  hearing  before  the  Mayor  in- 
cluded George  H." Kennedy,  W.  H.  Crosby.  Charles  J.  Staples,  George  B.  Burd,  Mrs.  Frank  J.  Shuler.  Charles  M.  Heald.  William  B.  Wright, 
Peter  B.  Smokowski,  G.  Barrett  Rich,  Max  Nowak,  Carlos  C.  Alden,  Mrs.  Frank  Bliss,  W.  A.  Eckert,  Charles  Rohlfs.  Alderman  Fred  H.  Holtz, 
Irving  S.  Underhill.  Melvin  P.  Porter,  Francis  F.  Baker.  Roland  Crangle,  Chauncey  J.  Hamlin,  A.  J.  Elias,  L.  W.  Simpson,  C.  T.  Horton,  George 
G.  Davidson,  John  Purcell,  C.  B.  Matthews,  E.  H.  Buddenhagen,  Mrs.  Melvin  P.  Porter,  Gus  Wende,  Frank  H.  Callan,  Knowlton  Mixer,  Oliver 
G.  LaReau,  and  Dr.  F.  Park  Lewis.  There  may  have  been  others  on  the  occasion  of  the  hearing.  The  Mayor's  reception  room  was  packed  to 
the  doors  and  the  corridors  of  the  City  Hall  were  thronged  with  an  eager,  earnest  crowd;  denied  admission  by  reason  of  physical  impossibility  of 
getting  more  people  into  the  small  space  which  the  Mayor's  office  afforded,  they  crowded  into  the  Council  Chamber  and  there  held  an  indignation 
meeting  demanding  that  the  hearing  be  stopped  until  a  larger  room  was  made  available  for  those  unable  to  reach  the  Mayor's  office.  The  imper- 
turbable Mayor  again  and  again  declined  to  listen  to  these  appeals.  He  stood  like  adamant,  insisting  that  the  hearing  was  scheduled  for  the 
Mayor's  office;  that  it  would  be  held  there,  and  that  everyone  who  wanted  to  speak  either  for  or  against  the  measure  would  be  heard  if  it  took  a 
week  to  hear  them  all.  Those  who  spoke  against  the  acceptance  of  the  measure  included:  Simon  Fleischmann,  Arthur  W.  Hickman,  Thomas  C. 
Burke.  W.  H.  Tennant.  D.  J.  Sweeney,  Charles  L.  Feldman,  Miss  Mary  L.  O'Connor.  President  of  the  School  Teachers'  League,  President  Joseph 
Lynch  of  the  Erie  Club  ithe  policemen's  organization),  Dr.  Pettit,  William  Schoenhut,  Louis  E.  Desbecker,  Frank  S.  Burzynski,  John  Coleman, 
delegate  of  the  United  Trades  and  Labor  Council,  President  Edward  Boore  of  the  Dauntless  Club  (the  firemen's  organization),  John  F.  Cochrane, 
City  Comptroller.  Henry  W.  Killeen,  Vito  Christiano,  James  Smith,  John  J.  Griffin,  and  possibly  others. 

The  hearing  lasted  two  full  days.  At  times  acrimonious  and  bitter  it  concluded  in  harmony.  Touching  every  fibre  in  the  whole  list  of  human 
emotions  it  ended  in  an  exchange  of  courtesies.  The  Mayor  vetoed  the  measure,  as  might  reasonably  have  been  anticipated  and  expected.  Some 
part  of  its  support  was  aiming  at  his  oflicial  life.  After  the  veto  the  measure  was  returned  to  the  Legislature  at  Albany  where  Senator  Malone, 
with  the  aid  of  his  powerful  friends  in  that  body  and  at  home,  succeeded  in  passing  it  over  the  veto  of  the  Mayor ~a  very  exceptional  and  remark- 
able achievement.  It  was  then  opposed  before  Governor  Glynn,  but  received  the  approval  of  the  State's  Chief  Executive  and  came  to  a  vote 
of  the  people  in  November  of  that  year.  It  carried  by  a  vote  of  36,327  in  favor;  21,011  against.  The  following  year  46  candidates^presented 
themselves  for  nomination  as  commissioners  to  the  four  places  to  be  filled.  The  successful  candidates  were  Arthur  W.  Kreinheder,  Charles  M. 
Heald,  Charles  B.  Hill  and  John  F.  Malone,  and  together  with  Mayor  Fuhrmann  they  administered  the  affairs  of  the  city  during  the  earlier  period 
of  the  war.  At  the  beginning  of  1918,  Mayor  Buck  succeeded  Mayor  Fuhrmann  as  a  result  of  the  preceding  election  and  Frederick  G.  Bagley, 
who  served  as  chairman  of  the  commission  government  association  during  the  campaign  before  the  people  for  ratification  of  the  charter,  succeeded 
Charles  B.  Hill  upon  the  latter's  appointment  as  chairman  of  the  State  Public  Service  Commission. 

The  new  Council  came  into  the  government  at  an  eventful  period  in  the  city's  history,  and  their  work  will  necessarily  be  for  all  time  a.  matter 
of  concern  and  interest  to  those  of  later  years,  particularly  those  into  whose  keeping  the  destinies  of  the  city  are  entrusted. — Editor 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 


23 


In  Pre- War  Days 

Members  of  the  old  Both  Regiment  in  training — About  to  break  camp 

that  poured  out  of  the  factories.  They  exhibited  their  argumentative  wares  wherever  a  public 
forum  would  afford  the  opportunity. 

5  Election  Day — and  the  new  government  had  won  an  overwhelming  victory.  A  good  day's 
work — then  the  citizens  rested.  Reformers,  statesmen  and  politicians  drew  each  respective 
belt  one  eye-hole  tighter.  The  scent  of  newer  game  was  in  the  air.  And  so  the  time  went  by 
from  the  winter  of  1914-1915  to  the  Spring  and  Summer  and  Fall  of  1915.  Candidates  multi- 
plied for  the  new  municipal  posts  like  the  leaves  on  the  trees.  Public  interest  was  focused  on 
these  new  developments  of  personal  ambitions  and  zeal  for  public  service.  A  few  contracts 
from  the  Allied  governments  coming  into  the  factories  of  Buffalo  increased  the  demand  for  labor. 
This  widening  industrial  field  of  opportunity  again  enhanced  the  prosperity  of  the  people.  War 
contracts  were  added  to  our  list  of  productive  occupations.  The  salaries  of  ordinary  mechanics 
rapidly  advanced,  and  we  began  to  feel — but  only  in  a  pecuniarily  profitable  way — the  effects 
of  the  war.  The  Mayor's  message  of  1915  contained  no  mention  of  the  war  nor  its  local  effects. 
His  communication  to  the  new  Council  in  1916  was  likewise  barren  of  war  references.  Though 
the  presence  of  the  European  struggle  was  felt  in  the  industries  and  reviewed  in  the  newspapers, 
in  the  minds  of  the  masses  of  the  people  it  had  drawn  no  nearer  to  us  at  the  beginning  of  1916 
than  it  had  been  in  the  closing  days  of  '14.  We  heard  of  the  use  of  poison  gas  and  of  liquid  flame. 
Stories  of  Vimy  Ridge  floated  across  the  border.  The  Canadian  casualty  lists  contained  the 
names  of  boys  from  Toronto,  Bridgeburg,  Fort  Erie,  Port  Colborne  and  other  nearby  Canadian 
points.  The  spread  of  the  submaiine  warfare  incited  local  interest  and  the  presence  of  the 
"Deustchland,"  the  underseas  merchant  ship  from  Germany,  attracted  our  attention  and  elicited 
expressions  of  admiration,  but  all  these  were  happenings  in  a  field  from  which  we  seemed  wholly 
and  everlastingly  eliminated. 


24  Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 


CHAPTER   II 
MONROE    DOCTRINE    ROCKS    ON    ITS    BASE 

THE  first  thought  of  a  newer  condition  in  our  affairs  might  be  traced  to  a  speech  delivered  by 
President  Wilson  before  the  League  to  Enforce  Peace  on  May  27th,  1916.  In  that  speech 
for  the  first  time  in  the  history  of  the  Republic,  a  President  of  the  United  States  had  indi- 
cated that  this  Nation  would  have  to  give  up  its  position  of  isolation  behind  the  Monroe  Doctrine 
and  assume  the  responsibilities  of  a  world  power.  The  League  to  Enforce  Peace  was  organized 
in  Philadelphia,  Jime  17th,  1915.  It  proposed  as  a  fundamental  plank  of  its  origin  that  a  League 
of  Nations  be  created  at  the  end  of  the  war  for  the  purpose  of  setting  up  "a  Judicial  Tribunal 
and  a  Council  of  Conciliation,"  and  of  using  jointly  economic  and  military  force  against  any 
nation  belonging  to  the  League  that  should  go  to  war  without  first  placing  the  questions  involved 
befoi-e  the  court  or  council  of  conciliation.  It  also  proposed  that  conferences  should  be  held 
from  time  to  time  for  the  purpose  of  formulating  and  codifying  rules  of  international  law.  Wil- 
liam H.  Taft  was  chosen  as  the  first  president  of  the  League,  and  Alton  B.  Parker,  a  former  chief 
judge  of  the  Court  of  Appeals  of  the  State  of  New  York,  and  a  former  candidate  for  President 
of  the  United  States,  was  chosen  vice-president.  President  Wilson's  first  speech  touching  on  the 
newer  foreign  policy  had  such  a  forum  for  its  dissemination.  It  is  readily  conceivable  that  the 
speech  delivered  by  the  President  in  May,  1916,  would  have  aroused,  one  year  earlier,  a  storm  of 
bitter  protest  and  of  wide  pohtical  portent.  By  that  time,  however,  we  had  had  many  diplo- 
matic exchanges  with  both  England  and  Germany.  The  former  Nation  could  not  agree  entirely 
with  the  policy  that  we  sought  for  the  control  of  the  seas.  The  authorities  at  Washington  had 
foreseen  that  complications  on  the  seas  might  draw  us  into  the  conflict.  As  early  as  August, 
1914,  Secretary  of  State  Bryan  had  despatched  a  note  to  all  the  powers  then  at  war  pointing 
out  rather  clearly,  it  seemed,  that  serious  trouble  might  arise  out  of  the  uncertainty  of  neutrals 
as  to  their  maritime  rights  and  suggesting  that  the  Declaration  of  London  be  accepted  by  all 
nations  for  the  period  of  the  war.  The  reply  of  Great  Britain  was  not  entirely  satisfactory,  for 
she  could  not  accept  in  full  any  program  which  treated  the  questions  of  the  sea  apart,  and 
entirely  so,  from  questions  governing  the  powers  on  land.  England's  strength  was  in  her  Navy. 
To  bind  her  naval  operations,  without  binding  the  land  movements  of  other  powers  jointly 
therewith,  did  not  appeal  to  her.  Probably  it  was  illogical  to  expect  more  from  England  than 
England  then  offered,  but  the  American  people,  or  a  substantial  portion  thereof,  were  disap- 
pointed in  the  reply.  It  did  not  tend  to  clarify  the  situation,  nor  did  it  carry  any  assurance  that 
neutral  nations  in  the  enforcement  of  their  maritime  rights  would  be  able  to  steer  clear  of  friction. 
Our  neutrality  was  real,  but  it  was  not  easy  to  maintain,  and  Secretary  of  State  William  J. 
Biyan  soon  found  his  relations  with  the  Administration  strained;  his  retirement  from  the  Cab- 
inet a  natural  course,  and,  from  his  point  of  view,  inevitable.  Controversies  between  this  Nation 
and  Great  Britain  soon  arose.  These,  while  disturbing,  did  not  seriously  threaten  our  neutrality, 
for  the  questions  at  issue  concerned  propei-ty  rights  and  were  fully  covered,  as  the  country  under- 
stood, by  existing  treaties  between  this  country  and  Great  Britain.  Whatever  impression  this 
attitude  of  England  may  have  had  upon  the  government  of  the  United  States,  the  trend  of  thought 
it  created  among  the  people  was  not  what  might  reasonably  and  naturally  have  been  expected. 
Instead  of  turning  the  public  mind  and  the  public  hands  to  matters  of  preparation,  it  simply 
aroused  a  sentiment  something  akin  to  indifference  over  England's  fate.  Nor  did  the  German 
propagandists,  ah'eady  busily  burrowing  in  their  rabbit-like  way,  overlook  the  opportunity  it 
afforded  to  shake  loose  the  none  too  tightly-bound  ties  between  the  two  great  nations  of  English 
speaking  people.  Simultaneously  with  these  occurrences  Germany  stirred  up  among  its  popu- 
lation a  resentment  against  the  people  of  the  United  States — or,  rather,  the  government  of  the 
United  States.     Germany  endeavored  to  foi-ce  a  discontinuance  of  our  trade  in  munitions  with 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War  25 

belligerent  nations  by  an  appeal  on  humanitarian  grounds.  Coming  from  a  nation  whose  atro- 
cities in  Belgium  and  on  the  high  seas  were  already  beginning  to  cry  for  vengeance,  it  attracted 
no  great  measure  of  serious  attention  either  at  Washington  or  among  the  people  throughout  the 
several  States  of  the  Union.  The  correspondence  of  the  Pi-esident  with  London  and  Berlin  on 
these  and  other  questions  had  earned  for  him  the  title  of  "Our  Letter-wi'iting  President." 

When  President  Wilson  addressed  the  League  to  Enforce  Peace  he  had  determined  to  strike 
a  new  and  significant  note  in  our  foreign  policy.  The  day  of  our  national  aloofness  was  about 
to  pass,  though  the  masses  of  America  did  not  fully  realize  it  even  after  the  President  had  spoken. 
He  pictured  in  his  address  that  day  the  principles  on  which  lasting  peace  must  rest,  and  reached 
1  conclusion,  not  drawn  but  forced,  that  the  time  had  arrived  for  us  to  assume  a  new  position 
among  the  nations  of  the  world.     He  said : 

"So  sincerely  do  we  believe  these  things  that  I  am  sure  that  I  speak  the  mind  and  wish  of  the 
people  of  America  when  I  say  that  the  United  States  is  willing  to  become  a  partner  in  any  feasible 
association  of  nations  formed  in  order  to  realize  these  objects  (lasting  peace)  and  make  them 
secure  against  violation." 

The  sinking  of  the  Lusitania,  with  its  precious  cargo  of  men,  women  and  children,  perpetrated 
by  U-boats  on  May  7th,  1915,  the  terrible  affliction  and  suffering  occasioned  by  the  use  of  poison 
2;as  on  the  field  of  battle  had  laid  the  foundation  wherein  the  President's  clearly  stated  intention 
Df  departing  from  the  tenets  and  restrictions  of  the  Monroe  doctrine  brought  no  criticism;  in 
'act,  won  commendation  from  the  people. 

Our  chief  grievances  against  Germany  grew  out  of  the  vicious  use  made  of  her  underseas  boats, 
:he  wanton  murder  of  innocent  women  and  children  and  of  peaceful  men — noncombatants — 
Taveling  along  the  public  highway  of  the  ocean;  the  presence  in  this  country  of  German  spies, 
Df  paid  agents  to  disturb  the  peace  and  destroy  the  property  of  American  citizens.  Those  and 
she  constant  quibbles  and  misrepresentation  created  an  atmosphere  of  uneasiness.  A  smoulder- 
ng  volcano  of  hostility  to  the  policy  and  purposes  of  the  Imperial  German  Government  was  here, 
:hough  not  entirely  discernible  to  the  naked  eye.  And  yet  the  thought  of  taking  an  active  part 
n  the  European  war  was  very,  very  far  from  most  of  our  minds.  The  belief  was  general  that 
Germany  would  back  down  before  she  would  risk  an  open  rupture  with  the  United  States,  but 
t  is  apparent  that  this  belief  was  not  entertained  at  Washington ;  in  fact,  all  evidence  is  to  the 
contrary. 

In  a  speech  at  St.  Louis,  Mo.,  in  February  of  1916  the  President  said:  "The  danger  is  not 
Tom  within,  gentlemen,  it  is  from  without,  and  I  am  bound  to  tell  you  that  that  danger  is  con- 
stant and  immediate,  not  because  anything  new  has  happened,  not  because  there  has  been  any 
change  in  our  international  relationships  with  recent  weeks  or  months,  but  because  the  danger 
;omes  with  every  turn  of  events." 

The  President  was  speaking  from  an  active  and  close  association  with  the  intricacies  of  our 
•elations  with  the  belligerent  nations  and  the  difficulties  he  was  expei'iencing  in  maintaining,  in 
;he  face  of  these,  a  strict  neutrality.  The  public  was  far  away  from  that  standpoint.  The  reader 
jf  history  is  concerned  only  with  the  book  before  him  and  the  incidents  it  unfolds,  while  the  man 
)n  the  street  in  the  history-making  period  is  concerned  intimately  only  with  the  things  which 
surround  his  daily  life;  and  with  no  feature  of  this  war,  save  the  headlines  in  the  newspapers, 
lad  the  man  on  the  street  as  yet  come  in  contact.  Eai'ly  in  Octobei-,  1916,  the  U-boats  made  a 
'aid  on  English  shipping  oft"  Nantucket.  For  a  moment  there  was  surprise  and  concern.  Could 
Germany  strike  America  from  her  submarines?  Germany  had  already  curtailed  her  underseas 
activity  at  the  request  of  this  government,  and  that  was  taken  as  an  evidence  of  her  good  faith ; 
;hough  here  again  we  were  fooled.  The  U-boats'  visit  was  soon  dismissed,  and  the  spirit  of  in- 
lifference  returned. 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War  27 


CHAPTER   III 
SCENTING    THE    BATTLE    AFAR 

DURING  the  Fall  of  1915  some  of  the  leading  men  of  the  nation  somewhat  incensed  by  the 
spread  of  German  propaganda,  and  outraged  by  the  depredations  of  the  German  submarine 
commanders  (we  still  partially,  at  least,  absolved  the  German  Government  from  the  crime 
of  murdering  those  helpless  women  and  children  and  attributed  it  to  unrestrained  Huns  in  charge 
of  the  boats)  began  a  movement  looking  to  national  preparedness.  It  was  at  first  simply  a 
publicity  enterprise  to  attract  public  attention  to  our  deficiencies  in  the  event  of  war.  They 
called  it  a  hobby  of  the  idle  rich.  Let  it  be  that;  but,  nevertheless,  it  had  a  foundation  in 
the  earth's  illumination  as  the  European  conflagration  shot  its  flames  across  the  heavens. 
Students  of  human  nature  and  of  history  could  not  help  but  see  the  blazing  sky.  And  it  was 
red ! 

A  meeting  called  by  Joseph  Choate,  former  American  Ambassador  to  the  Court  of  St.  James, 
distinguished  citizen  and  accomplished  statesman,  was  held  at  the  Bankers'  Club  in  the  City  of 
New  York  on  November  3d,  1915.  Every  American  city  was  invited  to  participate  in  that 
gathering,  and,  while  the  meeting  held  many  of  the  most  representative  men  of  the  Nation,  the 
unrepresented  cities  would  have  made  a  much  longer  list  than  those  whose  repre.sentatives  were 
present.  Buft'alo  appeared  at  that  confei-ence  through  its  Mayor,  Louis  P.  Fuhrmann,  and 
Evan  P.  Hollister — the  latter  a  member  of  the  law  firm  of  Rogers,  Locke  &  Babcock — a  very 
early  and  earnest  worker  for  preparedness  and  one  who  eventually  saw  sei'vice  with  the  American 
Expeditionary  Forces  in  France.  The  meeting  sounded  keenly  the  call  for  American  activity 
in  preparation  for  home  defense  in  the  event  the  European  struggle  should  ever  sweep  across  the 
ocean.  We  are  not  sure  that  those  concerned  in  these  preparedness  plans  wei'e  grave  or  appre- 
hensive in  their  work.  However,  they  were  earnest.  None  went  around  with  whitened  face,  but 
as  sound  thinkers  and  farsighted  men  they  saw — behind  the  good-natured,  happy,  well-paid 
forces  of  the  Nation — a  dark  background.  It  was  not  discernible  to  most  of  us.  It  must  have 
been  to  those  men,  for  their  activities  were  of  a  nature  to  spread  bi'oadly  the  preparedness  prop- 
aganda. 

Mayor  Fuhrmann  spoke  for  Buffalo  at  the  meeting,  and  in  his  address  set  forth  briefly  and 
concisely  our  general  attitude : 

Mr.  Toastmaster  and  Honored  Guests: 

I  want  to  thank  Mr.  Choate  and  the  gentlemen  in  charge  of  this  gathering  for  their  courtesy  shown  me  in  asking 
me  to  participate  with  them  and  all  of  us  in  this  initial  meeting  in  the  Empire  State  in  behalf  of  national  preparedness. 

Buffalo,  the  city  of  which  I  have  the  honor  to  be  the  official  head  for  the  time  being,  is  solidly  in  favor  of  the  great 
enterprise  which  inspires  our  coming  together  this  afternoon. 

Notwithstanding  that  Buffalo  is  on  the  Canadian  border  and  for  more  than  one  hundred  years  has  lived  in  peace 
with  the  people  of  Canada,  four  hundred  and  fifty  thousand  of  us  stoutly  favor  every  reasonable  effort  looking  to 
adequate  national  preparedness. 

Buffalo,  the  one  uniquely  cosmopolitan  city  of  the  United  States — a  city  composed  of  almost  equal  parts  of  a  citi- 
zenship of  German,  Irish,  Italian,  Hungarian  and  Polish  antecedents — is  in  unanimous  accord  with  the  sentiment 
"America  First"  and  an  America  able  at  all  times  to  take  care  of  herself  on  land  and  sea,  at  home  and  abroad, 
under  any  and  all  circumstances. 

The  people  of  Buffalo  do  not  want  the  United  States  to  go  to  war  with  any  nation  on  earth — they  desire  peace  and 
good  will  between  Americans  and  all  others.  Yet,  if  wars  do  come  in  the  future,  even  as  wars  have  sometimes  been 
our  national  portion  in  the  past,  then  every  last  Buffalonian  will  be  proud  to  have  his  country  ready  for  the  foe, 
and  everything  that  you  and  I  and  the  rest  of  us  can  do  toward  creating  an  invincible  America  will  be  in  accord  with 
the  highest  ethics  and  the  highest  patriotism,  and  will  prove  that  we  are  worthy  of  those  who  bequeathed  to  us  a 
great,  progressive,  enlightened  Republic. 

We  had  no  serious  objection  to  others  going  to  war  as  long  as  they  remained  on  the  European 
■continent  and  did  not  interfere  with  our  peace  and  contentment.     Germany,  however,  was  even 


28  Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 

then  engaged  in  arousing  a  hostile  agitation  on  our  Southern  border  by  the  means  of  paid  agents 
among  the  Mexicans,  which,  in  later  years  we  learned,  had  its  inspiration  right  in  the  royal  chairs 
of  the  German  imperial  war  lords;  and,  coupled  with  other  overt  acts  on  the  highseas  and  here- 
tofore spoken  of,  made  it  fairly  certain  that  if  war  came  our  way  it  would  be  war  with  Germany. 

Neither  the  Mayor's  speech  nor  the  occasion  for  it  attracted  any  great  amount  of  attention 
here  at  home.  The  episode  may  have  impressed  the  Mayor  and  the  others  who  were  present. 
Probably  it  did.  The  Mayor  seemed  to  feel  the  necessity  of  preparedness  as  a  desirable  pre- 
caution, not  as  a  need;  still  he  did  not  delay  putting  the  city  in  entire  accord  with  the  plans  of 
The  National  Security  League.  He  announced,  immediately  after  his  return,  the  appointment 
of  a  committee  of  one  hundred  representative  men  to  form  the  Buffalo  branch  of  that  League. 
Mr.  Hollister  was  chosen  as  its  first  president;  A.  Conger  Goodyear,  afterwards  a  colonel  in  the 
United  States  Army,  was  made  treasurer;  Harold  .J.  Balliett,  former  city  clerk  and  an  active 
worker  in  all  civic  enterprises,  secretary.  In  addition  to  those  mentioned,  the  executive  com- 
mittee was  made  up  of  the  following  members:  Louis  L.  Babcock,  Lyman  M.  Bass,  Edward  H. 
Butler,  Marshall  Clinton,  John  F.  Cochrane,  James  L.  Crane,  Boleslaw  Dorasewicz,  Gen.  Francis 
V.  Greene,  Harry  D.  Kirkover,  Horace  Lanza,  Herbert  A.  Meldrum,  Charles  Mosier,  Charles 
P.  Norton,  Hugo  Schoellkopf,  Harry  L.  Taylor,  George  P.  Urban  and  Orson  E.  Yeager. 

The  local  branch  fully  completed  its  organization  in  November;  established  headquarters  at 
814  Fidelity  Building,  and  opened  a  campaign  for  membership.  The  Mayor  and  Mr.  Hollister 
had,  earlier  in  the  month,  attended  a  conference  in  Chicago,  and  the  committee  had  plans  in 
embryo  for  the  recruiting  of  the  local  regiments  of  the  National  Guard  to  full  strength.  It  was 
a  matter  of  general  knowledge,  at  that  time,  that  the  enrollment  of  the  local  regiments  was  far 
below  what  might  reasonably  have  been  expected.  The  distaste  for  service  as  guardsmen  was 
deep-seated  and  not  easily  to  be  corrected.  Buffalo  boasted  of  two  splendid  new  armories,  one 
for  the  use  of  the  74th  Regiment  of  Infantry,  located  opposite  Prospect  Park,  at  Niagara  and 
Connecticut  Streets;  the  other  at  Masten  and  Best  Streets  for  the  use  of  the  65th  Regiment, 
also  an  infantry  regiment.  The  State  had  in  the  course  of  construction  and  about  to  be  formally 
opened  a  new  armory  on  Delavan  Avenue,  opposite  Forest  Lawn,  for  the  use  of  Troop  I,  First 
Cavalry,  National  Guard — a  cracking  good  organization  of  young  troopers.  These  State  mili- 
tary quarters  were  equipped  with  the  latest  recreational  facilities  and  club  aiTangements  calcu- 
lated to  attract  young  men.  But  despite  all  this,  the  falling  off  in  membership  was  very  notice- 
able and  a  matter  of  keen  regret  among  military  men  generally  throughout  the  city.  A  strike 
of  the  street  railway  employees  a  few  years  before  had  proved  so  disastrous  to  property  that  it 
was  deemed  necessary  to  call  out  the  local  regiments  to  guard  the  cars  and,  possibly,  the  lives  of 
those  who  sought  to  ride  on  them.  The  guardsmen  proved  themselves  real  soldiers,  took  orders, 
and  performed  their  duty,  but  their  relations  with  the  striking  car  men  formed  through  associa- 
tion in  co-operating  labor  organizations  brought  a  resentment  against  strike  duty  and  soon  left 
the  militia  companies  considerably  undermanned.  Later  the  regiments  were  called  for  strike 
service  at  the  Gould  Coupling  Works  at  Depew,  N.  Y.  That  strike  occurred  late  in  March,  1914. 
The  soldiers  were  on  duty  there  about  two  weeks.  Naturally,  the  Security  League  turned  its 
attention  toward  rectifying,  if  possible,  that  condition  of  affairs  in  the  national  guard  organiza- 
tions. 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War  29 


CHAPTER   IV 
PREPAREDNESS    SEED    IS    SOWN 

GROWING  out  of  the  Bankers'  Club  banquet  of  November  3d  an  effort  was  made  to  co-ordinate 
-  the  various  preparedness  movements  in  the  State,  and,  early  in  January,  1916,  Mayor 
John  Purroy  Mitchel  of  New  York  City,  a  very  earnest  worker,  appointed  a  New  York 
City  committee  which  became  known  as  the  Mayor's  Committee  on  National  Defense. 

Mayor  Mitchel,  while  still  Chief  Executive  of  the  first  city  of  America,  enlisted  for  training 
at  the  citizens'  training  camp  at  Plattsburg;  and,  after  leaving  the  office  of  Mayor  two  years 
later,  was  given  a  commission  in  the  aviation  section  of  the  National  Army.  He  was  killed  by 
a  fall  fi'om  his  aeroplane  while  training  at  Kelly  Field,  Texas,  for  overseas  service. 

The  committee  he  appointed  early  in  January,  1916,  did  considerable  work  throughout  the 
State.  An  exchange  of  letters  between  the  secretary  of  Mayor  Mitchel's  committee  and  Chair- 
man Hollister  of  the  Buffalo  organization  gave  a  very  fair  idea  of  the  manner  in  which  the  pre- 
paredness plans  had  progressed  up  to  that  time,  and  also  an  outline  of  the  aims  of  those  pre- 
paredness pioneers. 

CITY    OF    NEW     YORK 
Mayor's  Committee  on  National  Defense 
Municipal  Building,  Rooms  914-916,  New  York 

January  13,  1916. 
Hon.  Louis  P.  Fuhrmann,  Mayor, 

Buffalo,  N.  Y. 
Dear  Sir: 

I  have  the  honor  to  inform  you  that  this  committee  is  now  organized  and  prepared  to  undertake  active  labors.  We  should  be  glad  to  receive 
information  as  to  the  work  which  the  Committee  on  preparedness  appointed  by  you  has  undertaken  and  is  doing,  and  hope  that  it  may  be  possible 
for  us  to  co-operate  to  common  advantage  in  the  nation-wide  effort  to  increase  the  readiness  of  the  United  States  for  National  Defense. 

May  your  Secretary  send  me  the  names  of  the  officers  and  the  correct  address  of  your  Committee,  together  with  the  names  of  those  cities  in 
New  York  known  to  you  besides  Buffalo,  Syracuse  and  New  York  in  which  a  Citizens'  Committee  has  been  appointed  by  the  Mayor? 

Very  truly  yours, 

(Signed)     Gordon  Ireland,  Secretary. 

Mr.  Gordon  Ireland,  January  18,  1916. 

Secretary,  Mayor's  Committee  on  National  Defense, 
914  Municipal  Building.  New  York  City. 
Dear  Sir: 

Mayor  Fuhrmann  has  referred  to  me  your  letter  of  the  13th  instant  in  regard  to  the  work  accomplished  by  the  Committee  which  he  appointed 
to  co-operate  in  support  of  the  preparedness  program  of  the  National  Security  League.  C>ur  Committee  of  One  Hundred  has  not  only  supported 
the  activities  of  the  Buffalo  Branch  of  the  National  Security  League,  which  now  has  a  membership  of  over  400  prominent  citizens  of  Buffalo,  but 
has  also  undertaken  to  assist  in  the  building  up  of  the  two  National  Guard  Regiments  of  this  city.  At  a  meeting  which  we  held  for  this  purpose 
on  November  26th,  we  adopted  a  resolution  calling  upon  all  employers  of  men  eligible  for  service  in  the  Guard  to  grant  vacations  with  pay  to  such 
of  their  employees  who  are  members  of  the  Guard,  when  away  on  duty.  I  enclose  a  copy  of  this  resolution,  which  was  published  in  the  papers  and 
sent  to  the  large  employers  of  labor  in  this  city. 

At  the  same  meeting  the  Committee  also  unanimously  adopted  a  resolution  upon  the  subject  of  Preparedness,  a  copy  of  which  is  also  enclosed 
herewith. 

Mayor  Fuhrmann  and  I  also  attended  the  Chicago  convention  of  the  National  Security  League  in  November,  as  representatives  of  the  Citizens' 
Committee  of  Buffalo,  as  well  as  of  the  Buffalo  Branch  of  the  National  Security  League. 

The  Citizens'  Committee  will  also  be  represented  at  the  Congress  of  the  National  Security  League  to  be  held  in  Washington  this  week. 

In  December  the  Citizens'  Committee,  in  co-operation  with  the  Buffalo  Branch  of  the  Security  League,  obtained  the  consent  of  the  owners  of 
the  Buffalo  Hippodrome  to  hold  one  of  the  performances  of  the  moving  picture  exhibition  known  as  "The  Battle  Cry  of  Peace"  under  the  joint 
auspices  of  the  Committee  and  the  Security  League.  There  were  about  3.000  people  present  at  this  meeting,  and  Henry  A.  Wise  Wood  of  New 
York  delivered  a  half-hour  address  on  the  subject  of  Preparedness. 

I  also  enclose  herewith,  at  your  request,  a  list  of  the  members  of  the  Citizens'  Committee,  together  with  their  addresses. 

Yours  very  truly, 

(Signed)     Evan  Hollister,  Chairman. 

Mr.  Hollister  and  his  committee  applied  themselves  to  the  task  of  inculcating  the  preparedness 
idea  in  the  public  mind,  at  the  same  time  inaugurating  various  movements  calculated  to  arouse 
the  military  spirit  in  the  people.  It  seems  we  grew  more  familial-  with  martial  airs.  It  was  not 
uncommon  for  our  after-dinner  speakers  to  refer  to  the  desirability  of  national  preparedness, 
and,  now  and  then,  the  vaudeville  performers  carried  the  thought  in  their  songs,  their  mono- 
logues and  dialogues.  A  part  of,  and  growing  out  of,  this  movement  came  a  Congress  of  Con- 
structive Patriotism,  held  in  the  City  of  Washington  on  January  25th,  26th  and  27th.  That 
conference  was  attended  by  a  number  of  Buffalonians  headed  by  Mr.   Hollister  and  Mayor 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War  31 

Fuhrmann.  Returning,  the  members  of  the  committee,  on  January  28th  held  a  well  attended  meet- 
ing for  the  purpose  of  drawing  recruits  into  the  local  regiments.  General  Samuel  M.  Welch  of  the 
Fourth  Brigade,  N.  G.  N.  Y.,  and  Councilman  Charles  B.  Hill,  a  former  national  guardsman, 
had  much  to  do  with  the  plans  for  the  meeting,  the  general  atmosphere  of  which  was  voiced  in 
a  speech*  delivered  by  Mayor  Fuhrmann  on  that  occasion. 

The  meeting  was  only  partially  successful.  Bradley  Goodyear,  a  young  inan  of  wealth  and 
position,  Chauncey  J.  Hamlin,  son  of  Harry  Hamlin  and  grandson  of  Cicero  J.  Hamlin,  one  of 
the  builders  of  Buffalo,  and  others  of  more  or  less  prominent  positions  enlisted  in  the  65th  In- 
fantry, N.  G.  N.  Y.,  joining  with  Colonel  Charles  E.  P.  Babcock,  Lieut.  Col.  John  D.  Howland, 
Majors  Louis  H.  Eller  and  James  P.  Fowler,  Captains  Kennedy,  Marks,  Colprice,  Barrett,  Brost, 
Scholl,  Hinds,  Williams,  Webber  and  Patrick  J.  Keeler,  a  judge  of  the  City  Court,  Chaplain 
Fornes  and  other  earnest  workers  for  the  rehabilitation  of  the  regiment.  They  made  gains,  and 
they  made  sacrifices.  Mr.  Hamlin  was  chairman  of  the  Progressive  Party  organization ;  he  was, 
also,  actively  engaged  in  business  enterprises  and  legal  work,  but  was  compelled,  along  with  the 
others  in  that  regimental  i-ecruiting  campaign,  .seriously  to  neglect  his  personal  affairs.  Col. 
Charles  J.  Wolf  of  the  74th  Regiment,  with  Lieut.  Col.  Beck,  Majors  Arthur  Kemp,  William  R. 
Pooley,  Lyman  A.  Wood;  Captains  Ralph  K.  Robertson,  Ziegler,  Montgomery,  Kaffenberger, 
Kean,  Minniss,  Hubbell,  Miller,  Gillig,  Taggart,  Kendall,  Sanburg,  Kneubel,  Branch,  Cadotte, 
Bagnall,  Maldiner  and  Arthur  C.  Schaefer,  Deputy  Commissioner  of  Health  for  the  city,  likewise 
gave  their  time  and  best  efforts  to  bring  their  regiment  to  a  substantial  footing.  To  those  men- 
tioned should  be  added.  Chaplain  John  C.  Ward,  who  followed  the  fortunes  of  the  old  74th  Regi- 
ment, not  only  through  those  very  earnest  recruiting  times,  but  down  into  Texas,  to  the  Mexican 
border,  across  seas,  and  through  the  smoke  and  thunder  of  battle  until  victory  was  achieved  and 
the  triumphant  regiment  returned.  He,  with  every  other  member  of  the  regiment,  figuratively 
speaking,  took  off  his  coat  to  aid  Chairman  Hollister  and  the  Security  League  Committee  in 
arousing  here  the  spirit  of  preparedness.  They  toiled  day  after  day — in  the  shops,  stores,  theaters, 
churches.  It  would  not  be  accurate  to  say  they  created  any  great  amount  of  enthusiasm,  but 
it  is  fair  to  say  they  toiled.  On  the  other  hand,  their  efforts  were  not  wasted.  They  had  sown 
the  seed  of  education,  and  so,  in  the  latter  months  of  the  year,  when  we  actually  drew  close  to 
war,  it  was  not  necessary  to  go  over  that  ground  again. 

There  was  but  little  in  the  enlistments  to  encourage  them,  although  they  did  gradually  build 
the  regiments  up  to  a  reasonable  size.  From  January  to  June  those  workers  forced  the  campaign. 
Then  our  military  affairs  took  a  turn  toward  the  Southern  border  where  the  Mexicans,  under 
spur  from  outside  sources,  were  threatening  the  lives  of  American  citizens  and  it  daily  became 
more  and  more  evident  that  intervention  by  the  United  States  in  Mexico  was  inevitable. 


*Mr.  Chairtiian  and  Honored  Guests: 

I  want  to  thank  General  Welch,  Councilman  Hill  and  the  gentlemen  in  charge  of  this  gathering  for  their  courtesy  shown  me  in  asking  me  to 
participate  with  them  in  this  initial  meeting  in  behalf  of  the  65th  Regiment. 

At  the  outset  let  me  say  that  I  know  that  Buffalo,  the  city  of  which  I  have  the  honor  to  be  the  official  head  for  the  time  being  is  solidly  in 
favor  of  the  policy  (jf  national  preparedness. 

I  have  just  returned  from  a  great  gathering  at  Washington  which  emphasized  and  urged  the  need  of  a  larger  army  and  a  larger  navy.  I 
learned  from  the  President  of  the  United  States  and  the  Speaker  of  the  House  of  Representatives  and  others,  that  our  national  law-making  body 
is  presently  to  confront  and  solve  this  momentous  problem. 

The  difficulties  before  our  national  legislators  are  two-fold.  First  arises  the  question:  "What  degree  of  preparedness  will  the  American  people 
stand  for?"  and,  second,  "Where  are  the  necessary  revenues  coming  from  to  pay  for  these  defense  measures?" 

Serious  questions  these  are,  my  friends.  Yet.  I  feel  morally  sure  that  when  the  final  test  comes,  party  lines  will  be  forgotten  and  our  repre- 
sentatives in  the  House  and  Senate  will  measure  up  to  their  full  duty  and  patriotically  vote  for  adequate  defense  legislation. 

To-night  we  have  this  particular  burden  on  our  minds,  namely,  what  can  we  do  and  what  will  we  do  to  strengthen  our  two  Buffalo  regiments — 
the  74th  and  the  65th?  That  they  need  additional  strength  is  a  matter  of  common  knowledge.  With  my  fellow  townsmen  I  am  here  to  urge 
others  and  to  pledge  myself  to  join  in  a  campaign  to  secure  the  necessary  hundreds  of  men  to  fill  these  regiments  to  their  full  quota. 

There  are  some,  I  am  informed,  who  refuse  to  join  the  regiments  because  they  object  to  the  calling  out  of  the  militia  during  times  of  strikes. 
As  a  public  official  I  have  always  acted  on  the  principle  that  the  local  public  authorities  could  and  must  preserve  order  and  enforce  laws  at  all 
times.  I  know  that  by  exercising  the  unlimited  power  which  we  have  to  swear  in  special  police  we  could  cope  with  almost  every  possible  occasion, 
and  that  the  necessity  would  almost  never  arise  of  calling  out  the  State  Militia. 

The  public  mind  is  soon  to  give  its  deepest  attention  to  what  our  legislators  shall  say  and  do  on  the  paramount  and  supreme  question  before 
this  session  of  Congress.  .\nd  while  my  fellow-citizens  are  urging  our  representatives  to  stand  by  and  stand  up  for  a  policy  of  national  prepared- 
ness, I  appeal  to  every  patriotic  Buffalonian  here  at  home  to  prove  anew  our  patriotism  and  honor  by  bringing  up  our  two  regiments  to  their 
complete  numerical  standard. 


32  Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 


CHAPTER  V 
U.   OF   B.    COMPANY   IN    NATIONAL   GUARD 

THROUGH  the  late  months  of  Winter  and  the  early  months  of  Spring  of  1916  the  new  city 
government  spent  its  time  in  the  adjustment  of  the  various  functions  of  the  municipal 
machine  to  the  new  schedule  of  operation.  Bureaus  and  departments  received  "speed  up" 
orders.  There  was  much  for  the  new  commissioners  to  learn  and  to  do.  While  they  applied 
themselves  to  the  multiplicity  of  tasks  before  them,  the  local  regimental  officers  addressed  them- 
selves to  the  work  of  recruiting  for  the  regiments,  and  the  representatives  of  the  National  Se- 
curity League  bent  their  backs  with  a  will  to  the  spread  of  the  preparedness  pi'opaganda. 

In  order  that  the  national  need  for  more  adequate  defense  might  be  sharply  impressed  upon 
the  people.  President  Wilson  set  out  from  Washington  on  January  27th,  1916,  at  the  head  of  the 
preparedness  movement  for  a  tour  of  the  country,  speaking  first  in  New  York  on  January  28th. 
That  campaign  attracted  widespread  interest;  the  President  was  welcomed  by  immense  throngs 
wherever  he  traveled,  and  local  speakers  of  note  everywhere  added  their  voice  of  warning  to  the 
appeal  of  the  Nation's  Chief  Executive.  The  people  were  interested  but  not  alarmed;  they 
listened,  and  simply  heard. 

Here  in  Bufi'alo  the  officers  of  the  local  regiments  and  the  National  Security  League  were  dil- 
igently at  work.  It  was  no  uncommon  thing  then  to  drop  into  a  church  club  meeting,  a  pedro 
party,  or  a  men's  club  smoker  and  find  Captain  Patrick  Keeler  or  Chauncey  Hamlin  painting  a 
word  picture  of  the  forward  gun  on  a  foreign  warship  knocking  the  top  off  the  Woolworth  Building 
in  New  York,  or  of  a  foreign  army  rushing  unmolested  through  Pennsylvania  and  New  York.  Look- 
ing back  from  this  threshold  of  peace  over  the  devastated  areas  of  France  it  is  difficult  to  realize 
that  we  were  then  creating  the  great  offensive  machine  which  finally  drove  back  the  German 
army. 

The  army  for  home  defense  for  which  Keeler  and  Hamlin  and  hundreds  of  others  then  appealed 
became  in  reality,  two  years  later,  an  irresistible  military  machine  in  a  foreign  land.  Their  appeals 
however,  at  that  period  fell  on  rather  indifferent  ears.  Still,  they  were  not  discouraged  and  con- 
tinued to  map  out  new  progress.  From  street  corner  and  club  speeches  they  turned  toward 
the  school.  There,  at  least,  they  found  the  adventurous  spirit  of  boyhood,  and  soon  there  ap- 
peared a  plan  for  the  formation  of  a  University  of  Buffalo  Company  in  the  65th  Regiment.  It 
was  a  novelty  for  the  college  boys  and  they  took  to  the  suggestion ;  in  fact,  they  took  to  the  sug- 
gestion much  more  readily  than  had  been  anticipated,  and  the  project  went  through  in  a  com- 
mendable way. 

The  psychological  moment  for  enlistment  was  created  at  a  meeting  held  in  the  65th  Regiment 
Armory  January  29th  where  the  sound  of  the  gymnasium  apparatus,  the  pump-pump-pump 
of  the  basket  ball,  and  the  whir-r-r  of  the  bicycle  riders  as  they  tore  around  the  training  ti-ack 
of  the  immense  drill  hall  thrilled  the  college  boys,  while  the  general  neatness  and  military  splendor 
of  the  uniformed  officers  and  the  men  of  the  regiment  touched  off  the  spark  of  patriotism  which 
lies,  sometimes  dormant  but  ever  present,  in  the  breast  of  every  American  boy.  The  meeting 
was  presided  over  by  Chancellor  Charles  P.  Norton  of  the  University  and  his  heart  was  in  the 
effort.  "There  is  a  picture,"  he  said,  "which  none  of  us  wishes  to  see.  We  can  picture  for  a 
moment  the  country  caught  unprepared  for  a  struggle  forced  on  us.  We  may  look  for  a  moment 
on  the  homes  of  Buffalo  smoking,  its  buildings  and  its  institutions  shattered  by  shells,  its  women 
fleeing,  its  babes  trampled  in  the  streets,  and  the  red  blood  of  carnage  in  every  byway.  If  the 
present  condition  should  continue  and  that  scene  come  to  pass  and  the  great  God  to  judge  us,  our 
answer  would  be,  'We  were  not  ready'.  Do  you  believe  the  people  of  the  United  States  want  to 
see  such  a  picture? — an  event  which  might  happen  were  there  no  trained  men  to  respond  to  the 
call." 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 


33 


Soldiers'  and  Sailors"  Monument,  Lafayette  Square 

As  it  appeared  before  the  war 

Captain  Keeler  followed  Chancellor  Norton.  Mayor  Fuhi-mann  and  Brigadier  General  Welch 
likewise  addressed  the  boys.  Captain  Hamilton  Ward,  who  had  given  many  years  to  service  in 
the  local  militia,  made  the  final  plea.  "There  was  a  time,"  he  said,  "when  300  trained  British 
soldiers  invaded  and  burned  Buffalo,  and  3,000  untrained  and  unprepared  militiamen  fled  into 
the  woods.  We  learned  the  lesson  again  in  the  Civil  War.  Only  the  pen  of  Horace  Greeley 
kept  up  courage.  We  have  not  forgotten  the  Spanish-American  war.  We  were  unpu-epared  then. 
We  lost  500  men  by  gunshot  in  Cuba  and  5,000  men  from  disease  in  the  camps  because  we  were 
not  prepared  to  care  for  these  men.     Are  w^e  again  to  be  caught  unprepared  if  war  should  come?" 

The  University  boys  answered  that  question  so  far  as  their  limited  numbers  would  permit  by 
then  and  there  offei'ing  themselves  for  enlistment,  and  a  U.  of  B.  company  for  the  65th  Regiment 
was  organized.  It  was,  however,  a  small  quota  in  comparison  to  the  enlistments  desired,  but  as 
the  movement  was  as  much  an  educational  endeavor  to  arouse  public  sentiment  as  it  was  to  secure 
recruits,  the  benefits  of  this  effort  could  not  fairly  be  measured  by  counting  the  men  who  affixed 
their  signatures  to  enrollment  blanks. 


34  Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 


CHAPTER  VI 
GOVERNOR   WHITMAN   AT    FIRST   PREPAREDNESS   MEETING 

IT  is  inconceivable  that  the  public,  under  the  constant  pressure  of  the  National  Security  League, 
should  have  failed  to  find  recreational  interest  at  least  in  the  preparedness  movement.  But 
no  particular  enemy  was  discernible,  and  we  were  still  living  in  the  aloofness  of  the  Monroe 
Doctrine.  Opinion  was  divided  on  the  question  of  whether  trouble  might  reasonably  be 
expected  with  England  or  with  Germany,  in  the  event  of  difficulty  with  any  European  country. 
To  clarify  the  atmosphere  of  any  assumption  that  this  Nation  was  then  planning  a  military  cam- 
paign, the  President  repeatedly  stated  in  his  speeches  that  we  were  not.  But  he  did  say  on 
innumerable  occasions  that  the  conflict  then  in  progress  would  be  in  all  likelihood  the  last  great 
war  from  whose  maelstrom  we  could  remain  free;  in  fact,  he  made  clear  the  purpose  of  the  pre- 
paredness campaign  by  saying: 

"We  can  no  longer  be  a  provincial  nation. 

"Let  no  man  dare  to  say,  if  he  would  speak  the  truth,  that  the  question  of  preparation  for  national  defense  is  a 
question  of  war  or  of  peace. 

"There  is  no  spirit  of  aggrandizement  in  America.  There  is  no  desire  on  the  part  of  any  thoughtful  and  conscien- 
tious man  to  take  one  foot  of  territory  from  any  nation  in  the  world.  And  I  myself  share  to  the  bottom  of  my  heart 
that  profound  love  of  peace.  I  have  sought  to  maintain  peace  against  very  great,  and  sometimes  very  unfair  odds, 
and  I  am  ready,  at  any  time,  to  use  every  power  that  is  in  me  to  prevent  such  a  catastrophe  as  war  coming  to  this 
country. 

"So  that  it  is  not  permissible  for  any  man  to  say  that  the  defense  of  the  nation  has  the  least  tinge  in  it  of  desire 
for  power  which  can  be  used  to  bring  on  war.  But,  gentlemen,  there  is  something  that  the  American  people  love 
better  than  they  love  peace.  They  love  the  principles  upon  which  their  political  life  is  founded.  They  are  ready 
at  any  time  to  fight  for  the  vindication  of  their  character  and  of  their  honor.  They  will  at  no  time  seek  a  contest, 
but  they  will  at  no  time  cravenly  avoid  it.  Because  if  there  is  one  thing  that  the  country  ought  to  fight  for  and  that 
every  nation  ought  to  fight  for,  it  is  the  integrity  of  its  own  convictions.  We  cannot  surrender  our  convictions.  I 
would  rather  surrender  territory  than  surrender  those  ideals  which  are  the  staff  of  life  for  the  soul  itself.  And  because 
we  hold  certain  ideals,  we  have  thought  it  was  right  we  should  hold  them  for  others  as  well  as  for  ourselves.  America 
has  more  than  once  given  evidence  of  the  generosity  and  disinterestedness  of  its  love  for  liberty." 

The  President  concluded  his  campaign  early  in  February,  but  the  agencies  of  patriotism  and 
of  preparedness  continued  actively  at  the  task  before  them.  In  Buffalo  a  new  impetus  was  given 
to  the  effort  when  the  local  committee  conceived  the  idea  of  holding  an  immense  mass  meeting 
in  the  Broadway  Auditorium  at  which  the  Governor  of  the  State  would  be  the  principal  speaker. 
The  meeting  was  called  by  Mayor  Fuhrmann  and  was  held  on  the  evening  of  Saturday,  February 
26th.  All  avenues  leading  to  the  hall  were  packed  and  it  was  difficult  to  gain  admission.  Archer 
A.  Landon,  of  the  Chamber  of  Commerce,  presided,  and  the  speakers,  other  than  Governor  Whit- 
man and  Mr.  Landon,  were  Mayor  Fuhi-mann  and  Captain  Keeler. 

Buffalo  answered  the  call  to  preparedness  that  night  at  a  monster  mass  meeting.  The  en- 
thusiasm aroused  by  Governor  Whitman  in  his  appeal  for  the  proper  defense  of  the  nation  cul- 
minated in  an  excitement  of  patriotic  fervor  at  the  close  when  the  war  record  of  Buffalo  men  had 
been  reviewed  and  the  young  men  in  the  audience,  willing  to  play  their  part  in  defense  of  the  flag, 
were  asked  to  stand. 

Gray-haired  men  stood  up  with  the  youths  in  all  parts  of  the  hall.  The  enthusiasm  that 
swept  through  the  hall  as  a  great  American  flag  was  released  from  the  girders  over  the  heads  of 
the  Governor  and  other  men  on  the  stage  brought  men  and  women  to  their  feet,  waving  hats 
and  canes  and  handkerchiefs  and  cheering. 

Governor  Whitman,  in  his  evening  dress,  stood  at  the  front  of  the  stage  with  the  full  staff  of 
gold-braided,  red-striped  military  aides  about  him.  Khaki-clad  members  of  the  Buffalo  Cavalry 
Association  made  their  way  through  the  wide  aisles,  collecting  the  pledge  cards  then  signed  by 
the  men  standing  on  chairs  and  the  floor  in  an.swer  to  the  question : 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War  35 

"Are  you  ready  as  a  citizen  to  do  i/our  dutii  for  the  national  defense,  for  the  safety  and  the  liberty  of 
the  dag?" 

At  the  top  of  the  patriotic  intensity,  the  65th  and  74th  regiment  bands  struck  up  "America." 
Governor  Whitman's  was  the  voice  which  led  the  singing.  The  singing  continued  while  the  rest 
of  the  sections  cleared  the  seats  for  the  doors.  The  like  of  that  mass  meeting  was  never  before 
seen  in  Buffalo. 

While  Captain  Patrick  J.  Keeler  of  the  65th  regiment  was  recounting  the  deeds  of  valor  by 
Buffalo  men  in  the  Civil  and  Spanish-American  wars,  he  called  from  the  front  row  of  seats  a  small 
man  of  ruddy,  smiling  face. 

"There  is  Pat  Pierce,"  Captain  Keeler  said.  "When  Hobson  called  for  thirteen  volunteers  to 
go  in  the  Merrimac  and  sink  it  at  the  mouth  of  the  harbor,  two  of  the  men  he  accepted  were 
Buffalo  men.  Seven  of  those  men  escaped  after  the  ship  blew  up.  They  were  taken  prisoner- 
and  thrown  into  the  dungeons  of  Morro  Castle.  Pat  Pierce  was  one  of  the  seven.  He  lives  at 
No.  72  Hammerschmidt  Street  and  is  a  freight  conductor  to-day  for  the  Pennsylvania.  .Just  a 
few  days  ago  he  received,  after  all  those  years,  the  Congress  medal  of  honor — the  highest  award 
that  can  be  made  an  American  serving  his  country." 

That  was  one  of  the  high  spots  of  applause  during  the  close  of  the  meeting.  Governor  Whit- 
man came  forward  to  the  edge  of  the  platform  and  shook  hands  with  Pat  Pierce. 

"May  I  see  your  medal?"  the  Governor  asked. 

Mr.  Pierce  had  it  in  an  envelope.  The  Governor  held  it  up  to  view  and  showed  it  to  the  mili- 
tary aides  about  him. 

Among  military  men  and  others  interested  in  the  science  of  war  and  military  training,  the 
question  of  the  future  of  the  volunteer  system  was  always  a  live  subject  for  debate.  Draft  laws 
were  not  popular  and  never  had  been  in  this  country.  Militarism  was,  likewise,  without  sup- 
porters among  the  people,  for  it  was  militarism  which  at  that  moment  had  forced  the  cataclysmic 
conflict  raging  among  the  European  nations.  There  was,  however,  a  well  defined  sentiment  in 
favor  of  a  military  course  of  some  sort  in  the  schools,  but  that  proposition  had  its  able  opponents, 
as  well  as  its  able  proponents.  The  League  to  Enforce  Peace,  of  which  William  H.  Taft  was 
president,  was  urgently  pressing  its  campaign  for  the  formation  of  a  world  league  which  would 
end  wars  for  all  time  by  the  establishment  of  a  tribunal  for  the  settlement  of  national  grievances. 
The  speech  of  Governor  Charles  S.  Whitman  at  the  Auditorium  meeting  of  that  February  night 
fully  and  adequately  reflected  public  sentiment  on  those  questions  as  it  then  existed : 

"I  want  to  speak  plainly  to  the  parents  and  the  guardians  who  object  to  having  their  boys  in  the  National  Guard. 
Will  you  tell  me  that  the  training  is  going  to  make  him  a  bad  boy.  a  worthless  young  man  when  it  teaches  him  obedi- 
ence to  orders,  respect  for  authority  and  the  ability  to  take  care  of  himself?  When  it  teaches  him  a  patriotism  that 
is  the  surest  guaranty  of  the  safety  and  permanence  of  the  free  institutions  of  the  United  States. 

"We  as  a  nation  must  become  trained  to  citizenship,  trained  to  a  finer  manhood.  The  only  way  at  present  open 
is  through  the  National  Guard.  Here  in  Buffalo  you  have  the  opportunity  offered  by  the  finest  armories  in  the 
State. 

"Nothing  is  further  from  my  purpose  than  to  attempt  to  sound  a  note  of  alarm,  for  the  subject  is  too  vital  to  be 
complicated  by  passion  and  prejudice.  Not  because  I  dream  of  war,  but  because  I  want  peace  with  all  the  power 
of  my  heart  and  soul,  I  stand  flatly  and  squarely  with  those  who  are  insisting  upon  some  sound  scheme  of  adequate 
preparedness.  In  common  with  all  others  whose  sanity  has  not  been  undermined  by  the  specious  arguments  of  mili- 
tarism, I  look  to  a  day  when  a  great  world  parliament  will  provide  machinery  for  the  orderly  adjustment  of  inter- 
national disputes — the  glorious  day  when  racial  hates  will  have  given  way  to  the  spirit  of  universal  brotherhood.  But 
madness  still  rests  upon  the  face  of  the  earth. 

"As  to  the  form  of  this  preparedness,  I  have  long  since  committed  myself  in  opposition  to  the  so-called  volunteer 
system.  Even  the  most  cursory  study  of  history,  American  as  well  as  European,  proves  conclusively  that  the  vol- 
unteer system  has  been  a  failure,  is  now  a  failure  and  must  continue  to  be  a  failure.  As  unfair  as  it  is  undemocratic, 
this  system  permits  inequalities  and  makes  discriminations,  sending  the  brave  and  patriotic  to  fields  of  death  and 
allowing  the  base  and  cowardly  to  remain  at  home,  profiting  by  sacrifices  in  which  they  play  no  part.  What  is  this, 
in  the  last  analysis,  but  the  penalization  of  patriotism  and  the  placing  of  a  premium  on  poltroonery? 

"It  is  not  compulsory  military  service  that  I  preach.  It  is  compulsory  military  training  of  the  American  youth 
that  I  advocate,  holding  it  to  be  the  one  true  base  of  the  citizen-soldiery  idea.     It  is  our  good  fortune  not  to  be  forced 


36  Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 

to  run  the  risks  of  the  experimental  in  this  important  matter,  for  in  the  world  to-day  there  are  two  successful  demon- 
strations of  the  citizen-soldiery  system — Switzerland  and  Australia. 

"The  Swiss  system  has  been  widely  advertised,  and  is  more  known  of  men  and  yet  the  Australian  system  appeals 
to  me  as  better  fitted  to  our  peculiar  needs.  Like  Switzerland,  Australia  proceeds  upon  the  sound  belief  that  national 
defense  is  an  inescapable  obligation  of  citizenship  and  as  vital  a  national  consideration  as  education  itself.  As  a 
consequence,  the  two  essentials  are  linked,  and  march  forward  hand  in  hand. 

"From  twelve  to  nineteen  the  boy  receives  instruction  in  the  schools.  He  learns  the  fundamentals  of  soldiering, 
drilling,  marching,  map  reading,  map  making,  trench  digging,  bridge  building,  tactics,  sanitation,  personal  hygiene — 
all  these  come  to  him  just  as  his  grammar  and  arithmetic  come,  simply  and  naturally.  On  his  nineteenth  birthday 
he  becomes  a  member  of  the  citizen  forces.  He  is  presented  with  the  full  equipment  of  a  soldier,  for  which  he  is  held 
responsible.  He  is  called  upon  for  eleven  days  of  service  each  year  until  his  26th  year.  After  his  26th  year  the  young 
defender  passes  into  the  reserve  forces.  He  has  learned  not  only  to  be  a  good  soldier,  but  the  instruction  has  helped 
to  make  him  a  good  citizen." 

At  the  conclusion  of  the  Governor's  address,  President  Frank  B.  Baird  of  the  Chamber  of 
Commerce  arose  to  present  a  resolution.  Mr.  Baird  was  one  of  Buffalo's  thorough,  substantial 
Americans  of  the  war  period,  and  much  esteemed  because  of  his  indefatigable  efforts  in  civic 
enterprises.  His  presence  signified  the  support  of  the  business  interests  to  the  movement,  as  the 
presence  of  Governor  Whitman  and  Mayor  Fuhrmann  had  signified  the  support  of  the  State 
and  the  city.     The  resolution  was  read  in  an  attentive  silence.     It  was  as  follows: 

We,  the  citizens  of  Buffalo,  in  mass  meeting  assembled,  do  hereby  proclaim  our  deep-seated  convic- 
tion that  to  insure  the  preservation  of  our  glorious  heritage  of  liberty  and  freedom  we  should  forthwith 
adopt  in  this  country  some  such  truly  democratic  form  of  universal  military  training  as  has  won  for 
the  republic  of  Switzerland  the  deserved  admiration  of  the  world  and  has  helped  to  keep  her  at  peace 
amid  the  ravages  of  a  workl  war  touching  on  her  every  frontier. 

Appreciating,  however,  the  delay  necessarily^  involved  in  putting  such  a  systeyn  into  effect,  even  if 
adopted,  we,  therefore,  declare  that  it  is  our  immediate  duty  and  patriotic  obligation  as  American 
citizens  to  do  the  only  practical  thing  open  for  us  now  to  do,  and  that  is  to  forthwith  Imild  up  and 
strengthen  our  first  and  only  line  of  defense — the  regular  army  and  the  national  guard. 

Therefore,  we,  citizens  of  Buffalo,  in  mass  meeting  assembled,  inspired  by  a  deep  sense  of  our  duty 
to  our  country  in  this  hour  of  world  crisis,  do  hereby  resolve: 

First,  That  the  chairman  of  this  meeting  be  and  he  hereby  is  requested  to  forthwith  appoint  a  com- 
mittee of  100  citizens  whose  duty  it  shall  he  to  present  to  the  President  and  Congress  of  the  United 
States  and  the  Governor  and  Legislature  of  the  State  of  New  York  copies  of  these  resolutions,  and  who 
shall  be  further  autliorized  to  take  such  other  .steps  as  they  may  deem  advisable  to  further  any  legisla- 
tion they  deem  necessary  to  make  effective  the  recommendations  herein  contained. 

Second,  That  appreciating  the  grave  situation  of  our  country  arising  through  the  serious  lack  of 
men  trained  even  in  the  elementary  rudiments  of  the  art  of  war,  we,  individually,  here  and  now,  with- 
orit  waiting  for  any  legislation,  state  or  national,  pledge  our  support  to  the  national  guard,  and  indi- 
vidually declare  our  intention  of  forthwith  taking  such  steps  as  we  feel  in  duty  bound  to  take  to  recruit 
the  local  units  of  the  national  guard  up  to  their  full  strength. 

When  the  question  on  the  foregoing  resolution  was  put  by  Chairman  Landon,  the  ayes  it  re- 
ceived vibrated  against  the  girders  and  found  a  hundred  echoes  in  the  nooks  and  corners  of  the 
immense  old  edifice.  All  in  all,  the  meeting  had  proved  a  wonderful  demonstration  of  patriotic 
fervor  and  willingness  to  serve. 


M 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War  37 


CHAPTER   VII 

PATRIOTISM    UNLEASHED    BY    JUNE    DAY    PARADE 

■  ARCH  came  along,  after  the  preparedness  events  of  the  last  chapter,  and  with  it  came  the 
Mayor's  conference  at  St.  Louis  and  another  shower  of  patriotism.  Across  the  Southern 
border  in  Mexico  outlawry  was  spreading.  April  and  May  followed  much  like  March 
so  far  as  our  national  affairs  were  concerned.  Mexican  aggressions  were  increasing,  and  the 
danger  of  our  entanglement  in  the  European  conflict,  like  the  rock  of  Gibraltar,  was  always  there. 

Following  that  February  mass  meeting  at  the  Auditorium  the  preparedness  campaign  went 
through  three  months  of  desultory  firing,  but  ever  advancing.  The  plans  of  the  League  came  to 
a  splendid  fruition  with  great  force  and  volume  in  June  and  out  of  a  clear  sky,  at  a  time  and  in  a 
manner  which  none  of  those  originally  in  the  movement  had  anticipated ! 

A.  Conger  Goodyear,  son  of  Charles  W.  Goodyear,  forester,  lumber  king,  railroad  president 
and  a  founder  of  the  Pan-American  Exposition,  was  chosen  Marshal  for  a  parade  to  be  held  on 
June  24th.  He  in  turn  had  selected  Ansley  W.  Sawyer,  a  local  guardsman,  for  chief  of  staff,  and, 
with  their  co-workers,  they  assisted  Mr.  Hollister's  League  in  arousing  the  commercial,  profes- 
sional, industrial,  religious  and  civic  organizations  to  joining  in  a  monster  preparedness  parade. 
Buffalo  had  not  then  grown  more  intei'ested  in  the  overseas  struggle.  We  were  going  along  our 
war-listless  way,  concerned  deeply  with  our  own  affairs,  taking  a  look  now  and  then  at  Europe, 
perhaps  to  see  who  was  ahead,  or  what  new  and  devilish  implement  of  warfare  the  Hohenzollern 
war  party  had  devised.  In  May,  and  possibly  June,  Bufl^alo  joked  about  the  coming  prepared- 
ness parade.  There  was  no  hostility  to  it,  but  no  genuine  feeling  that  such  a  thing  was  necessary. 
Some  may  have  felt  otherwise,  but  not  the  masses.  It  received  considerable  notice  in  the  news- 
papers. Probably  the  versatile  press  agent  was  at  work.  Leaders  in  the  industries  organized 
their  shops.  Clergymen  of  all  faiths  gave  cordial  support.  The  Rev.  Thomas  J.  Walsh,  then 
chancellor  of  the  Catholic  Diocese  of  Buffalo,  announced  that  50  priests  of  that  faith  would  march 
in  the  parade,  and  the  Rev.  Cameron  J.  Davis,  representing  the  Protestant  clergymen  of  the  city, 
made  a  somewhat  similar  announcement.  The  spirit  of  the  thing  was  growing  rapidly.  On 
June  7th,  at  a  meeting  of  the  new  city  government.  Councilman  John  F.  Malone  offered  the 
following  resolution : 

"Resolved,  That  Saturday,  June  24th,  1916,  from  noon  until  midnight  be,  and  is  hereby  declared  a  civic  holiday 
within  the  limits  of  the  city  of  Buffalo." 

The  resolution  was  adopted  with  the  approval  of  Councilmen  Heald,  Hill,  Kreinheder  and 
Malone.     Mayor  Fuhrmann  was  absent. 

A  few  days  after  that  meeting,  Marshal  Goodyear  announced  his  complete  staff  for  the  parade, 
and  the  following  order  of  formation  and  the  names  of  the  division  marshals: 

Squad  of  Mounted  Police;  Marshal  of  Parade  and  Staff;  Mayor  and  Council  of  the  City  of  Buffalo;  74th  Regi- 
ment N.  G.  N.  Y.;  65th  Regiment  N.  G.  N.  Y.;  Troop  I,  First  Cavalry,  N.  G.  N.  Y.;  Naval  Militia;  U.  S.  Army 
Detail;  Aero  Squadron;  Spanish  War  Veterans;  U.  S.  S.  Marine  Post  73. 

SECTION    1 

Clergymen's  Division 

Rev.  Thomas  J.  Walsh,  Rev.  Cameron  J.  Davis,  Marshals. 

County  and  City  Employees,  George  C.  Diehl,  Marshal;  Federal  Employees,  George  Bleistein,  Marshal;  Retail 
Merchants,  Herbert  A.  Meldrum,  Marshal;  Furniture  Division,  Laurens  Enos,  Marshal;  Insurance  Division,  Frank 
W.  Fiske,  Marshal;  Real  Estate  Division,  F.  W.  Kilhoffer,  Marshal;  Jewelers'  Division,  Edward  A.  Eisele,  Marshal; 
Traveling  Men's  Division,  A.  J.  Fitzgibbons,  Marshal;  Hardware  Division,  George  Walbridge,  Marshal;  Wholesale 
Grocers  and  Produce,  Frank  E.  Wattles,  Marshal;  Boot  and  Shoe  Division,  William  H.  Walker,  Marshal:  Platts- 
burg  Training  Camp  Division,  George  H.  Field,  Marshal;  Buffalo  Infantry  Association,  Montford  Ryan, 
Marshal. 


38 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 


SECTION    2 

Public  Utilities  and  Heating.  Charles  R.  Huntley,  Marshal;  Bankers  and  Brokers,  Edward  W.  Dunn,  Marshal; 
Iron  and  Steel,  Charles  McCullough,  Jr.,  Marshal;  Women's  Division,  Mrs.  Frank  W.  Fiske,  Jr.,  Marshal;  Trans- 
portation Division,  William  Elmer,  Marshal. 

SECTION    3 

Auto  Manufacturers,  George  K.  Birge,  Marshal;  Sheet  Metal,  L.  R.  Cooper,  Marshal;  Aeroplanes,  Glenn  H.  Cur- 
tiss.  Marshal;  Lancaster  Division,  August  Blangden,  Marshal;  Coal  Trade  Division,  Major  Louis  H.  EUer,  Mar- 
shal; Fine  Arts,  Duane  S.  Lyman,  Marshal;  Engineers,  John  Younger,  Marshal;  Doctors,  Dr.  Charles  Cary,  Marshal; 
Dentists,  J.  Wright  Beach,  Marshal;  Stationary  Engineers,  John  W.  McGillvray,  Marshal;  Packers,  Jacob  C.  Dold, 
Marshal;  Machinery,  Charles  P.  Devine.  Marshal:  Baking  Division,  James  B.  Dwyer.  Marshal;  Soap  Manufactur- 
ers, John  D.  Larkin,  Jr  ,  Marshal;  Rubber  Manufacturers.  Herbert  H.  Hewitt,  Marshal. 

SECTION    4 

Law-yers,  Louis  L.  Babcock,  Marshal;  Newspapers,  Edward  H.  Butler,  Marshal;  Auto  Trade,  Mason  B.  Hatch, 
Marshal;  Paint,  Oil  and  Varnish,  F.  W.  Robinson,  Marshal;  Druggists.  W.  H.  Reiman,  Marshal;  College  and  School 
Division,  Mark  Hopkins.  Marshal;  Heating  and  Plumbing.  H.  J.  Rente,  Marshal;  Milling  Division,  Frank  F. 
Henry,  Marshal:  Foundries.  William  H.  Barr,  Marshal;  Building  and  Trades.  Ballard  I.  Crooker,  Marshal;  Lumber 
Division,  Maurice  M.  Wall,  Marshal;  Wallboard,  Wallpaper  and  Paper  Boxes,  William  F.  MacGlashan,  Marshal; 
Engine  and  Boilermakers'  Division,  David  Bell.  Marshal;  Graphic  Arts  Division,  David  L.  Johnson,  Marshal: 
Brewing  Division,  Col.  John  L.  Schwartz.  Marshal:  Aniline  Dyes  Divison,  C.  P.  Hugo  Schoellkopf,  Marshal;  Petro- 
leum Division,  Horace  P.  Chamberlain,  Marshal;  Chemical,  Reginald  S.  Richards,  Marshal;  Wholesale  Drygoods, 
Joseph  A.  McColl,  Marshal:  Milk  Products,  Edward  C.  Sutton,  Marshal;  Clothing  Manufacturers,  Benjamin 
Hirsch,  Marshal;  Leather,  Henry  C.  Zeller.  Marshal:  Men  s  Preparedness  Battalion,  Henry  P.  Werner,  Marshal; 
A.  C.  Goodyear,  Grand  Marshal;  Ansley  W.  Sawyer,  Chief  of  Staff. 

Saturday,  June  24th,  1916,  was  a  bright,  hot,  summer  day.  The  morning  was  clear.  Very 
early  everybody  in  the  city  was  astir  with  a  desire  either  to  participate  in  the  parade  or  to  secure 
a  desirable  spot  from  which  to  view  it.     The  street  urchins  were  at  their  vantage  points  at  dawn. 


Buffalo's  Preparedness  Parade,  June,  IHlti 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War  39 

At  noon  the  pavement  was  giving  off  a  glow,  and  the  throng  on  the  west  side  of  the  street  was 
steaming.  Main  Street  crowded  up  early  and  the  marching  bands  and  squads,  seeking  their 
place  of  formation,  animated  traffic  in  the  downtown  part  of  the  city.  Shortly  before  2  o'clock 
every  division  was  at  its  appointed  post.  Some  of  them  did  not  leave  for  hours,  so  gi'eat  was 
the  number  of  patriotic  men  and  women  who  turned  out.  Buffalo  at  that  moment  was  but 
one  of  a  hundred  or  more  American  cities  whose  citizens  were  in  line  to  step  forth  at  2  o'clock 
as  a  signal  to  Washington  that  the  masses  of  America  demanded  an  adequate  degree  of  prepared- 
ness for  home  defense  in  the  United  States. 

The  parade  started  exactly  at  2  o'clock.  The  last  division  filed  past  the  reviewing  stand  in 
Lafayette  Square  at  5.15  o'clock,  and  the  pageant  had  passed  into  history.  It  was  generally 
acknowledged  at  that  time  and  since  to  have  been  the  greatest  patriotic  procession  Buffalo  had 
ever  seen.  The  G.  A.  R.  Encampment  pageant  of  1897,  which  was  graced  by  the  presence  of  the 
martyred  President  William  McKinley,  and  the  departure  of  the  1.3th  U.  S.  Infantry,  U.  S.  Army 
regulars,  from  Fort  Porter  at  the  opening  of  the  Spanish-American  war,  are  the  only  former 
marching  spectacles  that  were  mentioned,  or  might  be  mentioned,  in  comparison.  The  flame 
of  patriotism  lit  by  that  June  day  procession  blazed,  and  the  city  glowed  for  days  and  weeks 
thereafter;  in  fact,  fi'om  the  fervor  of  that  academic  moment,  the  city  stepped  into  the  realities 
of  war  holding  that  torch  still  lit  and  burning  with  increasing  radiance: 

"/  pledge  allegiance  to  my  flay  and  to  the  Republic  for  which  it  stands  —  one  nation,  indivisible;  with  liberty  and 
justice  for  all." 

In  those  lines  might  be  found  the  keynote  of  the  day.  It  tells  all  there  is  to  be  said;  yet,  as 
they  left  the  ranks  of  marchers,  drenched  from  the  heavy  downpour  more  than  once  encountered, 
men  and  women  little  realized  how  near  the  day  when  the  nation,  involved  in  the  greatest  war 
of  history,  would  exact  the  fulfillment  of  that  pledge. 

In  the  light  of  after  events,  the  parade  spelled  a  momentous  day  in  Buffalo's  history.  It  will 
stand  in  the  memory  of  Buffalonians  of  that  period  as  a  demonstration  of  an  Americanism  that 
knew  no  difference  of  race  or  creed — an  Americanism  single  in  its  devotion  to  the  Stars  and  Stripes. 
The  watchword  of  the  march  was  preparedness  for  the  nation;  the  transcendent  idea  was  an 
adequate  defense  for  home  and  institutions.  It  was  Buffalo's  shot  heard  round  the  State.  Abso- 
lute and  unqualified  consecration  to  the  nation  was  mirrored  in  eveiy  man  and  woman  in  the 
procession  and  on  the  walks,  Hats  were  flying,  banners  waving,  and  from  a  hundred  thousand 
throats  came  an  almost  constant  cheer.  For  every  man  and  woman  in  the  parade,  two  had  taken 
their  place  on  the  sidewalks  on  both  sides  of  Main  Street  between  Exchange  and  Summer  streets. 
The  martial  music  of  the  bands  kept  hearts  atune.  Men  and  women  sang  the  old  songs  of  the 
Republic : 

"My  Country,  'tis  of  Thee, 
Sweet  land  of  Liberty, 
Of  Thee  I  sing." 

And  the  younger  folk,  catching  the  spirit  of  the  day,  joined  in  the  singing: 

"America,  I  lone  you. 
You  are  a  sweetheart  of  mine. 
From  ocean  to  ocean, 
For  you  my  devotion 
Is  touching  each  boundary  line — 

And  there's  a  hundred  million 
others  like  me." 

The  military  division  gave  the  keynote  to  the  spirit  of  the  day.  It  touched  every  last  pulse- 
beat  of  patriotism  in  every  one  of  the  thousands  in  the  street.  The  infantrymen  stirred  the  hope 
that  America  might  be  so  well  safeguarded  by  a  volunteer  force  throughout  the  land  that  its 
preparedness  might  remove  even  the  temptation  fi'om  any  power  to  infringe  on  the  rights  or  the 
ideals  of  the  Republic. 


40  Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 

Rain  started  at  2.50  o'clock  while  the  parade  was  in  motion.  For  several  minutes  before  that 
the  storm  clouds  were  banking  the  sky  with  the  black  threat  of  rain.  The  breeze  that  stirred 
the  waste  paper  in  the  street  and  whipped  the  flags  from  store  windows  was  a  grateful  visitor 
among  the  throng  in  the  sweltering  street.  Then  the  rain!  Everyone  scampered  for  the  shelter 
of  awning  and  store  front.  Streets  which  had  been  jammed  to  suffocation  were  cleared  in  a 
minute.  But  the  marchers  continued.  Umbrellas  were  raised  in  the  line  and  on  them  the 
heavy  raindrops  spattered  and  bounded.  The  rain  raced  up  the  street  in  a  downpour  that 
drenched  marchers  and  spectators  to  the  skin.  For  twenty  minutes  the  downpour  continued. 
The  marchers  continued  also,  laughing  and  chaffing  each  other,  waving  their  flags  above  their 
heads  and  shouting  out  their  enthusiasm.     The  rain  passed. 

When  the  women's  section  came  along,  everyone  wondered  whei'e  the  women  could  have  hidden 
during  the  downpour.  For  they  came  in  spotless  white  of  dress  and  waist,  unrumpled,  certainly 
not  damp  enough  to  cling  to  their  arms.  The  women's  section  was,  next  to  the  military  division, 
the  most  impressive  of  the  parade.  From  the  dense  black  of  the  men's  divisions,  distinguished 
by  the  yellow  of  straw  hats  and  the  red  of  the  flags,  the  street  for  a  mile  back  gave  way  to  a  seeth- 
ing stream  of  white. 

The  store  and  building  fronts  burst,  it  seemed,  into  a  waving  flag  of  flags  as  far  as  the  eye  could 
see.  There  was  unstinted  applause.  Mrs.  John  Miller  Horton  marched  at  the  head  of  the  divi- 
sion.    Women  carried  flags  which  the  breeze  straightened  out. 

After  it  had  all  passed  and  the  eventful  day  was  done  it  was  found  that  all  eyes  were  focused 
on  Mexico.  What  began  in  an  effort  to  arouse  the  nation  to  the  fear  of  Germany  and  a  proffer 
of  help  to  France  and  Great  Britain  ended  with  all  eyes  on  the  Mexican  border.  We  still  were 
unaware  of  the  proximity  of  that  European  struggle. 

An  editorial  in  The  Courier  of  Sunday,  June  25,  1916,  the  day  following  the  parade,  indicated 
very  clearly  the  trend  of  the  public  mind : 

"Buffalo  never  before  witnessed  such  a  parade  of  its  men  and  women,  or  offered  so  grand  an  exhibit.  The  weather 
conditions  were  not  such  as  were  wished,  but  they  could  not  dampen  the  public  enthusiasm.  Hour  after  hour  the 
columns  moved  in  files  on  the  Main  Street  pavement's  full  width,  amid  a  multitude  of  bands  and  flags  innumerable. 
It  was  a  glorious  demonstration  of  the  love  of  our  people  for  their  country  and  of  their  unity  of  purpose  that  protec- 
tion shall  be  made  for  its  defense. 

"When  the  preparedness  parade  was  planned,  no  emergency  was  immediately  in  view.  The  thought  was  that 
the  nation  should  be  put  in  readiness  for  danger  the  future  might  bring.  It  was  a  somewhat  abstract  provision,  pro- 
moted by  experiences  other  countries  have  undergone.  Suddenly  the  matter  of  our  difficult  relations  with  Mexico 
had  developed,  bringing  war  in  view  as  almost  a  certainty.  The  National  Guard  is  under  arms.  Our  Buffalo 
regiments  are  in  expectation  of  being  sent  away.  A  wider  call  to  the  colors  may  be  sounded  by  the  Government 
soon,  and  if  a  voluntary  army  must  be  raised  immediately,  regiments  can  be  recruited  from  the  tens  of  thousands  of 
splendid  young  men  who  yesterday  swelled  the  marching  throng  in  defense  of  the  flag. 

"The  parade  was  not  intended  for  the  cultivation  of  militarism  in  a  nation  of  which  the  greatness  has  been  obtained 
through  the  arts  and  industries  of  peace;  but  yesterday  something  of  the  war  spirit  has  been  incited  by  Mexican 
insults  and  atrocities.  We  wished  to  help  Mexico  out  of  social  and  economic  chaos,  but  it  has  bitten  the  hand  of 
kindness.  The  attacks  upon  American  border  towns,  and  lastly  the  apparent  killing  of  our  cavalrymen,  have  so 
filled  the  measure  of  offense  that  armed  intervention  may  be  unavoidable. 

"The  report  is  that  Carranza's  answer  to  the  last  communication  from  the  Government  of  the  United  States  will 
be  made  public  in  Mexico  City  to-day.  If  he  prefers  war  to  peace  with  this  power,  war  will  ensue — and,  if  so,  all 
America  will  throb  with  the  patriotic  fervor  which  yesterday  caused  the  pulse  of  Buffalo  to  quicken." 

On  Monday  morning  came  the  announcement  that  Major  General  Leonard  Wood,  commander 
of  the  Department  of  the  East,  had  received  from  Secretary  of  War  Baker  an  urgent  appeal  to 
start  for  the  border  at  once  some  of  the  militia  organizations  under  his  command.  On  Tuesday 
Troop  I  had  entrained,  and  the  rush  to  fill  up  the  65th  and  74th  regiments  was  rapidly  under  way. 
Buffalo's  military  men  were  headed  for  Mexico.  The  flame  of  the  preparedness  parade  carried 
the  city  into  the  plans  for  intervention  in  Mexico  with  patriotic  enthusiasm. 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 


41 


CHAPTER   VIII 
UNEQUIPPED    REGIMENTS    CALLED    TO    MEXICO 

IN  January,  1916,  the  government  developments  in  Mexico  indicated  a  more  or  less  serious 
situation  along  the  Mexican  border,  and  it  became  apparent  to  the  Federal  authorities  that 
both  Carranza,  the  head  of  the  Mexican  government,  and  Villa,  the  outlaw  chief,  were  bent 
on  deviltry.  On  the  surface  of  things,  Carranza  could  not  control  the  activities  of  the  Villa  army 
of  desperadoes,  but,  in  the  light  of  subsequent  events,  it  is  possible  that  Carranza  desired  no 
more  public  control  over  Villa's  acts  than  Kaiser  Wilhelm  over  the  murderous  operations  of  his 
submai'ine  commanders.  In  each  instance,  the  subordinates  were  going  about  their  villainous 
work  in  a  manner  not  entirely  unsatisfactory  to  their  superiors.  In  any  event,  the  trend  of 
affairs  on  our  Southern  border  through  the  Spring  of  1916  was  drawing  the  LTnited  States  closer 
daily  to  a  conflict  with  our  Mexican  neighbors. 

Depredations  along  the  frontier  became  insolent,  as  well  as  destructive,  and  the  lives  of  civilian 
residents  were  constantly  in  jeopardy. 

A  "speed  up"  order  about  that  time  set  the  local  mihtary  men  on  their  toes,  and,  as  soon  as  it 
appeared  reasonably  certain  that  the  militia  might  be  called  out  for  service  against  Mexico  there 
was  a  rustle  about  the  armories,  and  an  interest  in  soldierly  work  which  showed  that  the  men  in 
the  militia,  at  least,  were  anxious  and  ready  for  service  or  adventure. 

Mexican  intervention  to  most  people  then  seemed  for  all  the  world  like  a  miniature  war,  but 
it  became  apparent  the  trouble  would  not  end  until  the  United  States  stepped  in  and  administered 
a  spanking  to  the  outlaw  Villa  and  his  unruly  army.  The  problem  had  a  serious  aspect  as  well, 
for  the  mountainous  country  into  which  the  American  army  would  have  to  follow  the  Villa  forces 


,^ 


Troop  I  on  a  Practice  March 


42  Buffalo's  Part  in  the  \A'orld  War 

afforded  an  opportunity  to  the  Mexican  brigands  to  carry  on  the  sort  of  warfare  they  liked,  and 
would  have  endangered  the  lives  of  many  of  our  men.  But  the  time  had  come  for  intervention, 
and  the  proximity  of  the  trouble  gave  a  zest  to  it  that  put  the  country,  for  the  first  time  since  the 
Spanish-American  war,  into  a  military  stride.  Buffalo  military  men  who  rarely  wore  their 
uniforms  outside  the  armories  could  be  seen  on  the  streets  with  boot  and  spur.  Enlistment 
headquarters  sprang  up  on  street  corners.  The  local  commanders  sought  eagerly  to  fill  up  their 
regiments,  and,  with  the  arrival  of  Spring,  the  campaign  to  secure  recruits  was  under  a  full  head 
of  steam. 

While  we  were  thus  engaged  in  preparation  for  our  own  little  war,  the  depredations  of  the  Ger- 
man submarine  were  increasing  and  the  underseas  power  of  the  Central  Empires  became  menacing 
in  the  extreme.  England  and  France  had  begun  to  feel  the  serious  effect  of  this  attack  on  their 
source  of  supplies,  and  Germany  was  not  at  all  adverse  to  keeping  the  United  States  busily  en- 
gaged with  the  Mexican  problem.  It  was  subsequently  defijiitely  established  that  the  Mexi- 
can government  had  promises  of  assistance  from  the  German  government  so  that  the  trouble  we 
were  experiencing  in  Mexico  was  not  entirely  divorced  from  the  plans  of  the  German  Emperor 
in  his  quest  for  world  domination.  The  American  mind,  however,  had  not  centered  on  any  such 
thought  at  that  time.  Accordingly,  we  failed  to  put  the  two  together,  but  went  along  with  our 
Mexican  task  as  a  simple  proposition  between  ourselves  and  Mexico. 

As  the  Mexican  problem  had  been  brewing  before  the  Eui-opean  war  began  it  was  easy  to  con- 
sider it  as  an  affair  quite  apart  from  the  larger  struggle  overseas. 

Some  few  Americans  had  joined  the  Canadian  army  at  the  time  we  were  making  ready  to  head 
into  Mexico. 

Captain  William  J.  Donovan,  the  able  and  enthusiastic  commander  of  Troop  I,  First  Cavalry, 
had  gone  abroad  on  a  special  mission  for  the  Rockefeller  Foundation.  His  troop  was  one  of  the 
first  to  be  called  out  for  duty  on  the  Mexican  border. 

General  Pershing,  with  the  regulars,  was  well  on  his  way  into  Mexico  when  on  June  19th  Presi- 
dent Wilson  called  the  militia  into  Federal  service.  An  opportunity  was  afforded  the  guardsmen 
to  drop  out  if  they  did  not  wish  to  enter  the  national  muster.  Very  few  took  advantage  of  it, 
and  the  transformation  of  the  local  regiments  from  the  service  of  the  State  to  the  service  of  the 
Nation  took  substantially  the  entire  regiment  in  each  case.  The  Buffalo  regiments,  and,  pre- 
sumably all  others  through  the  State,  were  poorly  equipped.  An  example  of  the  lack  of  pre- 
paredness for  war  was  shown  by  an  order  which  then  came  to  Colonel  Wolf,  74th  Infantry,  direct- 
ing him  to  organize  a  machine  gun  company  in  his  regiment.  At  that  time  the  war  in  Europe 
had  been  raging  under  the  terrible  power  of  machine  gun  paraphernalia  for  two  years.  But  it 
was  all  so  far  from  us  that  no  serious  thought  had  been  given  to  the  proper  equipment  of  the 
militia.  There  was  not  a  machine  gun  companv  in  the  entire  national  guard  of  the  State  of  New 
York. 

The  Buffalo  Courier  of  June  25th,  in  giving  an  account  of  the  activity  in  local  military  circles, 
said: 

"Col.  Charles  .J.  Wolf  of  the  Seventy-Fourth  Regiment  was  ordered  last  night  to  organize  and  equip  a  machine 
gun  company,  which  means  the  command  will  go  to  Camp  Whitman  as  an  organization  of  thirteen  companies.  The 
order  was  telegraphed  to  Col.  Wolf  by  Major  General  John  F.  O'Ryan,  with  instructions  to  report  immediately  when 
the  company  had  been  organized  and  fully  equipped. 

"The  use  of  the  machine  gun  has  become  quite  an  important  factor  in  modern  warfare,  so  it  was  e.xplained  by 
officers  who  told  of  the  great  eflectiveness  of  the  weapon  in  the  European  war,  and  of  the  slaughter  recently  wrought 
by  Mexicans  who  turned  a  machine  gun  on  members  of  the  Tenth  United  States  Cavalry  at  Carrizal. 

"Although  many  machine  guns  are  in  use  in  the  United  States  Army,  few  of  the  national  guard  organizations 
have  them,  and  the  order  of  General  O'Ryan  is  taken  here  to  indicate  that  similar  instructions  will  be  given  to  other 
New  York  State  regiments  and,  perhaps,  to  militia  units  in  every  section  of  the  country." 

About  that  time,  both  local  regiments  were  found  to  be  short  of  uniforms  and  other  equipment 
for  the  new  men,  and  the  commanders  were  notified  that  no  more  would  be  shipped  to  Buffalo. 
Old  uniforms,  long  since  discarded,  were  drawn  out  of  the  lockers.    The  more  fortunate  recruits 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  ^^'AR 


43 


74th  Regiment  at  Drill 

Colonel  Kemp  and  officers  marching  by  in  review 

became  the  proud  possessors  of  these.  The  regiments  lacked,  also,  an  adequate  number  of  guns, 
but  it  was  understood,  and  afterward  assured,  that  a  further  shipment  of  supplies  would  go  to 
the  men  in  camp.  In  addition  to  the  fact  that  our  militia  was,  in  the  first  instance,  far  below 
war  strength,  and,  secondly,  that  we  had  no  machine  gun  companies,  it  was  also  apparent  we  had 
no  sufficient  hospital  force,  no  balloon  companies,  no  hand  grenades,  no  trench  mortars,  no  tanks, 
no  air  force,  and  not  any  of  the  steel  helmets,  which  later  saved  thousands  of  lives  in  Europe.  We 
had  no  thought  of  war,  and  we  were  therefore  not  equipped  for  war. 


44  Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 


CHAPTER  IX 

TROOP    I    OFF    TO    BORDER— COLONELS    WOLF    AND 
BABCOCK   RELIEVED 

TROOP  I  alone  of  the  Buffalo  military  units  seemed  to  be  at  war  strength,  and,  accordingly, 
was  the  first  contingent  to  get  under  way.  The  echoes  of  the  preparedness  parade  of 
Saturday,  June  24th,  had  hardly  died  away  when  the  cavalrymen  were  assembling  pre- 
paratory to  leaving.  The  troop  train  was  pulled  in  on  a  switch  in  Northland  Avenue  where  the 
railroad  men  had  been  in  the  habit  of  shunting  circus  trains  when  circus  day  came  around.  To 
the  small  boy  the  occasion  may  have  seemed  like  a  circus  day.  The  crowd  was  there,  and  the 
excitement.  The  irrepressible  vender  of  buttons  and  flags  and  toy  balloons  was  present,  and 
the  peanut  man,  with  his  fresh-roasted  supply,  was  not  to  be  denied  the  opportunity.  It  was 
a  more  serious  occasion,  however,  to  the  parents  and  friends  of  the  boys,  who  pushed  through 
the  throng  to  implant  a  parting  kiss  or  give  the  last  parental  word  of  advice.  The  boys  were 
going  away  on  serious  business.  Therefore  it  was  a  serious  occasion.  But  it  developed  that 
the  serious  business  was  not  to  come  on  that  trip.  Nor  from  the  direction  in  which  they  were 
then  headed. 

Members  of  the  74th  and  the  65th  regiments  had  been  growing  impatient  over  the  delay  in 
their  orders.  Only  one  company  in  the  two  regiments — Company  I  of  the  65th,  composed  almost 
entirely  of  men  of  Polish  descent — was  at  full  war  strength.  Some  of  the  other  regiments  in  the 
State  at  full  war  strength,  or  nearly  so,  had  already  left  for  the  border.  In  an  eleventh  hour 
effort  to  stir  the  patriotism  of  the  young  men  of  the  city  and  possibly  induce  them  to  enlist, 
Brigadier  General  William  Wilson  of  the  Fourth  Brigade,  Colonel  Wolf  and  Colonel  Babcock 
issued  personal  appeals  for  recruits.  The  appeals  were  issued  on  June  27th,  the  morning  follow- 
ing the  departure  of  Troop  I.  General  Wilson  said:  "It  is  disappointing  that  Buffalo  has  not 
given  us  more  men.  In  fact,  the  whole  country  has  shown  slowness  to  respond,  but  there  is  a 
contrast  between  Buffalo  and  the  smaller  towns  in  this  brigade  district.  The  Third  moves  out 
to-night  with  a  regiment  practically  at  war  strength.  Many  companies  have  more  than  war 
strength  and  many  men  are  listed  in  class  A  of  the  depot  company. 

"For  the  week  ending  June  17th  the  two  Buffalo  regiments  had  approximately  750  officers 
and  men  each  and  needed,  in  round  figures,  about  1,950  men  each.  That  would  show  that  they 
still  have  to  enlist  about  2,400  men  to  complete  the  two  regiments. 

"To-day  the  Buffalo  regiments  have,  in  round  figures,  about  1,000  men  apiece.  They  have 
raised  few  more  than  500  men  between  them.  We  greatly  appreciate  efforts  that  have  been  put 
forward  by  officers  and  public-spirited  citizens,  but  the  result  has  been  only  about  one-fifth  of 
what  we  started  out  to  accomplish." 

The  appeals  of  the  regimental  officers,  the  spirit  engendered  by  the  preparedness  parade  and 
the  excitement  attendant  upon  the  departure  of  Troop  I  all  tended  to  a  further  upbuilding  of  the 
two  regiments.  Throughout  that  week  there  was  a  splendid  improvement.  At  the  height  of  the 
campaign,  and  in  the  midst  of  the  enthusiasm  over  preparations  for  departure,  an  order  came 
from  Albany  relieving  Colonel  Babcock  from  command  of  the  65th  and  Colonel  Wolf  from  the 
command  of  the  74th.  Immediately  the  two  regiments  were  pitched  into  a  gloom  from  which 
they  were  slow  in  emerging.  It  would  be  of  little  material  value  to  recount  here  the  charges  and 
counter  charges  which  went  back  and  forth  over  this  order.  It  was  a  keen  disappointment  to 
the  members  of  both  regiments.  The  new  commanders  were  not  residents  of  Buffalo.  Whether 
justly  or  not  it  was  assumed  that  official  favoritism  was  responsible  for  their  presence.  The 
enlisted  men  proved  good  soldiers,  however,  and,  when  the  orders  came  for  their  departure,  they 
accepted  the  new  conditions  with  good  heart,  marching  away  with  a  determination  to  do  their 
bit  faithfully  and  fully.     Colonel  N.  B.  Thurston,  who  was  given  command  of  the  74th  Regiment, 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 


45 


died  at  McAllen,  Texas,  on  January  15th,  1917.  Colonel  Daniel  W.  Hand  of  the  Regular  Army 
succeeded  to  the  command  of  the  65th  Regiment.  He  remained  with  the  regiment  through  the 
border  campaign  and  foi"  a  short  time  after  the  return  from  the  border.  Orders  having  been 
issued  to  transform  the  65th  into  an  artillery  regiment,  the  Hasten  Street  men  as  they  were 
known,  were  mobilized  on  the  19th  of  .June  and  left  Buffalo  on  .June  28th.  They  arrived  at 
Camp  Whitman,  Peekskill,  N.  Y.,  the  following  day.  On  July  10th  they  were  changed  into  a  field 
artillery  unit,  but  were  not  mustered  into  the  Federal  service  until  August  5th,  and  did  not  leave 
Camp  Whitman  for  the  border  until  early  in  October.  While  in  Texas  the  regiment  was  sta- 
tioned at  McAllen.  The  74th  received  entrainment  orders  from  Major  General  Wood  on  July 
4th.  The  regiment  had  been  Federalized  on  July  1st  and  left  Buffalo  for  Pharr,  Texas,  on  July 
5th,  being  moved  to  McAllen  on  .January  12th,  1917. 


Buffalo  National  Guardsmen  Training  for  Service 


The  Mexican  campaign  was  neither  exciting  nor  exacting.  The  camp  was  situated  badly 
and  the  men  endured  much  bad  weather  and  general  discomfort,  but  they  took  it  without  com- 
plaint. Strenuous  drilling  and  severity  of  discipline  that  winter  returned  the  regiment  to  Buffalo 
a  body  of  regulars,  which  later  were  used  as  shock  troops  in  France.  Before  the  end  of  the  year 
it  was  apparent  that  the  government  would  not  need  an  army  for  the  Mexican  task,  as  the  Mexi- 
cans themselves  were  inclined  to  return  to  peaceful  relations  with  this  country,  though  German 
intriguers  were  still  at  work  on  both  sides  of  the  Rio  Grande. 


46  Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 


CHAPTER  X 
GERMANY'S    FIRST    PEACE    PROPOSAL 

EARLY  in  January,  1916,  criticism — mild  criticism  some  may  say — was  aimed  at  President 
Wilson  for  his  failure  to  do  more  than  merely  parley  with  the  German  government.  Theo- 
dore Roosevelt,  former  President,  at  least  was  rather  sharp  in  his  censures  of  the  Presi- 
dent's policy,  but,  while  that  agitation  tended  to  a  growth  of  the  war  spirit  in  some  sections  of 
the  Nation,  there  was  still  no  widespread  desire  to  take  part  in  the  conflict  abroad.  The  tradi- 
tion of  non-interference  in  the  poHtical  affairs  of  Europe  was  too  deeply  rooted  in  our  national 
life  to  be  easily  overthrown.  The  first  consideration,  we  were  told,  which  stiffened  the  govern- 
ment in  its  efforts  to  remain  neutral  was  the  traditional  sense  of  responsibility  toward  all  the 
republics  to  the  south  of  us.  The  American  government  was  constantly  in  touch  with  the  coun- 
tries of  Central  and  South  America.  They,  too,  we  were  told,  preferred  the  ways  of  peace.  The 
authorities  in  Washington  felt  a  very  obvious  obligation  to  safeguard  the  interests  of  those  coun- 
tries with  our  own.  The  second  consideration,  often  developed  in  the  President's  speeches,  was 
the  hope  and  expectation  that  by  keeping  aloof  from  the  entanglements  and  bitter  passions  of 
the  involved  nations  we  might  be  free  at  the  end  of  the  war  to  tender  our  good  offices  and  bind 
up  the  wounds  of  the  conflict. 

It  was  becoming  daily  more  evident,  however,  that  the  German  government  was  not  keeping 
faith  in  its  promised  submarine  policy,  and  its  aggressiveness  and  indifference  to  the  rights  of  our 
citizens  must  have  convinced  the  President  that  if  we  were  to  continue  to  remain  neutral  even 
in  this  war  some  further  steps  must  be  taken.  Accordingly,  he  began  the  preparation  of  a  note 
to  be  addressed  to  the  warring  nations  asking  them  to  define  their  war  purposes  and  aims. 

Before  that  note  was  despatched  the  first  German  peace  offer  was  promulgated.  That  move 
came  as  a  surprise.  Germany  had  met  with  defeat  at  the  Marne  in  the  early  stages  of  its  invasion 
of  France,  but  the  decisiveness  of  the  military  sequel,  as  seen  in  the  retrospect  of  that  December 
moment,  was  open  to  question.  At  the  time  of  its  peace  offering  Germany  was  in  rather  a  strong 
position.*  The  note  was  despatched  on  December  12th  and  brought  a  somewhat  prevalent  belief 
that  the  looked-for  conclusion  of  wasteful  and  cruel  and  unnecessary  war  had  perhaps  arrived. 
But  underlying  the  proffer  was  further  evidence  of  German  trickery  and  deceit.  It  viewed  the 
struggle  as  a  "catastrophe,"  and  an  injury  to  the  "most  precious  achievements  of  humanity," 
but  it  also  carried  the  conviction  that  the  peace  terms  must  be  such  as  would  build  up  a  great 
Central  Empire  under  German  domination. 

It  was  reported  that  unofficial  word  came  to  Washington  that  unless  the  neutrals  used  their 
influence  to  bring  the  war  to  an  end  on  terms  satisfactory  to  Berlin,  Germany  would  consider 
herself  and  her  allies  free  to  make  such  warfare  as  she  chose  without  respect  to  the  rights  of 


*The  first  official  proposal  for  peace  came  from  Germany,  at  the  close  of  the  year  1916,  at  a  time  when,  in  Germany's  eyes,  victory  for  her  army 
was  already  at  hand.  In  the  west  the  Allies  had  no  more  than  held  the  German  line:  while  in  the  east  the  Central  Powers  had  gained  the  aid  of 
Turkey  and  Bulgaria,  had  overrun  Poland,  Serbia,  Roumania,  and  had  inflicted  serious  reverses  upon  the  British  in  Mesopotamia.  The  Italians 
were  advancing  towards  Trieste,  and  the  sea  was  cleared  of  German  merchant  ships;  but  during  the  first  two  years  then  closing,  the  fortunes  of 
war  were  decidedly  with  Germany  and  her  allies.  Under  these  circumstances  the  German  Government  offered  to  discuss  peace,  confident  that 
if  the  Allies  accepted  the  offer  she  could  get  what  she  wanted,  while  if  they  refused  it,  it  could  be  made  to  appear  that  they  were  responsible  for 
prolonging  the  conflict. 

The  offer  was  contained  in  a  note  dated  December  12,  1916,  and  forwarded  to  the  belligerents  through  the  neutral  powers,  Spain,  Switzerland, 
■  and  the  United  States.     The  essential  paragraph  of  the  note  is  the  following: 

Our  aims  are  not  to  shatter  nor  annihilate  our  adversaries.     In  spite  of  our  consciousness  of  our  military  and  economic  strength 
and  our  readiness  to  continue  the  war  (which  has  been  forced  upon  us)  to  the  bitter  end,  if  necessary;  at  the  same  time,  prompted  by 
the  desire  to  avoid  further  bloodshed  and  make  an  end  of  the  atrocities  of  war,  the  four  allied  (Central)  Powers  propose  to  enter  forth- 
with into  peace  negotiations. 
In  the  note  which  the  German  Government  sent  at  the  same  time  to  the  Pope,  its  aims  were  expressed  as  follows: 

Germany  is  carrying  on  a  war  of  defense  against  her  enemies,  which  aim  at  her  destruction.     She  fights  to  assure  the  integrity  of 
her  frontiers  and  the  liberty  of  the  German  nation,  for  the  right  which  she  cfeims  to   develop  freely   her  intellectual  and  economic 
energies  in  peaceable  competition  and  on  an  equal  footing  with  other  nations. 
Such  an  offer,  clearly  could  have  been  made  only  by  those  who  felt  that  they  had  the  upper  hand.     It  was  not  an  offer  of  terms,  but  an  offer 
to  stop  the  war  on  condition  that  the  Allies  should  signify  a  willingness  to  accept  such  terms  as  Germany  might  propose.     For  the  Entente  to  have 
accepted  the  offer  of  a  peace  conference  under  the  circumstances  would  have  been    equivalent    to    an    "unconditional   surrender"    to    Ger- 
many. 

The  formal  reply  to  the  German  offer  was  contained  in  a  joint  note  of  all  the  .\llied  Governments,  December  30,  1916.  The  .\llies  refused  to 
consider  "a  proposal  which  is  empty  and  insincere." — U'ar  BuTfon  Comiiiilht\ 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War  47 

neutral  or  non-belligerent  nations.  It  became  apparent  that  Germany's  purpose  was  to  unleash 
her  submarines,  and  it  is  evident  that  the  whole  peace  movement  was  conceived  with  the  idea 
that  it  would  be  refused  and  thus  give  to  the  German  government  an  excuse  before  its  own  people 
to  justify  open  submarine  warfare  on  the  ships  and  citizens  of  the  United  States.  It  is  difficult 
to  conceive  of  any  other  purpose  in  the  peace  proposal.  Germany  at  that  moment  was  at  the 
height  of  her  military  power  and  knew  her  advantage. 

It  was  at  this  stage  that  President  Wilson  addressed  a  note  to  the  belligerent  nations.  The 
note  was  dated  December  18,  1916— that  is  to  say,  six  days  after  the  German  proposal  for  a  peace 
conference  was  issued;  but  the  note  had  been  written,  or  at  least  determined  upon,  before  that 
date,  and  the  President  was  careful  to  say  that  his  action  was  in  no  way  associated  with  the  over- 
tures of  the  Central  Powers.  In  his  note  the  President  pointed  out  that  each  side  professed  to 
be  fighting  a  defensive  war;  each  side  professed  to  be  the  champion  of  small  nations;  each  side 
professed  to  be  "ready  to  consider  the  formation  of  a  League  of  nations  to  ensure  peace  and  justice 
throughout  the  world." 

Thus  the  objects  for  which  both  sides  wei'e  fighting,  "stated  in  general  terms  *  *  *  seem  to 
be  the  same."  The  President  felt  justified  therefore  in  asking  the  belligerent  powers  if  it  would 
not  be  possible  for  them  to  avow  the  "precise  objects  which  would,  if  attained,  satisfy  them  and 
their  people."  The  President  felt  justified  in  making  this  request,  because  the  United  States 
was  "as  vitally  and  directly  interested  as  the  governments  now  at  war"  in  the  "measures  to  be 
taken  to  secure  the  future  peace  of  the  world." 

This  note  had  a  double  significance.  It  assumed  that  something  more  was  necessary  for  as- 
suring "the  future  peace  of  the  world"  than  the  mere  negotiation  of  particular  peace  treaties  be- 
tween belligerents:  and  it  asserted  that  in  this  larger  question  the  United  States  would  have 
something  to  say.  The  note  amounted  to  saying  that  the  war  ought  to  result,  not  merely  in 
the  establishment  of  a  satisfactory  peace  between  the  belligerents,  but  in  the  establishment  of 
a  new  international  order  in  which  all  nations  would  take  part. 

The  President  on  December  18th  despatched  his  note  to  the  belligerent  countries  asking  for 
their  war  aims,  and  the  year  closed  with  the  Republic  very  near  to  war  with  Germany  and  the 
people  wholly  unaware  of  the  fact.  The  German  peace  note  had  created  a  new  somnolence.  We 
still  believed  that  even  a  declai'ation  of  war  could  not  take  us  into  war;  that  in  its  gravest  aspect 
our  utmost  function  as  a  belligerent  would  be  in  despatching  food  and  ammunition  to  the  Allies. 


48  BuFPALo's  Part  in  the  World  War 


CHAPTER  XI 

MAYOR'S    AMERICANIZATION    COMMITTEE    AT    WORK 

IAUNCHING  the  preparedness  movement  in  this  city,  as  in  other  American  cities,  had  been 
.  no  easy  task.  In  some  cities,  notably  Chicago,  the  effort  had  wholly  failed.  People  were 
-^  not  afraid  of  war,  because  they  could  not  conceive  how  war  was  to  come  to  them.  They 
laughed  at  war's  alarm.  They  smiled  when  public  speakers  talked  of  war.  The  only  reason 
they  gave  ear  to  preparedness  orators  was  the  good  old  American  practice  of  trying  everything 
once.  Here  and  there,  however,  the  thought  took  root.  Interested  men,  at  various  times 
throughout  the  year  of  1916,  advanced  propositions  looking  to  better  preparation  for  national 
defense  in  the  event  of  war.  The  preparedness  parade,  referred  to  in  a  preceding  chapter,  was 
of  that  sort,  but  the  Mexican  intervention  absorbed  all  the  effect  of  those  movements,  and  what 
had  been  conceived  as  a  general  awakening  of  the  people  to  the  possibility  of  war  with  a  European 
belligerent  went  with  the  national  guard  to  the  border. 

As  the  Mexican  situation  began  to  straighten  itself  out,  and  the  soldiers  once  more  faced  to- 
wards home,  the  masses,  content  with  our  military  display,  were  inclined  to  dismiss  from  their 
thoughts  all  consideration  of  preparedness  plans  and  return  again  to  their  usual  peaceful  pursuits. 
That  practice,  however,  they  were  not  long  to  follow;  for  the  activity  of  the  German  submarines 
on  the  ocean  highways,  the  constant  German  aggressions  against  the  rights  of  neutral  nations, 
and  the  continual  agitation  on  the  part  of  a  small  body  of  patriotic  Americans,  like  a  hundred 
Paul  Reveres  dashing  along  with  lantern  and  cry,  succeeded  in  holding  the  country,  against  its 
own  wish,  to  the  urgent  need  for  better  national  defense. 

The  establishment  of  the  National  Security  League  was  followed  by  the  organization  of  the 
National  Conference  of  Mayors,  the  Conference  of  Constructive  Patriotism,  The  American  De- 
fense Society,  an  organization  for  the  promotion  of  Americanism  in  factory  and  school,  and,  per- 
haps, many  others.  Branches  of  those  mentioned  were  established  here,  and  Buffalo  was  listed 
among  the  foremost  cities  of  the  country  in  patriotic  endeavor ;  in  fact,  the  earnestness  of  the  men 
of  Mr.  Hollister's  committee  and  of  the  municipal  government  in  promoting  patriotic  enterprises, 
attracted  national  attention.  Our  militia  regiments  went  to  the  Border  undermanned,  but  that 
was  true  of  nearly  every  regiment  everywhere  in  the  Union.  We  were  in  step  with  the  men  who 
were  trying  to  arouse  the  country  to  a  realization  of  its  needs. 

On  February  9, 1916,  Mayor  Fuhrmann  received  a  letter  from  Mayor  John  Purroy  Mitche!  of 
New  York*  enlisting  his  co-operation  and  inviting  him  to  attend  a  conference  on  National 
defense  in  St.  Louis,  on  March  3d  and  4th.  Mayor  Fuhrmann  and  Mr.  Hollister  attended  the 
Conference,  and  returned  more  determined  than  ever  to  press  their  preparedness  efforts  at 
home. 

Plans  for  the  organization  of  a  system  of  military  training  in  the  high  schools  were  submitted 
by  Bayard  Martin;  proposals  for  a  vigilance  corps,  and  many  other  suggestions  of  a  like  nature, 
were  presented  to  the  city  authorities. 

These  matters  were  discussed  by  the  Council,  but  it  appeared  to  be  the  opinion  of  the  local 
officials  that  if  preparation  of  that  sort  was  needed  it  would  necessarily  require  a  broader  scope, 


*Dear  Mr.  Mayor:  New  York.  February  8th,  1916. 

As  a  nation  we  are  not  adequately  prepared  for  successful  defense  in  case  of  attack. 

To  assist  in  expressing  the  sentiment  of  the  Country  in  favor  of  national  defense,  the  undersigned  are  calling  a  meeting  of  the  Mayors  and  the 
Mayors'  National  Defense  Committees  of  the  cities  of  the  United  States  to  meet  in  Conference  in  St.  Louis  on  March  3  and  4,  1916. 

We  ask  your  co-operation  in  this  movement.  If  you  have  not  done  so.  we  suggest  that  you  appoint  a  National  Defense  Committee  of  Citizens 
to  take  prompt  action  in  this  vital  question,  and  that  you  urge  such  committee  as  far  as  possible  to  attend  the  St.  Louis  Conference. 

Our  foreign  policies  are  only  as  strong  as  our  ability  to  enforce  them.  Our  security  is  only  as  strong  as  our  defenses  are  strong.  The  better 
able  we  are  to  defend  ourselves,  the  less  liable  we  are  to  be  called  upon  to  do  so.  Therefore,  let  us  perfect  our  defenses  and  thus  preserve  and  per- 
petuate our  free  institutions,  our  liberties  and  our  national  life. 

Yours  very  truly, 

John  Purroy  M[tchel,  Mayor  of  New  York; 
Henry  W.  Kie.  Mayor  of  St.  Louis: 
James  G.  Woodward,  Mayor  of  Atlanta,  Gar, 
James  M.  Curley,  Mayor  of  Boston. 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War  49 

covering  all  those  physically  able  and  eligible  for  service.  As  a  matter  of  fact  there  was  no  popular 
demand  for  anything  of  the  kind,  and  the  Council  was  not  prepared  to  commit  the  city  to  military 
training  until  such  time  as  the  need  became  evident.  No  one  in  the  Council,  and  but  few  out 
of  it,  believed  that  such  a  time  would  ever  arrive. 

The  Americanization  project  which  came  before  the  city  that  year  received  more  serious  atten- 
tion than  the  others,  and  towards  the  end  of  the  year  several  pamphlets  were  issued  under  city 
financing  for  educational  purposes.  The  co-operation  of  the  teachers  in  the  public  and  parochial 
schools  was  obtained.  Much  of  the  educational  work,  however,  was  performed  by  the  Civic 
Education  Association,  and  the  brochures  on  citizenship  and  the  need  for  Americanization  issued 
by  that  organization  were  instructive,  and  w^ere  widely  read.  In  co-operation  with  the  Civic 
Education  Association,  and  to  carry  on  the  work  generally  throughout  the  city,  Mayor  Fuhr- 
mann  appointed  a  committee  of  fifty  on  Americanization,  and  issued  a  proclamation*  announcing 
the  personnel  of  the  committee.  The  Americanization  plan  was  largely  a  local  effort.  Detroit 
and  some  other  cities  worked  energetically,  as  did  Buffalo,  to  achieve  lasting  results,  and  un- 
doubtedly much  good  was  accomplished.  The  need  for  that  work  became  apparent  very  soon 
thereafter,  but  at  the  time  it  was  proposed  it  was  looked  upon  as  a  hobby  for  those  who  had  noth- 
ing of  a  serious  nature  to  occupy  their  time.  There  is  probably  no  way  of  determining  what 
each  of  these  movements  accomplished  singly  or  collectively.  Surely  they  were  not  wholly  un- 
shod of  value.  At  least  they  were  educative.  A  finely  drawn  dial  recording  the  variations  in 
the  public  mind  from  the  beginning  of  the  year  would  be  needed  to  enable  us  to  note  the  changes 
at  the  end.  We  were  drifting  toward  the  European  war  but  we  were  still  unconscious  of  the  fact. 


*Whereas,  never  before  in  the  history  uf  the  world  has  it  meant  more  to  be  an  American  citizen  than  it  means  to-day:  and 
Whereas,  in  our  own  city  of  Buffalo,  we  have  more  than  a  hundred  thousand  persons  of  foreign  birth  who  seek  to  work  and  live  with  us.  shar- 
ing our  responsibilities  and  privileges,  but  are  handicapped  through  ignorance  of  our  language — thirty  thousand  being  totally  without  knowledge 
of  it — and  being  thus  prevented  from  full  assimilation, 

Therefore,  I,  Louis  P.  Fuhrmann:,  Mayor  of  the  City  of  Buffalo,  do  hereby  ask  all  citizens,  both  native  and  foreign,  to  give  serious  attention 
to  this  important  city  problem  and  co-operate  to  the  best  of  their  power  with  all  existing  educational  authorities  to  make  Buffalo  an  English-speak- 
ing city,  and  to  this  end,  following  the  action  of  other  progressive  American  cities.  I  appoint  the  following  citizens  to  constitute  a  Committee  of 
Fifty  on  Americanization: 

Mrs.  Henry  Altman,  President  of  Buffalo  City  Federation  of  Woman's  Clubs:  Frank  B.  Baird,  President  of  the  Chamber  of  Commerce;  Har- 
old J.  Balliett,  Secretary  of  the  Department  of  Public  Works;  E.  J.  Barcalo,  President  of  the  Barealo  Manufacturing  Co.;  William  H.  Barr, 
President  of  the  Manufacturers'  Association:  Joseph  Bellanca,  President  of  the  Italian-American  Business  Men;  Mrs.  Frank  H.  Bliss,  Vice- 
President  of  the  Civic  Education  Association;  Walter  L.  Brown,  Librarian  of  the  Buffalo  Public  Librar\-;  Mrs.  Walter  P.  Cooke,  President  of 
the  Twentieth  Century  Club;  Frank  A.  Coupal.  President  of  the  Rotary  Club;  Rt.  Rev.  D.  Dougherty,  Bishop  of  the  Diocese  of  Buffalo:  H.  P 
Emerson,  Superintendent  of  Education:  Mrs.  John  Knox  Freeman,  Director  of  the  Civic  Education  Association:  Dr.  F.  E.  Fronczak,  Health 
Commissioner  of  Buffalo:  Robert  W.  Gallagher,  President  of  the  Greater  Buffalo  Club;  W.  P.  Goodspeed,  President  of  the  Ad  Club;  Stuart  A. 
Hayward,  President  of  the  Central  Labor  Council:  Charles  M.  Heald.  Commissioner  of  Public  Affairs;  Frank  Henry,  Manager  of  the  Washburn- 
Crosby  Co.;  William  H.  Hill,  Treasurer  of  the  Crosby  Co.;  Evan  HoUister,  President  of  the  Buffalo  Security  League:  Mrs.  John  Miller  Horton, 
Regent,  Buffalo  Chapter  D.  A.  R.;  Henry  R.  Howland,  President  of  the  Society  of  Mayflower  Descendants;  Arthur  W.  Hurd,  M.  D.,  President 
of  the  Sons  of  the  American  Revolution;  Arnold  E.  Jenny.  Director  of  the  Y.  M.  C.  A.  English  to  Foreigners  Work:  Daniel  J.  Kenefick.  Chair- 
man of  the  Board  of  Education:  L.  N.  Kilman,  United  States  Naturalization  Examiner;  Louis  J.  Kopald,  Rabbi  of  the  Temple  of  Beth  Zion; 
Mrs.  Josephine  Kudlicka.  Librarian  of  the  Dom  Polski  Library;  Horace  O.  Lanza.  Attorney;  Louis  W.  Marcus,  Justice  of  the  Supreme  Court; 
Miss  Martha  Mazurowska,  Department  Principal  of  No.  7  School;  H.  A.  Meldrum.  Chairman  of  Chamber  of  Commerce  Education  Committee; 
W.  A.  Morgan,  President  of  the  Buffalo  Copper  &  Brass  RoHing  Mill;  Adelbert  Moot.  Attorney,  Member  of  the  State  Board  of  Regents;  Georee 
B.  Montgomery.  President  of  the  Civic  Education  Committee:  Henry  D.  Miles,  President  of  the  Buffalo  Foundry  &  Machine  Co.;  Charles  P. 
Norton,  Chancellor  of  the  University  of  Buffalo:  Gustave  Ohlin,  Immigration  Inspector:  Richard  O'Keefe,  General  Secretary  of  the  Chamber  of 
Commerce;  Frank  Olszanowski,  President  of  the  Dom  Polski  Association:  Alexander  Osborn,  Chairman  of  the  Ad  Club  Americanization  Com- 
mittee; Rev.  Alexander  Pitass.  St.  Stanislaus  Parochial  School;  Edwin  A.  Rumball,  General  Secretary  of  the  Civic  Education  Association;  Frank 
H.  Severance,  Secretary  of  the  Buffalo  Historical  Society;  George  A.  Smith.  Supervisor  of  Educational  Extension  Work;  Rev.  Angelo  Strazzioni, 
St.  Anthony  of  Padua  Parochial  School;   Harry  L.  Taylor,  Justice  of  the  Supreme  Court;   Rev.  T.  J.  Walsh,  Chancellor  of  the  Diocese  of  Buffalo. 


50 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 


Returning  from  the  Mexican  Border 

Troop  I  74th  Infantry 

3d  Artillery 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War  51 


CHAPTER   XII 

CITY    WELCOMES    RETURNING    SOLDIERS 

A  FTER  two  months  in  the  mud  at  Pharr  and  McAlIen  the  national  guardsmen  of  the  several 
l\  States  were  ready  to  return  home.  It  had  become  evident  by  that  time  they  were  not  to 
•^  -^  go  into  action,  and  the  men  lost  interest  in  the  task  to  which  they  had  been  assigned. 
The  Administration  had  no  desire  to  keep  them  on  the  border  longer  than  actual  need  required, 
and,  early  in  December,  some  of  the  troops  moved  homeward.  Buffalo  wanted  her  sons  back 
just  as  quickly  as  any  other  locality,  and  the  pressure  to  secure  an  early  demobilization  of  the 
Buffalo  guardsmen  was  soon  felt.  That  desire  was  expressed  in  newspaper  interviews  and  edi- 
torials; in  letters  to  public  officials,  and,  finally,  in  resolutions  which  made  their  appearance  in 
the  Council  minutes.  On  December  7th  Mayor  Fuhrmann  directed  a  letter  to  the  War  Depart- 
ment at  Washington  urging  the  return  of  the  Buffalo  regiments.  On  December  12th  he  appointed 
"a  committee  to  prepare  a  proper  welcome  for  the  soldiers  now  in  Texas  on  their  return  to 
Buffalo."     The  personnel  of  the  committee  was  as  follows: 

Louis  P.  Fuhrmann,  General  Chairman;  William  A.  Morgan,  Chairman,  Reception  Committee;  Dr.  Walter 
S.  GOODALE,  Chairman,  Executive  Committee;  Samuel  B.  Botsford,  Chairman,  Banquet  Committee;  Hans 
Schmidt,  Chairman,  Music  Committee;  Albert  B.  Wright,  Chairman,  Hall  Committee,  including  Interior  Deco- 
rations; Richard  C.  O'Keefe,  Chairman,  Committee  of  Street  Decorations;  Norman  A.  MacDonald,  Chairman 
Finance  Committee;  Brigadier-General  S.  M.  Welch,  Chairman,  Committee  on  Military;  Mrs.  Edward  A.  Eisele, 
Chairman,  Women's  Committee;  Henry  G.  Anderson,  Chairman,  Auditing  Committee. 

In  the  meantime  information  was  brought  to  the  city  that  an  effort  would  be  made  to  divide 
the  forces  of  the  Third  Artillery  (the  old  65th  Infantry)  and  that  but  a  portion  of  the  regiment 
would  be  returned  to  Buffalo.  In  view  of  the  manner  in  which  the  local  commanders  had  been 
relieved  of  their  commands  and  out-of-town  officers  substituted  on  the  eve  of  the  departure  of 
the  regiments,  the  rumor  was  given  very  general  credence.  Newspapers  and  public  officials 
gave  expression  to  an  aroused  public  sentiment,  and  a  resolution  presented  to  the  Council  on 
December  13th,  1916,  by  Commissioner  Charles  M.  Heald,  calling  on  the  Federal  Government 
to  return  the  regiment  intact,  was  unanimously  adopted. 

The  City  of  Buffalo  probably  has  contributed  more  soldiers  for  the  defense  of  our  southern  border  in  response  to  the  call  of  the  President  than 
any  other  city  in  the  country  in  proportion.  All  our  citizens  are  justly  proud  of  the  three  splendid  military  organizations,  representing  three 
branches  of  the  service,  which  are  now  on  the  border.  The  Seventy-fourth,  the  Third  Artillery  and  Troop  I,  we  believe,  are  unexcelled  in  their 
respective  fields. 

We  may  reasonably  expect  that  these  men  who  have  upheld  the  honor  of  their  country  and  their  city  will  soon  be  returning  home.  It  is  fitting 
that  the  citizens  of  Buffalo  be  prepared  to  show  their  appreciation  of  the  service  of  these  three  splendid  organizations. 

It  is  also  important  that  the  Third  Artillery  Regiment  be  returned  intact  to  Buffalo  after  its  present  term  of  service  in  the  field.  This  regiment 
has  one  million  dollars'  worth  of  the  latest  and  best  ordnance  equipment  in  the  United  States.  It  is  said  to  be  the  latest  word  in  heavy  field  artil- 
lery. It  appears  that  efforts  are  being  made  by  other  sections  of  the  country  to  have  part  of  this  great  regiment  taken  from  Buffalo  and  sent 
elsewhere.  Buffalo  must  prevent  any  such  action.  This  regiment  was  made  an  efficient  fighting  machine  by  the  manhood  of  Buffalo.  The  mem- 
bers of  this  regiment  are  entitled  by  their  service  to  have  this  organization  with  all  its  equipment  maintained  in  Buffalo  after  their  return.  The 
citizens  of  Buffalo  are  also  entitled  to  this  at  the  hands  of  the  nation. 

I.  therefore,  recommend  the  adoption  of  two  resolutions,  as  follows: 

That  the  Council  of  the  City  of  Buffalo  hereby  calls  upon  all  citizens  to  unite  in  demanding  that  the  Third  New  York  Field  Artillery  be 
brought  intact  to  Buffalo  after  its  duty  on  the  border  has  been  performed  and  that  the  regiment,  with  all  its  equipment,  be  maintained  in  this  city; 
and  that  the  City  Clerk  be  directed  to  send  a  copy  of  these  resolutions  to  all  of  our  representatives  in  the  national  and  state  legislatures. 

Charles  M.  Heald,  Comr.  of  Public  Affairs. 

In  recognition  of  the  city's  demand  no  attempt,  if  contemplated,  was  made  to  divide  the  regi- 
ment. 

On  January  22d,  1917,  the  Council  directed  another  communication  sent  to  the  Secretary  of 
War,  again  urging  the  return  of  the  Buffalo  regiments.  The  request  had  scarcely  reached  the 
War  Department  when  orders  were  issued  by  Brigadier  General  Parker  of  the  Southern  Depart- 
ment for  the  return  of  the  74th  Regiment.  Troop  I  and  the  3d  Artillery  had  been  compelled, 
however,  to  remain,  all  of  which  was  explained  in  a  letter  from  Adjutant  General  Cruikshank 
presented  to  the  Council  on  the  following  day: 


52  Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 

Dear  Sir: 

I  beg  to  advise  you  that  the  Commanding  General,  Southern  Department,  has  recently  designated  for  return  home,  for  muster  out,  the  74th 
Infantry,  National  Guard  of  New  York,  which  will,  however,  leave  on  the  border  the  1st  Cavalry  and  the  3d  Field  Artillery.  With  respect  to  the 
last  mentioned  organization,  it  ma.v  be  stated  that  it  did  not  arrive  on  the  border  until  October  10,  1916,  and  that  there  are  a  number  of  organiza- 
tions of  the  National  Guard  which  preceded  the  3d  Field  Artillery  to  the  border,  which  are  still  there  and  not  under  orders  to  return. 

The  matter  of  returning  National  Guard  organizations  is  in  the  hands  of  the  Commanding  General,  Southern  Department,  who  has  full  respon- 
sibility for  the  conduct  of  militar.v  affairs  on  the  Mexican  border  and  who,  in  the  selection  of  organizations  to  be  returned  is  being  guided  by 
tactical  and  other  reasons  apparent  to  hira  alone,  and  over  which  the  War  Department  cannot  wisely  undertake  to  exercise  control. 

The  Department  regrets,  in  view  of  the  circumstances  as  set  forth  above,  that  it  cannot  be  stated,  at  this  time,  with  any  degree  of  certainty, 
when  the  1st  Cavalry  and  the  3d  Field  Artillery,  National  Guard  of  New  York,  can  be  returned  to  their  home  stations  for  muster  out. 

It  was  late  in  February  before  the  74th  Regiment  reached  Buffalo.  The  reception  committee 
had  planned  a  splendid  welcome  and  the  men  marched  through  cheering  thousands  to  the  Con- 
necticut Street  Armory.  They  were  greeted  there  by  Governor  Charles  S.  Whitman,  Mayor 
Fuhrmann,  Commissioners  Heald,  Hill,  Kreinheder  and  Malone,  William  A.  Morgan,  Dr.  Walter 
S.  Goodale  and  other  members  of  the  reception  committee.  The  Rev.  William  A.  Sunday,  a 
distinguished  evangelist,  then  conducting  services  in  Buffalo,  left  his  tabernacle  early  in  order  to 
join  in  the  city's  ovation  to  her  returning  troops.  Brief  speeches  were  delivered  by  the  Governor, 
by  the  Mayor  and  by  Rev.  Mr.  Sunday,  but  their  words  scarcely  reached  the  soldiers,  for  mothers, 
sisters  and  sweethearts  had  crowded  the  armory  floor  and  the  boys  were  receiving  the  real  heart- 
felt welcome  which  only  loved  ones  can  give.  After  a  luncheon  in  the  officers'  quarters  the  guests 
dispersed,  and  the  regiment  was  formally  mustered  out  of  Federal  service  on  February  24th. 

The  Third  Artillery  and  Troop  I  arrived  in  Buffalo  on  IVIarch  11  and  12.  The  first  train  sec- 
tion, bringing  a  part  of  the  artillerj',  reached  the  city  on  Sunday  morning  at  10  A.  M.;  another 
section  arrived  in  the  afternoon,  and  two  others  about  midnight.  The  train  carrying  the  mem- 
bers of  Troop  I  arrived  at  2.35  A.  M.  on  Monday  morning  March  12.  Governor  Whitman  came 
to  Buffalo  to  greet  these  returning  soldiers,  as  he  had  the  members  of  the  74th  Regiment.  A 
parade  was  arranged  to  escort  the  men  to  their  respective  armories.  It  required  some  time  to 
unload  the  heavy  apparatus,  and  on  Monday  afternoon  the  streets  were  again  crowded  with  a 
happy  throng  of  Buffalonians  bidding  the  boys  a  hearty  welcome  home.  Governor  Whitman 
and  Commissioner  Malone  extended  the  official  words  of  greeting.  Colonel  Hand  for  the  3d 
Artillery,  and  Captain  William  J.  Donovan,  who  had  returned  from  Europe  to  take  command 
of  his  troopers  on  the  border,  responded  for  their  respective  commands. 

The  homecomings  were  not,  however,  invested  with  any  of  the  enthusiasm  of  permanence. 
The  vicious  submarine  warfare  begun  by  Germany  had  already  made  certain  hostile  relations 
with  this  country,  and  the  returning  soldiers  were  looking  longingly  toward  the  seaboard.  They 
had  smelled  the  smoke  of  powder  and  were  eager  for  action.  Of  course,  no  one  anticipated 
mobilization  for  foreign  service;  the  men  were  to  be  mustered  out.  Even  war  on  Germany,  it 
was  assumed,  would  not  entail  anything  further  than  a  more  effective  system  of  home  defense. 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War  53 


CHAPTER    XIII 
ALLIES    DECLINE    PEACE    TERMS 

ON  January  1st,  1917,  the  agitation  in  favor  of  an  early  return  of  the  local  troops  from  the 
border  was  still  intense  and  absorbed  public  interest.  Affairs  at  Washington  were  rapidly 
taking  on  a  grave  aspect  and  Buffalo  was  not  wholly  unmindful  of  the  turn  in  events. 
Germany's  peace  proposal  of  December  was  intensely  autoci-atic,  but  Germany  had  established 
a  military  supremacy  on  all  the  battle  fronts  of  Europe  and,  accordingly,  to  the  uninterested 
throng  of  Buffalonians,  like  other  Americans,  who  looked  on  with  no  more  concern  than  the  bet- 
less  spectator  at  a  horse  race,  Germany's  peace  pi-oposal  did  not  seem  extraordinarily  exacting. 

The  German  peace  note  did  not,  however,  carry  the  tone  of  a  nation  fighting  a  battle  of  defense, 
but  rather  of  a  nation  which  had  already  assumed  the  role  of  a  conqueror.  The  proposal  was  a 
peace  move  calculated  to  set  up  a  central  empire  to  dominate  first,  Europe,  and  then  whatever 
else  without  limit  its  powerful  position  might  enable  it  to  control.  Also,  the  manifesto  extended 
an  invitation  to  any  of  Germany's  enemies,  who  wished  to  accept  a  separate  peace,  so  that  the 
Imperial  Government  might  the  more  easily  crush  its  remaining  enemies,  and  then  take  peaceful 
possession  of  the  supplicant  at  its  own  good  pleasure. 

While  the  German  militaiy  machine  succeeded.  German  diplomacy  failed.  The  Allies  declined 
the  peace  proposal.  Naturally  and  inevitably  they  were  compelled  to  that  decision;  better  a 
complete  military  reversal  and  annihilation  than  peace  of  the  kind  offered.  But  the  German 
device  was  not  viewed  by  all  in  the  same  light.  To  many  it  carried  the  conviction  that  Germany 
was  seeking  a  settlement  on  terms  not  more  exacting  than  her  military  successes  up  to  that  time 
entitled  her  to  ask.  Germany's  method  of  conducting  the  war;  her  vicious  treatment  of  the 
citizens  of  the  countries  through  which  her  armies  passed,  outraged  the  American  sense  of  de- 
cency, and,  while  our  national  position  was  still  a  matter  of  debate  among  the  American  people, 
the  majority  were  swinging  strongly  against  Germany.  President  Wilson's  reply  to  the  peace 
note  met  the  approval  of  the  Nation.  It  was  not  so  strong  as  some  wished  it,  nor  did  it  carry 
all  the  promise  that  France  and  England  had  hoped  it  would.  He  answei-ed  Germany  with  a 
counter  proposal,  and  in  his  answer,  for  the  first  time,  the  proposition  of  a  League  of  Nations  was 
given  definite  form  and  official  recognition. 

Germany  had  not  been  placing  a  false  hope  on  the  successful  outcome  of  the  negotiations. 
Her's  was  not  a  sincere  peace  initiative,  though  a  portion  of  the  public  accepted  it  as  such.  Her 
ostensible  determination  to  curb  U-boat  activities,  apparently  in  answer  to  the  American  demand 
that  the  ruthless  warfare  of  the  ocean  cease,  was  a  determination  of  necessity  adopted  until  such 
time  as  the  Imperial  Government  believed  itself  equipped  to  control  all  operation  on  the  ocean 
highways. 

That  moment  was  close  at  hand  when  she  submitted  her  autocratic  peace  scheme.  Knowl- 
edge of  these  facts  had  not  reached  the  people  of  this  city,  nor  of  this  country,  when  the  New  Year 
dawned,  but  such  knowledge  had  already  stirred  oflScial  Washington  and  had  greatly  disturbed 
the  leaders  of  the  Allies  in  London  and  in  Paris. 

The  insincerity  of  Germany  in  her  peace  suggestion  and  in  hei-  letters  to  this  government,  while 
widely  suspected,  was  not  completely  established  until  late  in  March.  Count  Von  Bernstorff, 
the  German  Ambassador  to  the  United  States,  protested  at  Washington  the  earnest  desire  of 
his  government  to  retain  the  friendship  of  the  American  people,  and  yet,  at  the  same  time,  was 
in  communication  with  the  German  foreign  office  in  furtherance  of  innumei-able  intrigues  cal- 
culated to  injure  this  nation.  German  propagandists,  spies  and  plotters  were  thick  in  all  sec- 
tions of  the  country.  Munition  plants,  here  and  there,  were  destroyed,  presumably  by  German 
agents.  It  was  subsequently  established  that  on  .Januaiy  16th  Count  Von  Bernstorff  received 
secret  orders  to  have  all  German  ships,  interned  in  this  country,  dismantled  and  their  machinery 


54  Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 

ruined.  That  work  was  quietly  planned  to  be  carried  out  on  a  given  signal.  On  January  19th 
the  infamous  letter*  from  Secretary  Zimmermann,  of  the  Portfolio  of  Foreign  Affairs  for  the  Impe- 
rial Government,  was  transmitted  by  Count  Von  Bernstorff  to  Minister  Von  Eckhert  in  Mexico. 

Germany's  attempt  to  unite  Mexico  and  Japan  against  the  United  States  had  been  carried  on 
while  the  Administration  at  Washington  was  going  to  extremes  in  an  endeavor  to  avoid  an  armed 
clash  with  the  forces  of  the  Kaiser.  President  Wilson,  accepting  Germany's  protestations  of  a 
desire  for  continued  friendship  with  this  countiy,  endured  flagrant  violations  of  American  rights 
on  the  sea,  and  breaches  of  neutrality  on  American  soil.  Official  Washington  endured  them. 
They  were  resented  by  some,  to  be  sure,  but  the  masses  were  not  for  war  at  that  time  and  sought 
to  avoid  it  as  long  as  it  could  be  honorably  avoided.  Germany  had  her  subtle  intrigues  carefully 
concealed,  and,  while  Washington  had  worked  earnestly  to  compel  a  peaceful  recognition  of  Amer- 
ican i-ights  and  the  protection  of  American  interests,  Germany  had  numbered  the  United  States 
among  her  enemies  from  the  start  and  was  making  provision  to  dwarf  American  efforts. 

The  final  German  affront  to  this  country  came  on  the  last  day  of  January,  1917.  On  that  day 
Count  Von  Bernstorff  handed  to  Secretary  of  State  Lansing  a  note  in  which  the  German  Govern- 
ment announced  its  purpose  to  intensify  and  render  more  ruthless  the  operations  of  its  submarines. 
The  German  Chancellor  stated  before  the  Imperial  Diet  at  that  time  that  the  reason  this  unre- 
stricted policy  had  not  been  earlier  employed  was  simply  because  the  Imperial  Government  had 
not  been  ready  to  act  before ;  in  other  words,  the  delay  was  not  out  of  respect  to  the  protestations 
of  the  United  States,  as  Germany  had  previously  stated  in  its  official  communications,  but  by 
virtue  of  necessity.  On  February  3d,  Secretary  Lansing  handed  Count  Von  Bernstorff  his  pass- 
ports, and,  on  the  same  day  the  President  addressed  both  Houses  of  Congress  and  announced 
the  complete  severance  of  diplomatic  relations  with  Germany.  At  the  same  time  he  stated  he 
did  not  regard  the  act  as  tantamount  to  a  declaration  of  war. 

"We  are  the  sincere  friends  of  the  German  people,"  he  said,  "and  earnestly  desire  to  remain  at  peace 
with  the  Government  which  speaks  for  them.  God  grant  that  we  may  not  be  challenged  by  acts  of  wilful 
injustice  on  the  part  of  the  Government  of  Germany." 

Berlin,  January  19,  1917. 

*"0n  the  first  of  February  we  intend  to  begin  submarine  warfare  unrestricted.  In  spite  of  this,  it  is  our  intention  to  endeavor  to  keep  neutral 
the  United  States  of  America. 

"If  this  attempt  is  not  successful,  we  propose  an  alliance  on  the  following  basis  with  Mexico:  That  we  shall  make  war  together  and  together 
make  peace.  We  shall  give  general  financial  support,  and  it  is  understood  that  Mexico  is  to  reconquer  the  lost  territory  in  New  Mexico.  Texas 
and  Arizona.     The  details  are  left  to  you  for  settlement. 

"You  are  instructed  to  inform  the  President  of  Mexico  of  the  above  in  the  greatest  confidence  as  soon  as  it  is  certain  that  there  will  be  an  out- 
break of  war  with  the  United  States  and  suggest  that  the  President  of  Mexico,  on  his  own  initiative,  should  communicate  with  Japan  suggesting 
adherence  at  once  to  this  plan;  at  the  same  time  offer  to  mediate  between  Germany  and  Japan. 

"Please  call  to  the  attention  of  the  President  of  Mexico  that  the  employment  of  ruthless  submarine  warfare  now  promises  to  compel  England  to 
make  peace  in  a  few  months." 

(Signed)     Zimmermann. 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 


55 


CHAPTER  XIV 

CHAMBER  OF   COMMERCE   URGES  ARMED   GUARDS 
FOR   LOCAL   PLANTS 

ON  the  last  day  of  February,  1917,  while  Buffalonians  were  celebrating  the  return  of  the 
troops  from  the  border,  a  copy  of  the  Zimmermann  note  to  Mexico  was  made  public.  It 
stirred  this  city  as  it  did  Congress  and  the  rest  of  the  country.  Action  was  demanded. 
President  Wilson  no  longer  held  out  hope  that  the  United  States  could  continue  as  the  nation 
seeking  to  hold  an  even  balance  of  judgment  between  disputants.  And  as  much  as  the  people 
had  hoped  to  keep  out  of  the  fray  they  exhibited  no  little  relief  to  be  free  from  that  reserve  which 
is  expected  of  a  judge.  On  March  12th  the  order  was  issued  to  place  armed  guards  on  the  Amer- 
ican merchant  ships,  and  the  country  rapidly  drifted  toward  a  declaration  of  war.  A  special 
session  of  Congress,  called  by  the  President  for  April  16th,  was  shortly  afterwards  advanced  to 
April  2d.  Through  all  this  agitation  it  never  really  became  apparent  to  the  people  generally 
that  a  declaration  of  war  would  mean  any  serious  sacrifice  or  the  sending  of  troops  out  of  the 
country. 

Buffalo's  first  realization  that  the  war  would  reach  into  this  city  came  about  when  the  directors 
of  the  Chamber  of  Commerce  were  quietly  called  in  special  session  with  the  City  Council  on  Friday 
evening,  March  23d,  1917.  Councilmen  Heald,  Hill,  Kreinheder  and  Malone  attended.  Mayor 
Fuhrmann,  though  invited,  did  not  attend.  He  expressed  a  belief  that  the  directors  of  the 
Chamber  were  unduly  excited.  The  purpose  of  the  meeting  was  to  take  all  necessary  steps  to- 
ward guarding  elevators,  water  and  light  plants,  and  other  valuable  properties,  particularly 
the  munition  plants  and  industries  supplying  war  material  to  the  Allies.     The  excitement  around 


Members  of  74th  Regiment  Guarding  Hailroad  Bridges 


56  Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 

the  Chamber  of  Commerce  Building  that  night  was  intense,  but  the  Mayor  was  not  moved  by 
the  action  taken  there  and  endeavored  to  cool  off  the  situation.  He  declined  to  wire  the  Governor 
for  military  assistance,  and  he  subsequently  declined  to  go  to  Albany  to  see  the  Governor  on  that 
sort  of  a  mission.  Commissioner  Hill  disagreed  with  the  Mayor  as  to  the  necessity  for  immediate 
measures,  and  early  Saturday  morning  started  for  the  State  Capitol  to  obtain  an  interview  with 
Governor  Whitman.  Commissioner  Hill  urged  the  Governor  to  mobilize  the  74th  Regiment 
and  throw  a  guard  around  the  Buffalo  water  works  pumping  stations  and  the  elevators.  Mayor 
Fuhrmann  contended  that  the  guard  of  policemen  then  at  those  points  furnished  sufficient  pro- 
tection :  that  no  German  sympathizers  had  been  active  here,  basing  that  statement  on  the  reports 
from  John  Martin,  Chief  of  Police.  He  cautioned  the  people  not  to  become  wrought  up  or  dis- 
turbed in  their  daily  occupations.  News  of  the  meeting  was  made  public  on  Saturday,  March  24th. 

Rumors  spread  about  the  city  rapidly  on  Sunday.  Most  of  these,  purporting  to  tell  of  attempts 
to  blow  up  the  water  works  and  the  electric  plant  on  the  River  Road,  and  of  other  desperate 
plots,  were  unconfirmed  and  probably  baseless. 

The  excitement,  however,  necessitated  some  official  recognition,  and  on  Monday  morning, 
March  26th,  a  conference  was  held  in  the  office  of  ]\Iayor  Fuhrmann.  That  consultation,  attended 
by  Police  Chief  Martin,  Major  Arthur  Kemp  and  Captain  Ralph  K.  Robertson  of  the  74th  Regi- 
ment; A.  A.  Landon,  president  of  the  Chamber  of  Commerce;  W.  R.  Huntley,  president  of  the 
Buffalo  General  Electric  Company;  Arthur  W.  Kreinheder,  Sheriff  Edward  Stengel,  George  C. 
Lehmann  and  Corporation  Counsel  William  S.  Rann  settled  most  of  the  rumors.  At  the  con- 
clusion of  the  conference  Mayor  Fuhrmann  issued  the  following  statement: 

"In  view  of  the  international  cornplications  and  the  need  of  reckoning  with  the  local  situation,  I  called 
a  conference  this  morning  at  my  office. 

"At  this  conference  ice  went  into  careful  details  concerning  all  the  precautionary  measures  which 
have  been  taken  and  which  might  still  be  taken  to  insure  the  best  possible  protection  for  public  and 
quasi-public  ivorks.  Consideration  was  also  given  to  possibility  of  enlisting  the  services  of  the  State 
militia  for  guard  duty. 

"After  a  thorough  discussion  we  reached  the  conclusion  that  the  precautions  already  taken  with 
reference  to  the  protection  of  public  municipal  works  are  ample.  It  was  decided  to  increase  the  guard 
at  the  electric  power  plant  on  the  River  Road,  and  this  task  has  been  assigned  to  Sheriff  Stengel." 

Excitement  about  the  City  Hall  was  somewhat  allayed  by  that  action,  and  the  business  organi- 
zations took  matters  a  bit  easier.  Out  of  the  turmoil,  however,  was  organized  the  Niagara  De- 
fense League,  whose  activities  during  the  war  period  were  both  extensive  and  commendable. 
At  the  regimental  headquarters,  however,  from  the  date  of  the  Zimmermann  intrigue  exposure 
the  earnestness  of  preparations  was  marked.  On  March  10th  Governor  Whitman  signed  the 
appointment  of  Major  Kemp  as  Colonel  of  the  74th,  succeeding  Colonel  Thurston  who  had  died 
on  the  border.  Shortly  thereafter  Colonel  Manus  M'Closkey,  who  subsequently  fought  with 
the  Second  Division  at  Belleau  Wood,  and  Captain  .J.  K.  Parkins,  U.  S.  A.,  arrived  to  muster 
the  74th  men  back  into  the  Federal  sei-vice.  Recruiting  stations  were  established  at  various 
points  down  town  and  the  city  passed  through  another  intense  recruiting  campaign.  Enlistments 
came  more  rapidly  than  when  called  for  in  connection  with  service  on  the  border.  General 
gossip  had  it  that  the  Regular  Army  and  possibly  those  in  the  National  Guard  would  be  called 
into  service.  Very  few  expected,  even  though  war  should  be  declared  by  Congress,  any  guards- 
men to  be  sent  out  of  this  country.  On  March  12th  a  meeting  in  Troop  I  headquarters  in  the 
Delavan  Avenue  Armory  was  held  to  organize  an  officers'  reserve  corps  from  among  the  members 
of  the  Buffalo-Plattsburg  Association.  The  President's  call  for  87.000  men  to  fill  the  needs  of  the 
Navy,  and  the  establishment  of  naval  and  marine  recruiting  stations  all  added  to  the  interest 
occasioned  by  these  preparations  for  defense.  Speakers  could  be  found  on  all  the  rostrums  every- 
where urging  young  men  to  join  the  colors,  and  from  across  the  border  came  appeals  from  Cana- 
dian officers  to  the  Canadians  living  in  this  city  to  give  a  hand  to  their  bi-others  "over  there." 

German  submarines  increased  their  piracies  and  merchant  ships  were  sent  to  the  bottom  daily 
with  their  crews  and  cargoes.     Some  of  these  were  American  ships,  and,  as  the  time  set  for  the 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 


57 


City  (Mlicials  Inspecting  Waterfront  Property 

Mayor  Fuhrmann  and  military  men  throw  guard  around  BufTalo  plants 

meeting  of  Congress  drew  near,  the  fighting  spirit  of  the  people  became  thoroughly  aroused. 
Still,  it  was  not  expected  that  we  would  send  troops  across  the  ocean ;  in  fact,  that  thought  had 
scarcely  entered  the  public  mind.  Millions  of  men  for  home  defense?  Yes!  But  the  possi- 
bility of  a  foreign  expedition  did  not  seem  to  be  in  the  realm  of  actualities.  The  sentiment  of 
that  moment  in  Buffalo  may  be  taken  from  an  editorial  excerpt  which  appeared  in  the  Buffalo 
Commercial  on  March  22d,  the  day  after  President  Wilson  had  decided  the  extra  session  of  Con- 
gress should  meet  on  April  2d  instead  of  April  16th  as  previously  announced.     The  editorial: 

"The  things  for  the  Government  to  do  in  this  crisis  are  manifold.  It  must  open  the  ports  of  the  United  States 
to  the  warships  of  all  the  nations  at  war  with  Germany.  Its  vast  credits  in  gold  must  be  available  to  those  who  are 
fighting  for  the  same  end  as  we  are.  We  may  also  e.xtend  to  them  supplies  of  war  in  still  greater  abundance,  although 
there  is  reason  to  believe  that  the  Allies  have  now  a  vast  preponderance  of  war  material.  Our  Navy  must  co-operate 
with  the  navies  of  Great  Britain,  France  and  Italy  in  keeping  the  ocean  lanes  clear  of  enemy  submarines.  .4  universal 
military  service  law  must  be  passed,  not  in  the  expectation  that  the  army  will  find  an  actual  field  for  activity  in  the  present 
war,  but  as  a  precaution  and  a  guaranty  for  the  future." 

Just  about  that  time  the  Czar  was  dethroned  and  Russia  became  a  Republic.  From  out  of 
the  war  one  dynasty  had  tumbled,  and,  even  though  it  was  a  friendly  dynasty,  the  sentiment 
began  to  crystallize  that  this  conflict  was  not  a  mere  war  of  kings  in  which  we  had,  by  right,  only 
a  spectator's  part.  As  the  day  of  the  extraordinary  session  of  Congress  drew  near,  President 
Wilson  prepared  to  go  before  that  body  and  ask  the  Representatives  of  the  Nation  to  declare 
the  existence  of  a  State  of  War  with  the  Imperial  Government  of  Germany. 


58  Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 


CHAPTER    XV 
ELMWOOD    MUSIC    HALL    MASS    MEETING    DECLARES    FOR    WAR 

PORTENTS  of  war,  multiplying  through  March,  found  a  realization  in  April.  Buffalo  had 
awaited  with  keen  interest  the  President's  message  which  was  read  in  Congress  on  April 
2d.  It  was  generally  anticipated  that  it  would  be  a  war  message;  most  of  the  people, 
though  not  anxious,  were  ready  for  a  declaration  of  hostilities.  The  young  men  especially  had 
caught  the  enthusiasm  of  the  hour,  and  the  schools  rang  with  patriotic  songs  and  martial  airs. 
Promptly  at  12  o'clock  noon  on  April  2d,  as  Congress  was  called  to  order,  upwards  of  75,000 
children  and  more  than  3,000  teachers  of  the  public  and  parochial  schools  assembled  at  their 
respective  schools  for  patriotic  exercises  in  recognition  of  the  gravity  of  the  situation  with  which 
Congress  was  about  to  deal.  The  program  was  simple.  At  exactly  12  o'clock  the  children  sang 
"The  Star  Spangled  Banner."  The  song  concluded,  they  joined  in  rousing  cheers  for  the  Presi- 
dent, for  George  Washington,  Abraham  Lincoln,  Teddy  Roosevelt,  Mayor  Fuhrmann,  and  every- 
one else  who  in  their  minds  typified  the  American  Government  or  American  institutions.  Appro- 
priate resolutions  were  adopted,  and  the  ceremonies  concluded  with  the  singing  of  "America" 
and  a  salute  to  the  flag. 

In  the  closing  days  of  March,  Mayor  Fuhrmann  received  a  letter  from  the  Mayors'  Committee 
of  American  Cities,  the  same  that  had  been  active  in  the  preparedness  movement,  suggesting 
that  all  cities  agree  upon  April  5th  as  a  day  to  be  set  apart  for  mass  meetings  throughout 
the  country,  "and  to  pass  such  resolutions  as  will  demonstrate  to  the  world  that  the  people  of 
America  are  ready  to  act  resolutely,  promptly  and  patriotically  to  meet  the  crisis  at  hand." 

In  black-face  type  at  the  top  of  the  letter  were  several  patriotic  appeals:  "The  Nation  is  in 
peril!"  "  It  is  time  to  show  our  colors!"  "We  must  defend  our  rights  or  we  may  soon  have  no 
rights  to  defend!"  "Every  one  should  stand  by  the  President  in  defense  of  our  country!"  That 
call  was  heeded;  in  fact,  the  Mayor,  Mr.  Hollister  and  others  in  the  Security  League  and  the  niany 
similar  organizations  which  had  sprung  into  being,  were  not  long  in  formulating  plans  for  a  mass 
meeting  to  be  held  on  the  evening  of  April  5th  at  Elmwood  Music  Hall.  On  March  31st  the 
Mayor  appointed  a  committee  of  100.  Fully  half  of  the  men  named  had  filed  an  acceptance 
within  the  day,  and  on  the  following  day  the  Mayor  issued  a  proclamation*  to  the  people  caUing 
on  them  to  assemble  at  Elmwood  Music  Hall  on  the  date  set. 

The  President's  war  message  of  April  2d  set  the  country  aglow  with  patriotic  fervor,  and  though 
differences  still  existed  in  Congress,  on  the  night  of  Buffalo's  war  meeting  it  was  apparent 
that  war  with  Germany  would  be  declared  within  a  short  time.  The  immense  gathering 
was  itself  aroused  and  in  turn  aroused  the  city  to  a  higher  pitch  than  had  been  experienced 
on  any  prior  occasion.  An  overflow  meeting  was  held  at  the  First  Presbyterian  Church. 
Throughout  the  city  civic  organizations  were  likewise  active,  and  at  all  of  these,  resolu- 
tions declaring  devotion  to  America,  and  support  for  the  President  and  Congress  were  adopted. 

Buffalonians  volunteered  that  night  their  lives  and  fortunes  as  did  their  forefathers  of  Revo- 
lutionary fame;  they  stated  a  willingness  to  stake  all  in  "the  struggle  of  Democracy  against 
Autocracy"  for  the  peace  and  liberty  of  humanity.  No  such  momentous  rally  had  called  the 
people  together  in  this  city  since  the  early  '60's,  but  we  were  in  no  such  fearful  mood  as  were  the 
men  and  women  of  the  earlier  period. 

*To  The  People  of  Buffalo: 

Pursuant  to  the  appeal  addressed  to  me  by  fifty  citizens  of  this  city  requesting  a  mass  meeting  to  be  held  this  week,  to  give  public  expression 
to  the  loyalty  and  patriotism  of  the  citizens  of  Buffalo  in  upholding  the  President  of  the  United  States  in  the  stard  he  is  taking  to  maintain  Amer- 
ican rights  and  to  protect  the  lives  of  American  citizens,  I  hereby  call  upon  the  people  of  Buffalo  to  assemble  at  Elmwood  Music  Hall,  Wednesday 
evening,  April  4th,  at  eight  o'clock,  for  this  purpose. 

Louis  P.  Fuhrmann,  Mayor. 

We  were  staging  some  of  the  show;  not  much,  but  some.  For  example,  a  German  singing 
society,  the  Buffalo  Orpheus,  was  selected  to  sing  America  at  the  opening  of  the  meeting.     The 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War  59 

Orpheus  was  chosen  to  do  the  singing  to  convey  the  impression  that  all  Buffalo  was  a  unit,  all 
races  one,  in  support  of  the  determination  against  Germany.  That  probably  was  so  as  far  as 
the  Orpheus  was  concerned,  but  it  was  not  entirely  true  among  the  masses.  Debate  was  heavily 
supported  on  both  sides,  and  sometimes  intense,  on  the  question  of  entering  into  "a  foreign  war." 

The  cheering  at  Buffalo's  patriotic  meeting  that  night  undoubtedly  voiced  the  prevailing 
sentiment  in  the  hearts  of  the  audience.  One  young  man  in  khaki,  who  had  to  climb  over  men 
and  chairs  to  reach  the  front  of  the  platform  in  order  to  deliver  his  brief  speech,  showed  in  every 
action  his  appreciation  of  the  crisis  and  his  eagerness  for  battle.  That  young  man  was  Captain 
William  J.  Donovan  of  Troop  I,  who  later  as  Major  and  then  as  Lieutenant  Colonel,  and  finally 
as  Colonel,  distinguished  himself  on  the  battlefields  of  France.  Other  hundreds  in  Elmwood 
Music  Hall  that  night  felt  likewise,  but  to  the  vast  and  overwhelming  majority  the  actualities 
of  war  seemed  at  that  time  remote.  The  speakers,  other  than  Captain  Donovan,  were  Adelbert 
Moot,  George  H.  Kennedy  and  John  Lord  O'Brian.  Mayor  Fuhrmann  presided,  and  delivered 
the  preliminary  address.  At  the  overflow  meeting  in  the  First  Presbyterian  Church,  Rev.  Andrew 
V.  V.  Raymond,  pastor,  presided.  The  audience  was  addressed  by  William  L.  Marcy,  Mr. 
O'Brian  and  Mr.  Moot.  The  committee  having  immediate  charge  of  the  arrangements  for  the 
meeting  were  Frank  H.  Callan,  John  K.  Walker,  George  S.  Buck  (who  later  succeeded  Mayor 
Fuhrmann  as  head  of  the  city),  Joseph  Morey  and  Evan  P.  Hollister.  The  speeches  of  the 
evening  accurately  voiced  the  sentiments  of  the  crowded  hall,  for  the  girders  rang  with  enthusi- 
astic cheering  of  the  throng,  under  the  splendidly  patriotic  reasoning,  and  resonant  oratory  of 
the  variujs  speakers. 

Mayor  Louis  P.  Fuhrmann  was  greeted  with  a  burst  of  cheers  as  he  arose  to  speak.  He  was 
interrupted  again  and  again  by  cheers  and  applause  as  he  made  the  following  declaration: 

This  mass  meeting  of  the  citizens  of  Buffalo  is  called  for  the  purpose  of  upholding  President  Wilson,  the  official 
head  of  the  United  States,  in  his  efforts  to  maintain  the  honor  of  our  country. 

Among  a  free  people  public  measures  and  policies  are  always  debatable,  but  once  a  state  of  war  exists  there  is  just 
one  thing,  and  only  one  thing  for  all  of  us  to  do,  and  that  is  to  steadfastly  stand  by  the  Government  and  the  Presi- 
dent. When  the  American  flag  goes  up,  all  other  flags  must  come  down.  That  is  the  doctrine  of  Lexington  and 
Concord,  of  Lake  Erie  and  New  Orleans,  of  Palo  Alto  and  Buena  Vista,  of  Antietam  and  Gettysburg,  of  Santiago 
and  Manila  Bay. 

As  the  American  people  upheld  their  former  war  presidents — Madison,  Polk,  Lincoln,  McKinley — so,  from  this 
time  on,  President  Wilson  must  have  the  ungrudging  and  continued  support  of  the  hundred  million  who  enjoy  the 
blessings  of  liberty  and  equality  under  the  Stars  and  Stripes.  Regardless  of  racial  antecedents,  there  is  and  must 
be  only  one  kind  of  Americans  in  America,  and  that  is  Americans  who  are  with  the  President  and  the  Government 
to  the  uttermost;  Americans  who  are  willing  to  make  every  sacrifice  of  life  and  treasure  necessary  in  the  common 
effort  to  uphold  the  integrity  of  our  country. 

Buffalo,  the  home  of  Millard  Fillmore  and  of  Grover  Cleveland,  is  a  loyal,  patriotic  city.  Each  and  every  one  of 
our  half  million  people  has  a  genuine  love  for  our  great  republic.  All  that  we  have  and  all  that  we  are  we  owe  to  its 
institutions.  Our  fathers  came  from  over  the  seas  to  establish  a  free  government  for  all.  I  know  I  speak  the  sober 
truth  when  I  say  that  the  spirit  of  the  fathers  lives  forever  in  their  sons.  We  are  of  the  same  breed  as  they  and  we 
will  prove  ourselves  just  as  loyal  and  just  as  unconquerable. 

John  Lord  O'Brian,  the  next  speaker,  paid  a  high  tribute  to  the  Germans  who  came  to  the 
United  States  to  escape  the  military  oppression  that  was  felt  in  their  land  in  1848.  He  described 
the  public  service  of  these  German-Americans  and  their  sons  in  the  years  that  have  followed, 
becoming  leaders  in  the  business,  professional  and  political  life  of  this  and  many  other  commu- 
nities. Mr.  O'Brian  then  i-ecalled  the  work  of  the  United  States  for  humanity  in  the  Spanish- 
American  war,  the  Boxer  rebellion  and  in  opening  the  doors  of  Japan  to  civilization. 

George  H.  Kennedy  delivered  the  principal  address.  It  was  earnest  and  forceful.  At  times 
he  was  forced  to  stop  and  wipe  the  perspiration  from  his  forehead,  for  he  was  just  recovering  from 
an  illness  and  was  not  a  well  man.  His  speech,  however,  was  a  masterpiece  of  logic  and  elo- 
quence.    In  part  he  said: 

'  'At  the  opening  of  the  Civil  War  the  Sixth  Massachusetts  Regiment  marched  down  Broadway  in  New  York  City. 
A  spectator  stepped  from  the  sidewalk  and  accosted  one  of  the  soldiers,  enquiring  from  what  place  they  came.  With- 
out breaking  step  to  the  martial  music  of  his  regimental  band,  he  replied,  'From  Bunker  Hill,  from  Bunker  Hill.' 


60  Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 

And  the  thought  which  should  go  out  from  this  great  meeting  to-night  is  the  fact  that  we  are  moved  by  the  same 
impulse  that  fired  the  shot  at  Concord  Bridge,  heard  round  the  world. 

"If  our  forefathers  were  justified  in  1775  in  resisting  the  encroachment  of  the  British  crown,  we  are  more  than 
justified  in  repelling  with  force  of  arms  the  barbarous  conduct  of  the  German  government.  I  can  well  imagine  that 
'taxation  without  representation'  in  some  period  of  the  world's  history  might  have  been  a  legitimate  subject  for 
debate.  But  nowhere  in  the  recorded  history  of  civilization  will  you  find  the  justification  of  the  murder  on  the  high 
seas  of  innocent  women  and  children  until  the  Prussian  war  party  assumed  control  of  the  German  Empire. 

"Whatever  may  be  the  consequences  to  us  of  our  entering  this  war,  it  surely  was  not  of  our  making.  It  was  forced 
upon  us.  During  the  past  two  years  we  have  suffered  with  a  patience  rarely  exhibited  by  any  first-class  power  in  the 
history  of  the  human  race.     Indignity  after  indignity  has  been  heaped  upon  us  until  the  measure  was  overflowing. 

"We  have  sacrificed  everything  except  honor  itself  to  avoid  this  conflict.  And  the  nation  that  submits  to  the  dic- 
tation of  another  power  as  to  how,  when  and  where  it  shall  ferry  its  boats  across  the  high  seas,  has  reached  that  period 
of  decline  that  precedes  disaster,  dismemberment  and  decay. 

"The  finest  thing  about  this  conflict,  the  thing  that  will  stand  out  to  our  greatest  credit  and  be  best  remembered, 
that  will  surpass  the  glory  of  all  our  victories,  is  the  high  plane  upon  which  our  cause  of  battle  is  placed.  We  are  not 
fighting  for  power,  we  are  not  battling  for  a  place  in  the  sun.     (Applause.) 

"We  covet  no  nation's  territory,  we  want  no  people's  money.  But  the  right  of  our  people  to  sail  the  high  seas  in 
our  own  boats,  manned  by  our  own  seamen,  guarded  by  our  own  flag,  has  never  been  surrendered  to  any  power  since 
John  Paul  Jones  and  Jack  Barry  fought  their  way  to  imperishable  victory,  and,  pray  God,  it  never  will. 

"When  this  country  had  but  three  millions  of  people,  with  no  army  and  with  no  navy,  inspired  by  the  words  of 
Patrick  Henry  and  Samuel  Adams,  it  threw  down  the  gage  of  battle  to  the  acknowledged  'mistress  of  the  seas.'  When 
it  has  grown  to  more  than  one  hundred  millions  of  people,  shall  we  allow  a  power  hemmed  in  on  all  sides  by  her  ene- 
mies to  drive  us  ruthlessly  from  the  seas? 

"We  are  all  for  President  Wilson  now.  (Applause.)  We  are  no  longer  party  men  seeking  to  control  the  political 
fortunes  of  our  government.  In  this  day  of  conflict  there  are  no  Democrats;  there  are  no  Republicans;  there  are  no 
Irish;  there  are  no  Germans;  there  are  no  Canadians;  there  are  no  foreign  born,  and  in  real  service  to  our  country 
there  is  no  distinction  in  race  or  creed.  We  are  all  Americans  with  but  one  purpose  in  view — to  maintain  the  power, 
the  prestige  and  the  honor  of  this  republic."     (Applause.) 

Adelbert  Moot  followed  Mr.  Kennedy  as  the  final  speaker  of  the  evening.    Mr.  Moot  said : 

"I  am  a  peace  man,  never  more  so  than  to-night,  and  yet  I'm  heart  and  soul  with  President  Wilson  for  war.  I  never 
was  with  him  before,  but  I'm  with  him  now  because  he  speaks  for  my  country,  truly  and  well. 

"More  than  140  years  ago  we  set  up  a  new  government — and  made  it  go— with  the  help  of  France.  And  in  making 
it  go  we  taught  our  mother  country  something  about  treatment  of  colonies,  so  that  now  England's  territorial  pos- 
sessions are  pouring  their  wealth,  resources  and  men  gladly  to  the  aid  of  the  Allies. 

"Liberty-loving  France  now  calls  for  our  aid.  Have  we  any  cause  for  going  to  war?  Should  a  peace  man  ever 
fight?  In  the  Civil  War  there  were  more  Quaker  soldiers  in  proportion  to  the  members  of  their  sect  than  any  other 
denomination.     They  weren't  Quakers  then,  they  were  soldiers,  and  they  did  their  duty. 

"To-day  we  have  no  more  loyal  citizens  than  those  who  have  German  blood  in  their  veins.  I  have,  and  am  proud 
of  it.  This  is  not  a  war  on  the  German  people.  It  is  a  war  between  autocracy  and  democracy.  The  whole  question 
is;    'Is  the  brotherhood  of  man  going  to  dominate  the  world  or  not?" 

"I'm  a  peace  man,  but  I'm  for  war,  because  if  Germany  wins  this  war  we'll  have  no  peace.  The  only  way  to  have 
peace  is  for  us  to  aid  in  the  fight  against  autocracy  until  the  people  get  so  tired  of  it  they  are  ready  to  tumble  it  into 
the  sea. 

"We  could  make  peace  with  the  German  people  in  twenty  minutes.  We  couldn't  make  peace  with  Prussian 
autocracy  in  twenty  years.  If  the  struggle  ends  right,  great  armies  and  navies  will  be  unnecessary  and  we  can  begin 
to  think  about  the  better  things  of  democracy."   (Applause.) 

At  the  height  of  the  enthusiasm  Mayor  Fuhrmann  read  a  letter  sent  by  President  George  Rand 
of  the  Alarine  National  Bank  to  President  Wilson  offering  to  raise  a  volunteer  regiment. 

Hon.  W(X)L)Row  Wilson,  Buffalo.  N.  Y..  April  3d,  1917. 

Executive  Mansion.  Washington,  D.  C. 
Dear  Sir: 

The  undersigned,  recognizing  the  grave  crisis  now  confronting  our  country  in  its  threatened  conflict  with  the  German  empire,  and  endorsing 
your  magnificent  stand  and  determination  in  upholding  the  dignity  and  rights  o!  American  citizens  at  home  and  on  the  high  seas,  and  being  desir- 
ous of  doing  everything  within  my  power  to  assist  you  and  our  country  at  this  time,  it  gives  me  great  pleasure  to  offer  my  services  in  recruiting 
an  entire  regiment  of  1.000  men  in  this  city,  for  home  or  overseas  service,  the  expense  of  recruiting  and  equipment  of  whom  I  will  defray  personally, 
requesting  only  from  the  Government  the  supplying  of  two  or  three  officials,  preferably  from  the  West  Point  Military  Academy,  to  co-operate  in 
the  formation  and  drilling  of  such  regiment. 

While  I  myself  am  without  military  knowledge  and  training,  yet  I  should  expect  to  devote  my  time  to  acquiring  such  knowledge  and  training 
as  are  necessary  for  service  with  said  regiment. 

Trusting  that  it  may  be  my  privilege  to  have  you  accept  my  services  in  thus  responding  to  our  country's  need  at  this  time,  I  beg  you  to  believe 
me,  sir,  your  obedient  servant. 

George  Rand. 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 


61 


a»  • 


Lillian  Russell  Aids  Marine  Recruiting 

Noted  actress  on  the  platform  at  Lafayette  Square  urges  enlistments  in  the  Marine  Corps 

While  the  offer  aroused  the  meeting  and  the  community  it  was  not  accepted  by  the  Govern- 
ment, however,  because  of  a  determination  to  end  the  volunteer  system,  if  possible,  and  enlarge 
the  army  in  ways  which  would  not  disturb  industrial  conditions. 

The  meeting  lasted  until  well  into  the  night:  crowds  came  and  departed,  and  other  crowds 
succeeded  to  their  places.  In  Washington  the  House  of  Representatives  was  battling  through 
the  night  in  a  determined  stand  to  force  a  vote  on  the  war  resolution  before  adjourning.  In  the 
early  hours  of  the  morning  of  April  6th,  while  the  throng  was  still  lingering  about  Elmwood  Music 
Hall,  word  came  that  war  would  be  declared  before  morning  and  the  prize  to  be  fought  for  would 
be  liberty  and  independence  for  mankind  everywhere.  The  cry  had  already  gone  up:  "The 
World  Must  Be  Made  Safe  for  Democracy."  Early  that  morning  the  House,  by  an  overwhelming 
majority,  adopted  the  joint  resolution  already  accepted  by  the  Senate: 

"Whereas,  the  Imperial  German  Government  has  committed  repeated  acts  of  war  against  the  Government  and 
the  people  of  the  United  States  of  America:  therefore  be  it 

"Resolred  by  the  Senate  and  House  of  Representatives  of  the  United  States  of  America  in  Congress  assembled, 
That  the  state  of  war  between  the  United  States  and  the  Imperial  German  Government  which  has  thus  been  thrust 
upon  the  United  States  is  hereby  formally  declared;  and  that  the  President  be,  and  he  is  hereby  authorized  and  di- 
rected to  employ  the  entire  naval  and  military  forces  of  the  United  States  and  the  resources  of  the  Government  to 
carry  on  war  against  the  Imperial  German  Government;  and  to  bring  the  conflict  to  a  successful  termination  all 
the  resources  of  the  country  are  hereby  pledged  by  the  Congress  of  the  United  States." 

At  last  the  Nation  was  on  its  way  to  war  and  Buffalo  was  in  step. 


62  Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 


CHAPTER  XVI 
NAVAL  MILITIA  OFF  TO  WAR  — SOLDIERS  GUARD  WATER  FRONT 

EVENTFUL  were  the  days  immediately  following  the  declaration  of  war,  but  not  extraordi- 
narily exciting.  The  first  real  touch  of  interest  came  with  the  news  that  members  of  the 
Naval  Militia  stationed  here  had  departed  for  the  seaboard.  The  young  mariners  who 
formed  the  State  Guard  of  Naval  Militia  had  been  mustered  into  the  Federal  service  prior  to  the 
presentation  of  the  war  message  to  Congress.  Early  on  the  evening  of  April  7th,  they  left  the 
armory  of  the  74th  Regiment  in  Niagara  Street  and  marched  to  the  Lehigh  station  where  they 
boarded  a  train  for  Philadelphia.*  So  quickly  was  it  done,  and  so  quietly,  that  very  few  people 
knew  of  the  Naval  Militia's  journey  until  they  were  well  on  their  way  to  the  deck  of  some  Ameri- 
can ship.  The  departure  of  that  unit  brought  color  to  the  cheeks  of  the  Buffalo  boys.  And 
while  not  all  cheeks  glowed  with  the  red  blood  of  courage,  most  of  them  did.  Some  Buffalo  boys, 
at  least,  had  gone  to  war;  othei-s  who  felt  eager  to  take  part  in  the  struggle  immediately  applied 
for  enlistment  at  the  regimental  headquarters.  A  small  stream  of  young  men  had  constantly 
flowed  into  the  Canadian  Army  or  into  foreign  ambulance  service.  That  stream  was  now  di- 
verted into  the  recruiting  stations  here. 

Two  battalions  of  the  74th  assembled  on  the  7th  of  April  at  the  armory  to  prepare  for  patrol 
duty  in  guarding  railroad  bridges  and  other  important  points  along  the  arteries  of  commerce. 
The  first  battalion,  under  the  command  of  Major  William  R.  Pooley,  later  Lieutenant  Colonel 
of  the  regiment,  was  ordered  to  remain  at  the  armory.  That  battalion  included  companies  A, 
B,  C,  and  D,  Headquarters  Company,  the  Supply  Company  and  the  Machine  Gun  Company, 
recently  organized.  (Sergeant  Christopher  Reddan,  who  really  led  the  machine  gun  company 
through  the  foreign  campaign,  being  cited  for  bravery,  fell  down  stairs  a  few  days  after  his  return 
to  Buffalo  and  was  killed.)  Company  K  of  Tonawanda  and  Company  E  of  Jamestown  had 
already  taken  up  patrol  posts  in  difi'erent  parts  of  the  State.  An  urgent  call  to  guard  the  electric 
plants  at  the  Falls  had  been  made,  and  by  reason  of  the  tremendous  volume  of  power  generated 
at  that  point  extra  precaution  was  immediately  taken.  Federal  and  municipal  authorities  knew 
that  German  propagandists  were  active,  and  a  natural  uneasiness  as  to  the  real  extent  of  dis- 
affection and  disloyalty  was  felt  here.  Many  officials.  Mayor  Fuhrmann  among  them,  expressed 
a  disbelief  that  any  disloyalty  lurked  in  Buffalo,  but  they  proceeded  nevertheless  on  the  theory 
that  it  is  better  to  be  safe  than  sorry,  and  acted  accordingly. 

Commissioner  Arthur  W.  Kreinheder  at  the  head  of  the  important  city  department  of  Public 
Works  sent  a  communicationt  to  the  Council  on  April  6th,  the  day  war  was  declared, urging  action 
looking  to  a  further  protection  of  the  Water  Works. 

Business  interests  of  the  city  began  to  exhibit  apprehension  and  on  April  r2th  Mayor  Fuhrmann 
asked  Governor  Whitman  for  State  troops  to  guard  local  elevators.  He  had  forgotten  that  the 
troops  were  no  longer  under  the  control  of  the  State,  but  was  reminded  of  that  fact  in  a  telegram  | 
from  Adjutant  General  Stotesbury  on  April  13th. 


♦There  was  little  excitement  last  night  at  8  o'clock  in  the  Exchange  street  station  as  Buffalo's  two  divisions  of  the  naval  militia  boarded  a  special 
train  for  Philadelphia  from  which  point  they  will  be  sent  to  a  port  on  the  Atlantic  where  they  will  be  assigned  to  one  of  Uncle  Sam's  warships 
for  active  service.  No  information  was  available  as  to  where  they  are  going,  but  it  is  known  that  they  will  be  on  warships  within  24  hours  after 
they  reach  their  destination. 

Their  departure  was  sudden.  It  was  known  for  two  days  that  they  were  going  to  leave,  but  the  day  for  departure  was  generally  thought  to 
be  Tuesday.  Preparations  had  been  completed  swiftly  and  the  militiamen  were  somewhat  surprised  when  an  order  came  from  Washington  late 
yesterday  afternoon  ordering  them  to  leave  in  the  evening. 

Their  special  train  arrived  in  Philadelphia  at  6  o'clock  this  morning. 

Soon  after  the  order  came  Lieutenant  Frank  Maytham  and  Lieutenant  Commander  Arthur  E.  Brock  had  the  men  ready  and  all  their  equip- 
ment was  sent  on  its  way. 

The  men  were  barely  able  to  inform  their  parents  and  their  relatives  that  they  were  about  to  leave.  As  the  boys  marched  out  of  the  Connecti- 
cut street  armory  they  were  given  a  great  send-off  by  the  members  of  the  74th  Regiment  and  the  hundreds  of  persons  who  were  visiting  the  armory 
and  the  wives  and  sweethearts  and  friends  of  the  militiamen. 

As  the  boys,  most  of  whom  are  young,  marched  through  the  street  small  crowds  gathered,  for  they  were  attracted  by  the  tunes  that  were  played 
by  the  militiamen's  fife  and  drum  corps.     The  march  continued  in  Niagara  street  to  Main  street  to  Exchange  street. 

This  was  a  new  experience  for  the  naval  militiamen.     They  did  not  go  to  the  border  when  the  infantrymen  went,  but  their  call  this  time  is 
different  than  the  call  that  infantrymen  received.     The  naval  militiamen  are  going  to  war. — (Local  newspaper) 
1 1  See  next  page. 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War  63 

Upon  receipt  of  that  telegram,  the  Mayor  immediately  despatched  a  telegram^/  to  the  Com- 
mander at  Governor's  Island,  again  urging  waterfront  protection. 

The  police  guard  around  the  elevators  was  increased  and  the  elevator  owners  co-operated  by 
the  appointment  of  watchmen  to  assist  the  police  in  safeguarding  these  immense  repositories  of 
valuable  foodstuffs.  Fires  in  the  elevators  at  Erie  and  at  other  points  throughout  the  country 
added  to  the  uneasiness  here.  It  was  not  until  near  the  close  of  April  that  the  Mayor  received 
word  *  *  from  the  Government  offering  assistance  in  guarding  these  properties.  On  April  25th  a 
letter  from  Adjutant  General  Wing  at  Governor's  Island  assured  Buffalo  officials  that  troops 
would  be  furnished. 


To  THE  Council—  tDEPARTMENT    OF    PUBLIC    WORKS 

Gentlemen; 

The  unsettled  condition  of  the  times  and  the  prevailing  apprehension  that  through  the  efforts  of  public  enemies  or  malicious  and  evil  minded 
persons  damage  and  loss  may  occur  to  the  property  of  the  city,  especially  the  water  works,  urges  me  to  lay  before  you  this  communication  for 
your  consideration. 

To  minimize  danger  a  special  guard  of  police  is  now  being  maintained  day  and  night  over  the  water  works  property,  and  further  precautions 
have  been  taken  to  thoroughly  safeguard  the  very  large  investments  of  the  city  in  this  most  important  system.  Upon  consultation  with  many 
business  men,  I  find  that  when  large  values  are  jeopardized,  as  a  further  precautionary  measure  these  values  are  insured  against  loss  by  any  of  the 
causes  mentioned. 

I  therefore  submit  for  the  consideration  of  the  Council  the  proposition  that  explosion  insurance  be  placed  upon  the  water  works,  and  that  the 
cost  of  such  insurance,  which  will  not  be  very  great  considering  the  protection  afforded,  be  borne  as  a  current  expense  by  the  bureau  of  water. 

It  is  not  necessary  to  recite  the  terrible  consequences  which  destruction  of  any  vital  or  serious  portion  of  the  water  works  system  would  bring 
upon  the  people  of  the  city  of  Buffalo.  While  we  have  the  utmost  confidence  in  the  patriotism  and  loyalty  of  all  our  citizens,  we  believe  that  in 
the  interest  of  public  safety  this  department  should  be  empowered  to  take  all  the  precautionary  measures  necessary. 

1  am  informed  that  other  cities  are  protecting  their  public  properties  by  insurance,  and  in  view  of  the  large  values  of  our  pumping  station,  I 
recommend  that  this  department  be  authorized  to  procure  the  necessary  insurance  at  once  on  the  best  terms  and  conditions  obtainable. 

Respectfully  submitted, 

Arthur  W.  Kreinheder.  Commissioner 

(Copy  of  Telegram  sent)  JSTATE    OF    NEW    YORK 

The  Adjutant  General's  Office 
(26457)  Albany 

Hon.  Louis  P.  Fuhrmann, 

Mayor  of  Buffalo.  Albany,  N.  Y.,  April  13th.  1917. 

Buffalo,  N.  Y. 
Reference  your  telegram  all  infantry  National  Guard  organizations  in  western  part  of  State  are  in  Federal  service.     Have  referred  your  tele- 
gram to  the  Commanding  General  Eastern  Department  and  requested  him  to  wire  this  office  whether  National  Guard  units  in  Federal  service  will 
be  placed  on  duty  for  protection  of  elevator  and  milfing  district  of  Buffalo.     Suggest  you  wire  Commanding  General  Eastern  Department,  Gov- 
ernor's Island,  for  adequate  guard  from  troops  in  Federal  service. 

Louis  W.  Stotesbury, 

The  Adjutant  General. 

SPosTAL  Telegraph  —  Commercial  Cables 

TELEGRAM 

Buffalo,  N.  Y.,  April  14.  1917. 
To  THE  General  Commanding  Department  of  the  East,  U.  S.  Army, 
Governor's  Island,  New  York  Harbor 
Grain  elevators  at  Buffalo,  with  a  storage  capacity  of  twenty-five  million  bushels  of  grain;  flour  and  cereal  mills  with  a  daily  output  about 
twenty-five  thousand  barrels  flour,  and  corresponding  quantity  of  feed,  feel  that  their  property  is  in  jeopardy  unless  given  immediate  military  pro- 
tection.    Two  hundred  million  bushels  of  grain  passed  through  this  port  last  year,  going  very  largely  for  export  to  the  Allies.     One  hundred  twenty- 
five  million  of  this  was  Canadian  grain — principally  wheat.     There  are  thirty  millions  of  wheat  headed  to  Buffalo  now.  merely  awaiting  breaking 
up  of  ice  on  lakes.     I  earnestly  request  that  you  detail  at  least  a  battalion  of  troops  to  protect  these  properties  which  are  located  almost  entirely 
in  one  district  on  the  waterfront^a  narrow  strip  a  little  over  two  miles  long.     I  have  asked  the  New  York  State  authorities  for  such  protection 
and  am  informed  that  all  State  troops  have  been  mustered  into  Federal  service  and  that  request  should  be  addressed  to  you.     Please  act  promptly. 
Shippers  and  owners  of  grain  and  grain  products  passing  through  this  port  are  greatly  exercised  over  lack  of  protection. 

L.  P,  Fuhrmann,  Mayor. 

**HEADQUARTERS    EASTERN    DEPARTMENT 
Governor's  Island.  New  York  City 
In  reply  refer  to  370.21.  Buffalo.  N.  Y.  April  24th,  1917. 

Hon.  Louis  P.  Fuhrmann, 

Mayor,  Buffalo,  N.  Y. 
Dear  Sir: 

Reference  your  telegram  of  April  14th,  1917.  The  Department  Commander  directs  me  to  inform  you  that  as  soon  as  the  3rd  New  York  In- 
fantry is  mustered  into  the  Federal  service,  the  Commanding  Officer  of  the  74th  New  York  Infantry  at  Buffalo  has  been  directed  to  furnish  such 
troops  as  may  be  practicable  to  co-operate  with  your  police  force  in  the  protection  of  the  grain  elevator  district  of  Buffalo. 

These  troops  are  furnished  with  the  idea  of  co-operating  with  the  civil  authorities  in  protecting  these  districts,  and  it  will  not  be  practicable 
to  furnish  the  necessary  troops  to  entirely  safeguard  this  district,  but  your  local  police  should  co-operate  with  these  troops  in  keeping  this  portion 
of  the  city  properly  policed.  While  it  is  desired  to  furnish  all  the  protection  practicable  for  such  utilities,  he  is  unable  with  the  number  of  troops 
available  to  protect  all  such  places,  and  in  furnishing  such  protection  as  he  is  able,  he  hopes  that  your  department  will  co-operate  in  such  manner 
as  to  make  the  protection  adequate. 

Yours  very  truly, 

J.  A.  Wing, 

Adiuiani-General  Adjutant. 


64  Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 


CHAPTER  XVII 

RUSH    FOR    MARRIAGE    LICENSES    CONGESTS 
CITY    CLERK'S    OFFICE 


T 


HE  recruiting  campaign  in  April  was  confined  largely  if  not  wholly  to  enlistments  in  the 
Regular  Army  and  to  filling  the  National  Guard  regiments  to  fighting  strength.  The  fol- 
lowing telegram  explains  the  army  purposes  of  the  Government  at  that  time: 


WESTERN    UNION    TELEGRAM 
Hon.  Louis  P.  Fuhrmann,  New  York,  N.  Y.,  April  12,  1917. 

Mayor,  Buffalo,  N.  Y.: 
Our  telegram  of  April  seventh,  emphasized  Navy's  need.  Understand  Regular  Army  and  National  Guard  to  be  filled  if  possible  by  Volunteers 
but  creation  larger  force  dependent  upon  Congressional  legislation.  Venture  to  suggest  you  now  urge  Navy  enlistment.  Hope  by  action  your 
own  city,  and  by  telegrams  to  your  Congressmen  and  Senators,  you  will  emphasize  danger  relying  upon  volunteer  system.  Men  needed  in  industry, 
agriculture,  and  to  look  after  families  may  wish  to  enlist.  Men  who  should  enlist  may  prefer  to  stay  home.  Chaos  will  result.  Universal  train- 
ing service  means  every  man  will  be  assigned  to  duty  for  which  best  fitted.  Service  in  factory  or  farm  equally  honorable  with  service  with  colors. 
Under  volunteer  system  there  will  be  stigma  upon  those  who  stay  at  home.  We  hope  for  your  support  for  universal  service.  Our  Committee  is 
receiving  strongest  possible  support  from  labor  leader  members.     Suggest  you  include  labor  representatives  on  committees  you  may  organize. 

Alexander  J.  Hemphill, 
CfiairmaUy  Rerruith/g  Committee  of  the  Mayor's  Committee  on  National  Defense. 

Recruiting  was  brisk  for  a  while  but  not  exceptionally  so.  Captain  Hamlin  opened  a  recruiting 
station  for  the  Third  Artillery  at  Lafayette  Square,  and  another  at  Shelton  Square.  Colonel 
Kemp,  also,  caused  stations  to  be  set  up  about  the  city  to  bring  in  recruits  for  the  74th.  Marines 
and  naval  officers  were  likewise  active  in  recruiting.  Scenes  around  the  monument  at  Lafayette 
Square  at  times  grew  most  interesting  and  spectacular.  Women  joined  in  the  work.  Earnest 
appeals  were  made  to  those  who  congregated  at  that  point  to  "join  the  colors."  Captain  Patrick 
J.  Keeler,  a  judge  of  the  City  Court,  was  among  the  most  enthusiastic  officers  of  the  Third  Artil- 
lery in  the  effort  to  secure  enlistments  in  his  regiment.  His  speeches  from  the  monument  plat- 
form were  intensely  patriotic  and  forceful.  No  two  men  could  have  possibly  spent  more  time  and 
endeavor  than  did  Captains  Hamhn  and  Keeler  in  that  recruiting  campaign.  Their  labors  were  not 
so  fully  rewarded,  perhaps,  as  they  had  hoped,  or  as  the  effort  deserved,  but  they  did  bring  many 
young  men  into  khaki  under  the  banner  of  the  old  65th  Regiment,  then  the  Third  Artillery. 

On  April  24th  the  Military  Training  Camp  Association  opened  an  office  in  the  White  Building 
to  receive  applications  for  the  officers'  training  camp  at  Madison  Barracks.  A  number  of  guards- 
men were  permitted  to  join  the  officers'  camps,  and  through  that  source  Buffalo  furnished  many 
officers  to  the  Army.  Later  camps  were  established  at  Fort  Niagara,  and  other  points  throughout 
the  country.  Many  men  who  secured  commissions  at  Madison  Barracks,  were  sent  to  the  regu- 
lars, and  finally  found  their  way  into  the  First  and  Second  Divisions  in  overseas  service. 

While  it  may  be  possible  that  all  eyes  were  turned  toward  the  military  operations  at  that 
moment,  the  rush  of  the  young  men  of  Buffalo  was  not  wholly  in  the  direction  of  the  recruiting 
stations.  Many  rushed  to  the  City  Clerk's  office  for  marriage  licenses,  through  which  they 
hoped  to  evade  military  service.  The  following  article,  appearing  in  the  Buffalo  Commercial  on 
the  "Yellow  Peril"  was  written  by  Frank  Gilchriese,  City  Hall  reporter,  and  father  of  Captain 
Harry  Gilchriese  who  gave  valiant  service  throughout  the  war  with  the  106th  Artillery  in  France. 

"Slackers  Enter  Here" 

"That  was  the  sign  that  someone  pasted  over  the  doorway  leading  to  the  City  Clerk's  office  and  the  marriage 
license  bureau  yesterday.  That  sign  didn't  appear  to  have  any  effect  on  the  rush.  All  records  at  Cupid's  Bower 
were  smashed  to  smithereens  by  the  onslaught  of  prospective  brides  and  bridegrooms.  The  rush  started  immedi- 
ately after  the  City  Clerk's  office  was  opened  for  business,  and  at  noon  it  hadn't  abated  a  jot.  City  Clerk  Sweeney 
had  to  detail  practically  all  his  employees  to  the  job  of  making  out  licenses.  There  were  fully  fifty  couples 
lined  up  for  marriage  licenses  all  the  time,  and  they  kept  coming  until  the  wonder  was  where  they  all  came 
from. 

"A  careful  scrutiny  of  the  lapels  of  the  coats  of  the  bridegrooms  failed  to  disclose  more  than  one  per  cent  of  Ameri- 
can colors — the  colors  that  are  being  worn  so  profusely  these  days. 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War  65 

"'Do  these  men  have  to  swear  to  support  the  Constitution  and  the  flag?'  asked  a  bystander  of  one  of  the  City 
Clerk's  men. 

" '  Won't  they  have  enough  to  do  to  support  their  wives? '  was  the  retort. 

"Some  of  the  couples  that  entered  the  hall  noticed  the  big  American  flag  that  is  suspended  over  the  clerk's  desk. 
But  most  of  the  couples  saw  nothing  in  that  flag  to  attract  them.  They  simply  followed  the  rush.  The  sight  was 
such  an  unusual  one  that  city  hall  employees  made  a  sort  of  Mecca  of  the  City  Clerk's  office  just  to  see  the  crowd. 

"At  noon  an  attempt  was  made  to  get  a  count  of  the  couples  that  secured  licenses  during  the  forenoon,  but  the 
rush  and  consequent  confusion  made  this  impossible.  It  was  certain  that  more  than  100  couples  got  licenses  during 
the  forenoon  and  that  more  than  half  of  the  men  were  of  military  age — between  18  and  25. 

"An  officer  of  the  Third  Field  Artillery  called  upon  City  Clerk  Sweeney  to  ask  if  he  could  erect  a  recruiting  station 
in  the  City  Clerk's  office. 

"  'By  all  means,'  said  Mr.  Sweeney. 

"The  officer  said  he  would  send  a  recruiting  corps  to  the  office  during  the  afternoon. 

"'That  might  stop  the  rush,'  said  a  tired-out  employee." 

The  following  report  in  the  Courier  indicates  that  the  recruiting  officers  did  not  overlook  the 
opportunity  to  set  up  a  recruiting  station  where  the  heroes  (of  matrimony)  were  the  thickest: 

"At  noon  a  sergeant  and  three  privates  of  the  .3d  Artillery  opened  a  recruiting  office  in  the  marriage  license  bureau. 
They  were  furnished  with  office  room  and  other  necessaries  by  City  Clerk  Sweeney.  They  posted  the  usual  notices 
and  prepared  to  do  business,  but  the  sergeant  said  he  had  little  expectation  for  success  at  this  time. 

"'Perhaps  a  few  months  from  now  some  of  these  young  fellows  will  be  glad  to  join  the  army,'  said  a  bystander." 

The  efforts  of  the  military  men  quickly  turned  the  tide,  however,  and  the  number  appearing 
for  licenses  gradually  dwindled.  The  young  women  were  the  first  to  declare  that  they 
would  not  run  the  battery  of  gibes  from  those  gathered  around  the  corridors  leading  to  the 
City  Clerk's  office,  and  a  brighter  and  better  and  nobler  color  began  to  take  the  place  of  the 
yellow  shade  in  the  cheeks  of  the  young  men.  Many  of  those  who  felt  the  impulse  to  evade 
service  and  who  applied  for  licenses  at  that  time  were  numbered  later  on  with  the  boys  who  did 
their  "bit"  to  the  limit,  and  made  the  Supreme  Sacrifice  under  their  country's  flag  in  a  foreign 
land. 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 


67 


CHAPTER  XVIII 
FLAG    RAISING    CEREMONIES    AND    PULPIT    APPEALS 

PRESIDENT  Wilson's  war  message  to  Congress,  the  patriotic  fervor  of  the  Elmwood  Music 
Hall  meeting,  and  the  declaration  of  war  itself  served  to  set  the  blood  of  the  people  a-tingling 
and  fill  the  city  with  martial  airs.  The  month  of  April  found  bankers  and  merchants  fling- 
ing the  flag  to  the  breeze.  The  practice  quickly  spread  to  the  householders,  if  it  did  not  originate 
there.  Large  industrial  plants  added  something  akin  to  a  renewal  of  allegiance  by  surrounding 
the  flag  raising  events  with  ceremony  and  song.  In  many  of  the  plants,  workmen  purchased 
and  raised  the  flags  themselves.  Commissioners  Malone  and  Kreinheder,  Mayor  Fuhrmann  and 
other  city  officials  were  much  in  demand  as  speakers  at  flag  raising  ceremonies.  Though  the 
practice  began  in  April  it  lasted  through  the  entire  year  and  at  times  the  number  was  so  large  it 
seemed  as  though  the  city  would  burst  out  in  one  great  American  flag  with  the  entire  population 
cheering.     The  daily  papers  were  filled  with  accounts  of  these  jubilees. 

The  first  flags  raised  with  ceremony  were  at  the  Pierce-Arrow  plant  in  Elmwood  Avenue,  and 
at  the  Niagara  Street  branch  of  the  Curtiss  plant.  Peter  A.  Porter,  a  former  member  of  Congress, 
and  Colonel  Charles  Clifton  were  the  speakers  at  the  first  named  ceremonial,  while  Mayor  Fuhr- 
mann delivered  an  address  of  patriotic  character  at  the  Curtiss  plant.  The  following  day,  "Old 
Glory"  was  unfolded  at  the  New  York  Central  stockyards  in  East  Bufi'alo,  with  Alfred  D.  Sears 
as  master  of  ceremonies  and  Edward  L.  Jung  as  the  speaker.  A  squad  of  fifteen  members  of  the 
74th  Regiment  participated  in  the  observances  and  fired  a  salute  to  the  flag.  Then  the  Post- 
office  employees  raised  an  immense  banner,  the  speakers  being  Robert  Eichel,  superintendent 
of  mails;  David  0.  Trainer,  head  of  the  Clerks'  Association,  and  Thomas  F.  Kennedy,  president 


Hon.  Charles  M.  Heald  Addressing  Crowd  at  Patriotic  Meeting 


68  Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 

of  the  Letter  Carriers'  Association.  On  that  occasion  Postmaster  George  J.  Meyer  announced 
that  he  would  give  his  entire  salary  of  $6,000  a  year  to  war  relief  funds.  Captain  Patrick  J. 
Keeler  and  Lieutenant  D.  P.  Wickersham,  naval  recruiting  officer,  were  the  speakers  at  Lafayette 
Square  when  the  boys  of  the  recruiting  station  had  a  "flag  raising"  early  in  April.  Fully  1,000 
men  massed  themselves  at  the  Cyphers  Incubator  plant  in  Dewey  Avenue  for  a  similar  purpose. 
The  men  poured  in  from  the  adjoining  plants.  The  gathering  was  probably  the  largest  at  any 
flag  raising  ceremony  held  during  the  month  of  April.  Arthur  W.  Kreinheder,  Commissioner  of 
Public  Works,  was  the  speaker.  In  many  of  the  churches  patriotic  sermons  were  delivered.  On 
Sunday  following  the  declaration  of  war  Rev.  Robert  J.  MacAlpine  of  the  Central  Park  Presby- 
terian Church  and  the  Rev.  Thomas  J.  O'Hern,  a  Catholic  missionary,  were  leaders  in  the  pulpit 
appeal  to  patriotism.  On  the  following  Saturday  and  Sunday  war  sermons  were  preached  by 
the  Rev.  Louis  J.  Kopald  of  Temple  Beth  Zion,  Rev.  Carl  D.  Case  of  the  Delaware  Avenue  Baptist 
Church,  Rev.  Richard  Wilson  Boynton  of  the  First  Unitarian  Church,  Rev.  John  T.  Cowan  of 
the  Prospect  Avenue  Baptist  Church,  Rev.  William  J.  Kirwin,  0.  M.  I.  of  Holy  Angels  Church, 
Rev.  William  S.  Mitchell  of  Plymouth  Methodist  Episcopal,  Rev.  Thomas  J.  Walsh,  later  Bishop 
of  Trenton,  X.  .J.,  then  rector  of  St.  Joseph's  Old  Cathedral,  Rev.  L.  0.  Williams,  First  Univer- 
salist  Church  of  the  Messiah,  and  Rev.  George  F.  Williams  of  St.  Mary's  on  the  Hill,  who  later 
became  Captain  Williams  of  the  United  States  Army — a  chaplain. 

Men  were  naturally  turning  to  the  armories,  to  the  recruiting  stations  and  to  Congress  for 
information  as  to  the  next  step.  War  had  been  declared,  yet  no  one  understood  definitely  how 
we  were  to  make  war.  Food  was  necessary;  that  was  apparent.  Ships  had  to  be  built;  that, 
also,  we  realized  to  be  an  essential  duty  of  the  nation.  The  Navy  could  use  men,  mariners  would 
be  required  in  manning  the  ships  to  carry  supplies  and  ammunition.  It  appeared  to  be  conceded 
we  would,  in  compliance  with  our  military  and  naval  duty,  simply  fill  up  the  local  regiments  and 
aid  in  Navy  enlistments. 

Discussion  grew  at  Washington  as  to  whether  or  not  we  would  send  an  army  overseas,  and  the 
arrival  of  envoys  from  England  and  France  to  discuss  the  form  our  aid  should  take,  soon  made 
it  certain  that  men  would  be  needed  for  war  service  on  foreign  soil.  The  man-power  of  both 
France  and  England  had  been  materially  weakened,  and  the  morale  of  their  troops  was  none  too 
high. 

Offers  to  raise  volunteer  regiments  poured  in  to  Washington.  President  Wilson  and  other 
officials  at  the  head  of  the  War  Department  were  strongly  set  against  the  volunteer  system,  and, 
at  an  early  date  in  April,  caused  a  bill  providing  for  selective  enrollment  to  be  introduced  in  both 
houses  of  Congress.  The  measure  was  discussed  at  length  in  the  House  Military  Committee, 
and,  on  April  18th,  the  committee,  by  a  vote  of  twelve  to  eight,  decided  to  have  the  army  bill 
carry  a  provision  committing  the  Government  to  an  attempt  to  raise  the  new  force  by  volunteers 
before  taking  other  steps.  At  the  same  time  the  Senate  Committee,  by  a  vote  of  ten  to  seven, 
decided  in  favor  of  conscription.  The  action  of  the  House  was  virtually  a  declaration  for  the 
volunteer  system  to  raise  500,000  men,  the  number  it  was  generally  believed  would  be  needed. 
The  provision  which  the  House  Committee  agreed  upon  was  as  follows: 

■'That  the  President  be  and  he  is  hereby  authorized  to  call  for  500,000  volunteers  under  and  in  accordance  with 
the  act  of  Congress  approved  April  25,  1914  (the  army  reorganization  act)  *  *  *  That  in  the  event  it  becomes  neces- 
sary to  raise  an  additional  force  of  500,000  men  *  *  the  President  be,  and  he  is  hereby  authorized  to  call  such  addi- 
tional force  by  volunteers  in  the  same  manner,  such  volunteer  army  shall  be  apportioned  among  the  various  States 
and  Territories  and  the  District  of  Columbia,  according  to  population,  raised  in  regiments'  units  or  parts  thereof  *  *  * 
Provided  that  such  volunteer  forces  shall  be  recruited  in  local  units  as  far  as  practicable  and  company  officers  may 
be  appointed  from  such  units  upon  passing  such  reasonable  and  practical  e.xaminations  as  to  fitness  as  the  President 
may  direct. 

"And  provided  further,  that  upon  the  completion  of  the  enrollment  as  provided  in  this  act  and  in  the  event  the 
President  decides  that  such  additional  force  or  forces  cannot  be  effectually  raised  and  maintained  under  the  call  for 
volunteers  as  herein  provided,  the  President  be  and  he  is  hereby  authorized  to  raise  and  organize  the  same  by  the 
selective  draft  as  herein  provided." 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War  69 

The  foregoing  resolution  voiced  the  trend  of  thought  of  a  great  many  people.  The  volunteer 
system  was  looked  upon  as  the  more  manly  and  patriotic  way  to  go  to  war,  while  the  draft  was 
viewed  in  many  quarters  as  a  somewhat  degrading  system  of  raising  an  army.  It  was  stated 
that  riots  and  disorder  would  follow  any  attempt  to  draft  men.  Washington  reports,  while  indi- 
cating that  men  were  needed  on  the  farms  and  in  the  industries  more  than  in  the  military  branch, 
still  continued  to  carry  assurance  that  eventually  whatever  military  service  would  be  required 
of  the  young  men  would  be  determined  by  a  selective  draft  system.  In  Buffalo  people  generally 
felt  assured  that  our  part  in  the  struggle  would  be  confined  wholly  to  sending  supplies.  In  fact, 
the  utterances  of  all  authorities  tended  to  confirm  that  opinion.  The  Buffalo  Commercial  in  that 
day  was  a  conservative  newspaper.  Politically  it  was  opposed  to  the  President  but  it  strongly 
advocated  support  of  the  President's  war  policy  and  the  adoption  of  the  selective  service  system.* 
The  other  Buffalo  newspapers  were  likewise  earnestly  behind  the  President,  but  not  all  were 
entirely  convinced  that  the  volunteer  method  should  be  discarded. 

Comment  on  the  editorial  pages  of  the  papers  even  at  that  late  day  in  April  shows  how  little 
the  people  then  thought  of  our  actual  participation  with  an  armed  force  on  foreign  soil.  They 
did  not  realize  that  their  government  was  quietly  shaping  the  machinery  at  that  moment  to  raise 
the  army  which  in  one  year  and  a  half  from  that  date  would  halt  and  then  destroy  the  German 
military  machine. 


♦"As  the  days  pass  since  war  was  declared  against  Germany  the  part  that  the  United  States  is  to  play  in  the  great  world  struggle  for  supremacy 
becomes  more  clearly  and  definitely  pronounced.  We  now  realize  that  America's  duty  is  not  primarily  to  send  men  to  the  fighting  line  either  on 
sea  or  land,  but  in  supplying  the  nations  already  in  the  fight  with  the  things  they  stand  in  need  of.  It  is  not  for  us  to  carry  the  gun  but  to  work 
behind  the  gunners.  We  are  to  be  connected  with  the  quartermaster's  department.  It  is  an  humble  part  and  one  that  will  not  bring  great  mili- 
tary glory,  but  it  is  just  as  essential  to  the  winning  of  this  war  as  the  work  General  Haig's  forces  are  doing  to-day  on  the  blood-soaked  slopes  of 
Vimy  Ridge. 

"When  war  was  threatened  between  Germany  and  our  country  the  German  newspapers  ridiculed  the  idea  of  the  United  States  contributmg 
in  any  way  to  the  cause  of  the  Allies  more  than  it  was  already  doing.  They  declared  that  Americans  had  already  done  all  they  could  do  to  help 
the  Entente  by  sending  them  ammunition  and  other  supplies.  Little  did  they  count  upon  the  e.xpansive  resources  of  this  nation.  Little  did  they 
dream  that  what  we  had  done  for  gold  was  but  a  moiety  of  what  we  could  and  would  do  under  the  stimulus  of  patriotism;  that  the  streams  of 
supplies  which  have  been  flowing  into  Great  Britain.  France,  Russia  and  Italy  are  rivulets  indeed  when  compared  to  the  great  torrents  that  will  be 
poured  into  the  lap  of  the  Allies  when  the  industrial  forces  of  the  nation  are  once  fairly  mobilized  and  100,000,000  men,  women  and  children,  more 
or  less,  have  found  their  places  and  have  begun  to  'do  their  bit.' 

"The  United  States  is  to  be  the  great  supply  depot  of  the  allied  powers.  It  will  be  at  once  the  granary  of  the  Entente  armies  and  the  civilian 
populations  behind  them,  the  arsenal  of  the  troops  fighting  in  the  cause  of  democracy  and  the  great  shipyard  of  the  world,  building  vessels  in  such 
immense  quantities  that  Germany  with  all  the  destructive  power  of  her  submarines  cannot  sink  them  as  fast  as  they  will  be  turned  out.  Food, 
munitions,  clothing  and  footwearfor  soldiers  and  non-combatants  will  soon  pour  into  the  commercial  marts  of  the  Allies  in  such  increasing  quan- 
tities as  to  blast  forever  the  hopes  of  the  Central  empires  bringing  the  war  to  an  end  through  the  exhaustion  of  their  enemies. 

"This  is  the  theme  of  the  President's  address  to  the  country  published  in  the  newspapers  to-day:  We  must  take  the  place  of  the  men  who  have 
gone  to  the  front  and  raise  or  make  things  that  they  are  unable  to  produce  or  manufacture  by  reason  of  a  shortage  of  men,  material  and  machinery." 
— Buffalo  ComincTcial,  .\pril  16,  1917. 


70 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 


CHAPTER  XIX 
UNCLE    SAM'S    PLAN    TO    RAISE    A    NATIONAL    ARMY 

ON  Saturday,  April  28th,  1917,  Mayor  Fuhrmann  received  notice  through  official  channels 
of  the  form  BufTalo's  essential  military  participation  in  the  World  War  then  raging  in 
Europe  would  take.  The  notice  amved  fully  three  weeks  prior  to  the  date  on  which  Con- 
gress passed  the  act  which  subsequently  became  known  as  the  Selective  Service  Law.  It  con- 
veyed information  to  the  head  of  the  city  government  that  the  Federal  authorities  had  deter- 
mined to  raise  a  National  army  from  the  youths  of  the  country  by  the  selective  service 
system. 


^'resident  and  Mrs.  Wilson  visit  Buflfaln 

First  Lady  of  the  Land  alighting  from  automobile  on  occasion  of  President's  visit  to  Buffalo  for  the  big  labor  conference 

Mayor  Fuhrmann  had  followed  closely  the  affairs  at  Washington  and  at  the  capitals  of  the 
belligerent  nations  of  Europe  and  he  was  closer  to  a  complete  realization  of  the  nearness  of  war 
to  Buffalo  homes  than  most  of  the  war  students  of  Buffalo  at  that  time.  But  the  message  he 
received  that  evening  came  to  him  as  a  real  awakening.  It  did,  also,  to  the  others  who  read  it. 
Like  almost  everyone  else  he  had  pictured  in  his  mind's  eye  the  National  Guard  called  to  war; 
he  had  pictured  a  call  for  volunteers,  and,  then,  if  more  men  were  needed  for  America's  part — 
a  draft.  Up  to  that  hour,  however,  the  Federal  Government's  plan  of  procedure  had  not  been 
announced  to  anyone  in  Buffalo,  and  the  President  and  his  advisers  were  at  that  moment  deeply 
concerned  over  the  wisdom  of  their  course  and  waited  with  apprehension,  groundless  as  it  happily 
proved  to  be,  the  reception  of  the  plan  by  the  people. 

The  communication  announcing  the  draft  was  forwarded  to  Mayor  Fuhrmann  by  Brigadier 
General  Louis  W.  Stotesbury,  Adjutant  General  of  the  State  of  New  York,  and  was  marked, 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War  71 

**  Personal  and  Confidential/'  A  messenger  from  the  Mayor's  office  carried  it  to  the  Mayor  at 
Police  Headquarters,  where  he  had  called  for  a  conference  with  Chief  Martin. 

At  that  time,  and  for  some  weeks  prior  thereto,  the  police  authorities  were  conducting  an  ex- 
tensive investigation,  in  a  secret  way,  to  determine  the  extent  of  pro-German  propaganda  dif- 
fused here,  and  to  detect  any  conspiracies  which  might  be  afoot  for  the  destruction  of  industries 
or  storage  plants  or  the  like.  Explosions  and  fires,  in  which  great  quantities  of  war  material  and 
foodstuffs  had  been  destroyed,  had  been  reported  from  various  sections  of  the  country,  and  the 
Mayor  and  Chief  of  Police  were  extremely  anxious  to  avoid  a  disaster  of  that  sort  in  Buffalo. 

Police  Headquarters  was  then  on  a  small  rectangular  plot  of  ground  at  the  intersection  of 
Seneca,  Franklin  and  Erie  Streets,  and  the  Upper  Terrace.  It  faced  Franklin  Street,  but  its  rear 
windows  abutted  on  the  New  York  Central's  Belt  Line  tracks,  and  volumes  of  dense  black  smoke 
enclouded — almost  engulfed— the  building  at  regular  intervals  during  the  day  and  night  while  the 
ponderous  engines  rocked  and  shook  the  old  structure  as  they  climbed  up  the  grade  to  the  Terrace 
Station.  The  day  of  the  electrification  of  railroad  lines  within  the  city  limits  had  long  been  prom- 
ised but  had  not  yet  arrived.  Within  the  walls  of  that  old  building  Buffalo  officially  entered  the  war. 

Upon  the  arrival  of  the  City  Clerk  at  the  Chief's  office  in  answer  to  a  telephone  call,  the  Mayor 
handed  him  a  letter,*  the  one  he  had  just  received  from  Albany,  beingacondensedoutlineof  thedraft 
in  conformity  with  a  letter  sent  to  the  Governors  of  all  the  States  of  the  Union  on  April  23,  1917. 
The  plan  of  registration  as  outlined  in  that  letter  found  no  deviation  in  its  execution,  and  though 
thousands  of  men  were  engaged  in  the  task  and  70,000  registrations  were  effected  in  this  County, 
the  machinery  was  never  for  a  moment  retarded,  nor  stopped,  until  the  task  was  completed. 


*STATE  OF  NEW  YORK 
Confidential  and  Personal  The  Adjutant  General's  Office 

From;        The  Adjutant  General  Albany  April  26th,  1917. 

To:  Mayor  L.  P.  Fuhrmann.  Buffalo.  N.  Y. 

Subject:     Registration  of  Persons  for  Federal  Draft. 

1.  The  Governor  has  received  information  through  the  Secretary  of  War,  that  the  Act  now  pending  in  Congress  providing  for  the  raising  of 
additional  Army  troops,  is  assured  of  passage  this  week  and  will  have  the  immediate  approval  of  the  President. 

2.  The  Act  provides  for  the  raising  of  the  Army  by  selective  draft,  and  as  the  basis  for  such  action  the  President  proposes,  immediately  upon 
the  approval  of  the  Act,  to  issue  a  Proclamation  requiring  all  persons  of  the  designated  classes  or  ages,  to  present  themselves  for  registration 
on  a  certain  day,  at  the  customary  polling  places  in  their  voting  precincts  or  districts. 

3.  The  War  Department  has  called  upon  the  Governor  of  each  State  to  become  responsible  for  such  registration  within  the  State,  and  has 
directed  that  registration  boards  be  constituted  in  each  county,  consisting  of  the  Sheriff,  County  Clerk  and  the  county  physician  or  health  officer 
and  that  similar  boards  be  constituted  in  cities  of  over  30.000  inhabitants,  consisting  of  the  Mayor,  the  City  Clerk  and  the  City  Health  Officer 
or  head  of  the  local  health  department.  That  this  board,  in  cities,  shall  be  known  as  the  City  Board  of  Control,  and  will  act  as  a  supervisory 
board  for  the  entire  city.  Boards  similar  to  the  County  Board  should  be  constituted  for  one  or  more  wards,  to  supervise  the  registration  in  indi- 
cated precincts  and  to  further  execute  the  law,  and  the  various  ward  boards  should  function  under  the  central  City  Board  of  Control. 

4.  You.  as  Mayor,  will  be  the  executive  officer  of  the  Registration  Board  of  the  city.  The  City  Clerk  will  be  the  custodian  of  its  records. 
The  medical  officer  on  each  ward  board  would  later  pass  upon  the  physical  fitness  of  those  selected  for  service. 

5.  The  election  district  will  be  the  unit  of  registration.  There  must  be  provided  in  each  election  district  a  registration  depot,  and  for  each 
depot  there  would  be  appointed  by  the  ward  board  or  by  your  board,  as  you  may  determine,  at  least  one  registrar  and  a  sufficient  number  of  clerks 
to  take  care  of  the  registration  within  the  district. 

6.  The  important  duty  of  making  the  selection  from  the  drafted  class  would  be  made  in  the  city  by  the  Ward  Board,  and  should  be  consti- 
tuted of  citizens  who  can  be  relied  upon  to  exercise  this  solemn  function  with  even  justice  and  with  appreciation  of  its  gravity. 

7.  It  is  left  to  you,  as  Mayor  of  the  city,  to  appoint  the  Ward  Boards.  The  Governor  will  appoint  the  County  Boards  and  the  general  Super- 
vising Boards  of  the  city.  You  as  executive  officer  of  the  City  Board  will  appoint  and  designate  the  Ward  Boards,  either  a  special  Board  for  each 
ward  or  one  Board  to  cover  several  wards.     There  should  be  a  physician  on  each  Board. 

8.  According  to  the  information  received  from  the  Secretary  of  War,  the  Proclamation  will  call  for  the  registration,  on  a  certain  day  within 
ten  days  of  the  date  of  the  Proclamation,  and  all  of  the  men  of  the  designated  classes  will  be  required  to  appear  at  the  registration  depots  on  that 
day,  and  all  the  work  of  the  registration  is  to  be  accomplished  on  that  day.  You  will  readily  appreciate,  therefore,  the  necessity  of  having  all 
the  machinery  prepared  in  advance,  and  for  that  reason  we  are  giving  you  this  information  even  before  the  Proclamation  is  issued,  so  that  you  can 
immediately,  informally  organize  the  Board. 

9.  Immediate  steps  should  be  taken  to  secure  the  polling  places  in  each  district  as  registration  depots.  At  least  one  registrar  should  be 
appointed  for  each  registration  depot,  and  a  sufficient  number  of  clerks.  Every  preliminary  arrangement  should  be  made  to  take  official  action 
immediately  upon  the  receipt  of  notice  or  publication  of  the  President's  Proclamation. 

10.  The  War  Department  is  to  provide  the  forms  and  instructions  for  the  registration,  which  will  be  sent  direct  from  Washington  to  you  as 
executive  head  of  the  Board,  for  distribution  within  your  city.     Further  information  will  be  sent  to  you  as  soon  as  it  is  received  from  Washington. 

11.  Undoubtedly,  a  question  which  will  require  prompt  solution  is  that  of  the  expense  of  carrying  out  this  governmental  undertaking.  The 
Act  referred  to  gives  the  President  full  power  to  call  upon  State  and  Federal  officials  to  perform  such  duties  as  the  President  may  direct.  How- 
ever, in  communicating  the  plan  to  the  Governor,  the  Secretary  of  War  stated: 

"It  would  be  gratifying  also  to  think  that  the  services  required  of  members  of  these  boards  would  be  offered  without  hope  of 
compensation,  but  it  is  borne  in  mind  that  the  duties  imposed  upon  them  will  be  exacting,  difficult,  and  frequently  distressing. 
If  compensation  is  necessary,  the  Government  stands  ready  to  make  it.  Where  any  service  in  connection  herewith  is  rendered 
gratuitously  the  Government  will  be  prompt  to  express  its  appreciation." 

12.  While  this  refers  to  the  service  of  the  Board,  it  is  not  clear  that  it  was  intended  to  include  the  services  of  registrars  and  clerks.  If  it  is 
possible  for  you  to  obtain  volunteers  for  such  purpose,  that  would  seem  to  be  the  intention  of  the  Secretary.  Otherwise,  if  there  is  to  be  expense, 
either  for  service  or  for  hire  of  suitable  quarters,  you  must  immediately  prepare  a  budget  and  wire  in  the  expense,  so  that  it  can  be  submitted  to 
the  War  Department  for  approval,  but  we  urge  you  most  earnestly  to  let  no  consideration  of  that  sort  delay  or  prevent  prompt  and  complete 
action  as  indicated,  for  the  Governor  has  given  his  assurance  that  the  State  of  New  York  will,  to  the  fullest  extent,  co-operate  in  this  undertaking, 
and  that  every  officer,  state,  county  or  municipal,  as  well  as  each  citizen,  will  do  his  or  her  part  in  the  work. 

13.  In  view  of  the  confidential  character  of  the  communication  from  the  Secretary  of  War,  the  action  taken  must  be,  as  far  as  possible,  with- 
out publicity,  but  it  is  understood,  of  course,  that  the  official  nature  of  the  request  must  be  communicated  to  your  associates  and  those  who  are 
to  be  persuaded  to  do  the  work;  but  your  action  must,  to  a  certain  extent,  be  preparatory  and  tentative  until  the  Act  itself  is  signed  and  the 
Proclamation  itself  is  actually  issued. 

14.  Please  to  at  once  acknowledge  the  receipt  of  this  communication  and  give  your  assurance  as  to  the  necessary  action. 

Louis  W.  Stotesbury, 

The  Adjutant  General. 


72 


Buffalo's  Pakt  in  the  World  War 


CHAPTER  XX 
LOUIS    P.    FUHRMANN,    BUFFALO'S    WAR    MAYOR,    1914    TO     1917 

IN  the  light  of  subsequent  events  the  notice  and  information  that  letter  contained  grew  dim  and 
uninteresting.  Time  quickly  swallowed  it  up.  To  the  little  group  in  that  police  office,  how- 
ever, it  was  momentous.  It  carried  a  stern  message  of  impending  sacrifice.  Buffalo 
was  unconscious  of  war's  presence.  No  part  of  the  United  States  was  different.  Here  and  there 
throughout  the  city  scattered  contingents  of  citizens  had  for  months,  as  we  know,  solemnly  urged 
preparation  for  war,  and  their  pleas  fell  on  willing,  but  joyous,  unconcerned  and  unimpressed 
ears.  To  most  Buffalonians  the  war  was  an  inconceivable  number  of  miles  away.  To  those 
who  received  the  first  order  of  preparation  it  was  close  at  hand.  Chief  Martin,  always  military 
in  his  carriage  and  austere  in  demeanor,  seemed  to  suddenly  grow  more  cold  and  erect  as  he  read 
that  letter.  Mayor  Fuhrmann,  jovial  and  even-tempered  always,  evidenced  in  his  conversation 
and  manner  how  deeply  the  notice  had  impressed  him. 

"Well,  it's  here.  Let's  go  to  it,"  were  the  words  he  used  in  concluding  the  discussion,  adding, 
"Buffalo — this  Nation — is  in  the  war  and  we  have  some  dark  times  ahead,  but  I  presume  it  is  the 
only  way  to  end  that  struggle  over  there." 

It  was  determined  that  the  City  Clerk  should  map  out  a  plan  and  quietly  perfect  an  organiza- 
tion to  carry  through  the  registration  contemplated  in  the  legislation  then  before  Congress.  The 
Mayor  expressed  his  intention  to  give  all  his  time  to  the  consideration  of  matters  concerning 
Buffalo's  participation  in  the  war — a  determination  to  which  he  adhered  unswervingly  through- 
out his  term  as  a  public  official.  And  it  must  be  recorded  that  he  played  no  small  part  in  assisting 
the  Federal  Government  in  the  co-ordination  of  the  forces  of  the  Nation,  and  in  putting  Buffalo 


Mayor  Fuhrmann  at  Station  Saying  Good-By  to  Artillerymen 


Buffalo's  Pakt  in  the  World  War  73 


patriotically  to  the  front.     Some  cities  hesitated  in  their  war  work.     Some  Mayors  faltered  and 
failed.     Buffalo  unfurled  the  flag  early  and  kept  going  stronger  as  the  Nation's  calls  increased. 

Mayor  Fuhrmann  was  comparatively  a  young  man  at  that  time,  scarcely  more  than  45  years 
of  age.  He  had  then  held  the  office  of  Mayor  for  upwards  of  six  years,  having  emerged  from  two 
bitterly  contested  campaigns  to  succeeding  victories.  The  fierce  nature  of  his  political  struggles 
did  not  embitter  him,  however,  and  he  always  greeted  folks  everywhere  in  the  same  character- 
istically good-natured,  smiling,  affable  manner. 

At  an  early  age,  Louis  Fuhrmann  wa.-  a  butcher  boy,  not  such  as  carried  steaks  or  roasts  from 
the  shop  to  one's  home,  but  as  a  worker  in  the  abattoirs;  later  as  a  manager  of  the  western  branch 
of  the  big  Dold  Packing  Company,  in  Kansas  City,  and,  finally,  returning  to  Buffalo,  he  entered 
into  the  business  for  himself.  His  education  was  obtained  by  hard  knocks,  and  his  only  degrees 
were  those  the  College  of  the  Wide  World  gives.  But  he  was  keen  and  fearless.  He  had  courage! 
Oh,  he  had  courage!  Too  much,  perhaps.  Right  or  wrong  he  could,  without  fear  or  flinching, 
face  them  all — newspapers,  individuals,  political  organizations,  social  and  business  societies. 
He  was  as  loyal  to  his  friends  as  a  flower  to  its  stalk;  a  strong  believer  in  party,  and  yet  forever 
on  the  outs  with  his  party  organization;  intensely  partisan,  yet  constantly  putting  personal 
friendships  above  party  considerations.  He  came  into  politics  as  an  alderman  in  the  old  Sixth 
Ward — against  his  wishes — and  with  great  diffidence,  almost  timidity,  approached  his  duties 
there.  But  in  less  than  three  years,  he  had  grown  to  be  a  leader  in  the  Council.  Another  whirl 
of  the  political  wheel  found  him,  in  1909,  his  party's  candidate  for  Mayor,  to  which  office  he  was 
then  elected,  and  he  was  re-elected  in  1913.  When,  in  1914,  the  war  broke  out  he  was  serving  the 
first  year  of  his  second  term,  and,  at  that  period  was  well  versed  in  the  affairs  of  government. 
He  had  grown  exceptionally  popular  with  the  people,  a  popularity  which  clung  to  him  for  the 
greater  part  of  his  second  period  as  Mayor,  but  which  waned  rapidly  towards  the  end  of  his  term. 
His  intense  patriotism  nevertheless  never  waned,  and,  indeed,  earnest  and  sincere  and  effective 
was  the  service  he  rendered  in  the  solution  of  the  innumerable  problems  which  the  war  brought 
to  Buffalo.  The  high  resolve  he  made  in  Chief  Martin's  office  that  April  night  to  devote  his 
every  effort  to  winning  the  war  became  in  the  following  months  a  beacon  of  patriotic  dedication 
towai'd  which  he  ever  turned. 

That  in  brief  is  a  description  of  the  then  Mayor  of  Buffalo.  It  does  not  appear  entirely  ade- 
quate, but  it  will  convey  an  idea  of  the  manner  of  man  who  held  the  reins  of  government  at  that 
eventful  period.  He  had  his  faults  and  weaknesses!  He  was  not  an  ideal  executive.  Did  any 
city  ever  have  one?  He  inherited  nothing  from  Demosthenes,  but  was  concise  and  forceful  in 
his  remarks.  Attractive  in  appearance,  he  was  chock  full  of  good  humor  and  kindness.  He  was 
a  regular  fellow,  a  man's  man;  prone  to  fight  the  reform  forces  in  the  community,  and  given  over 
to  liberality  in  all  things.  He  would  quickly  check  lawlessness,  but  as  quickly  give  leave  to 
the  exercise  of  all  those  virtues  and  near-vices  which,  for  the  want  of  a  more  descriptive  term, 
might  reasonably  be  assembled  under  the  title  of  individual  liberties.  It  is  not  of  record  that 
he  ever  marched  in  a  reform  procession,  and  he  fairly  and  justly  earned  the  opposition  of  civic 
leagues,  city  crusaders  and  such  like  organizations.  If  any  one  of  a  dozen  men  were  picked  at 
random  and  asked  to  name  Mayor  Fuhrmann's  chief  characteristics,  the  immediate,  unhesi- 
tating reply  would  be  "His  cordiality  and  his  courage."  Both  of  those  qualities  were  put  to  a 
severe  test  in  the  war  months  of  his  term  which  followed. 


74  Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 


CHAPTER    XXI 

VOLUNTEER    ARMY    TO    ADMINISTER    SELECTIVE 

SERVICE    LAW 

ON  April  27th  work  was  started  in  Buffalo  on  the  rc<ristration  plans,  and  that  work  was  un- 
ceasing and  intensive  until  the  plans  were  finally  arranged  and  the  registration  consum- 
mated. Primarily,  the  committee  in  charge  found  the  need  of  an  army  of  some  2,000 
.  volunteer  registrars.  They  were  recruited  from  the  election  officers  and  party  committeemen 
of  the  two  major  parties.  General  and  district  committeemen,  inspectors  of  election  and  poll 
clerks,  without  exception,  volunteered  their  services  for  registration  day  without  cost  to  the 
Government  or  to  the  city.  Many  citizens  in  each  election  district,  likewise,  tendered  themselves 
gratuitously  for  the  work.  Governor  Whitman,  on  May  10th,  announced  the  appointment  of 
the  members  of  the  registration  boards.  Those  officials,  up  to  the  time  their  designation  was 
officially  declared,  were  observing  the  government  request  not  to  make  the  conscription  plans 
known.  But  a  short  time  thereafter,  when  it  became  apparent  a  sufficient  number  of  votes  had 
been  pledged  in  Congress  to  secure  the  enactment  of  the  selective  service  act,  Washington  author- 
ities asked  the  registration  boards  to  enlist  the  assistance  of  local  newspapers  in  disseminating 
information  regarding  the  draft.  In  that  work  the  newspapers  rendered  valuable  assistance. 
Return  postal  cards  had  been  mailed  to  prospective  registrars,  and  a  substantial  list  of  volunteers 
for  each  of  the  200  districts  of  the  city  and  the  75  districts  of  the  towns  of  the  county  outside  of 
Buffalo  had  been  obtained  before  the  selective  service  act  finally  passed  both  houses  of  Congress. 
The  measure  received  the  President's  signature  on  May  16th,  the  day  of  its  passage  in  the  House. 
Excitement  and  jubilation  everywhere  followed.  In  churches  and  clubs,  at  flag  ceremonies 
and  civic  dinners,  in  speech  and  song  and  cheers,  the  spirit  of  an  aroused  patriotism  made 
itself  felt. 

In  his  proclamation  the  President  called  on  all  male  citizens  of  the  United  States  between  the 
ages  of  21  and  31,  except  officers  and  enlisted  men  of  the  Army,  Navy,  and  Marines  and  those 
in  the  Regular  Army  reserve  officers'  corps  and  various  other  military  and  naval  reserve  organiza- 
tions, to  register  in  their  home  precincts  on  .June  5th.  It  was  provided  that  the  registration 
booths  should  be  open  between  the  hours  of  7  A.  M.  and  9  P.  M.  on  that  day.  Provision  was 
made  for  the  enrollment  of  those  who  were  sick,  and  necessary  steps  were  taken  to  register  in- 
mates of  jails,  penitentiaries  and  insane  asylums;  in  fact,  no  male  of  the  announced  military  age 
was  overlooked,  no  matter  what  might  be  the  condition  of  his  health  or  his  social  standing, 
the  width  or  the  restriction  of  his  liberty.  The  President  further  provided  that  those 
who  were  absent  from  their  home  precincts  on  the  fifth  day  of  June  might  present  them- 
selves to  the  city  or  town  clerk  of  any  city  or  town  and  fill  out  a  registration  card,  the  card 
to  be  forwarded  to  the  city  clerk  or  county  clerk  of  the  city  or  county  in  which  the  regis- 
trant claimed  permanent  abode.  These  cards  were  to  be  forwarded  at  a  time  which  would 
provide  for  the  receipt  of  the  same  at  the  registrant's  home  district  prior  to  June  5th,  and 
the  office  of  the  City  Clerk,  by  reason  of  those  registrations,  became  a  beehive  of  activity 
for  a  ten-day  period  preceding. 

Throughout  that  period  the  members  of  the  registration  boards  in  the  city  and  county  and  their 
clerical  assistants  worked  day  and  night. 

Henry  J.  Collins,  a  clerk  in  the  Sheriff's  office,  served  as  clerk  of  the  County  Board. 

An  allotment  of  50,000  registration  cards  was  sent  to  Buffalo,  and  another  of  about  15,000  to 
the  County  Board.  The  estimate  of  the  statisticians  in  Washington  placed  the  probable  regis- 
tration for  Buffalo  at  40,000.  In  addition,  10,000  cards  were  furnished  for  registrations  prior  to 
June  5th.  For  the  purpose  of  systematically  reaching  the  registrars,  the  2,000  volunteers  in  the 
city  were  divided  into  groups  within  police  precincts.     In  the  County  the  Supervisors  carried 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War  75 

out  the  work  of  organization.  Full  instructions  had  been  received  by  telegraph*  as  to  the  quali- 
fications of  the  men  to  be  chosen  as  registrars,  and  it  had  been  determined  to  employ  men  at  a 
per  diem  rate  if  a  sufficient  number  of  suitable  volunteers  could  not  be  obtained.  In  all  the  army 
of  2,000  men  in  the  city,  and  at  least  500  in  the  towns,  who  finally  performed  the  work  no  one 
would  accept  financial  recompense  for  his  services. 

Under  a  program  arranged  by  the  City  Board  of  Registration  the  registrars  were  invited  by 
the  Mayor  to  meet  at  the  precinct  station  nearest  their  respective  homes  at  a  time  indicated  in 
a  letterf  sent  to  each  one  by  the  Mayor.  They  were  met  at  the  appointed  time  and  places  by 
deputies  from  the  City  Clerk's  office,  who  became  known  as  the  flying  squad.  That  squad  was 
made  up  of  exceptionally  efficient  men,  including  James  Mockler  and  John  Riley,  warrant  clerks 
in  the  City  Clerk's  Department;  Thomas  Lawley,  member  of  the  Erie  County  Board  of  Super- 
visors; Frank  Love,  agent  for  a  brick  manufacturing  concern,  and  Edward  Ryan,  a  real  estate 
salesman.  The  vast  amount  of  clerical  work  in  preparing  and  issuing  identification  cards  for  the 
registrars,  securing  their  signatures  to  oath  blanks,  making  the  necessary  record  of  their  respec- 
tive booth  assignments  and  distributing  printed  pamphlets  of  instructions,  was  handled  by  that 
squad.  The  members  of  the  Registration  Board,  accompanied  by  Chief  of  Police  Martin,  fol- 
lowed the  clerical  force  from  station  house  to  station  house.  The  oflficials  arrived  about  the 
time  the  clerks  left.  Thorough  instruction  was  given  to  the  prospective  registrars  by  City  Clerk 
Sweeney,  and  Mayor  Fuhrmann  then  administered  the  oath  of  office  to  the  hundreds  of  men 
present  and  impressed  upon  them  in  a  short  address,!  the  responsibility  they  were  taking  and  their 
obligation  in  the  work  they  had  so  generously  volunteered  to  perform.  Two,  and  sometimes 
three,  stations  were  covered  in  a  night,  and  the  course  was  continued  until  every  one  of  the  2,000 
volunteers  had  received  full  information  concerning  a  task  which,  naturally  was  new  to  everyone. 

In  the  light  of  after  events,  recalling  the  remarkable  record  made  by  Buffalo — the  first  city 
in  the  State  to  hand  in  its  completed  returns — the  work  of  instruction  and  of  organization,  and 
the  co-operation  obtained,  made  possible  the  words  of  praise  which  Governor  Whitman  and 
others  later  bestowed  upon  Buffalo  for  its  efficiency  in  the  labors  of  registration. 


'STATE  OF  NEW  YORK 

The  Adjutant   General's  Office 
Albany 
From:        The  Adjutant  General.  May  14th,  1917. 

To:  Hon.  Louis  P.  Fuhrmann,  Buffalo,  N.  Y. 

Subject;     Registration  of  Persons  for  Federal  Draft. 

1.  The  attention  of  all  local  boards  of  registration  is  invited  to  the  following  extracts  from  the  revised  Regulations  of  the  Bureau  of  the  Pro- 
vost Marshal  General  relative  to  registrars,  a  complete  copy  of  which  will  be  sent  you  as  soon  as  available: 

"Registrars  must  be  competent  clerks,  whose  handwriting  is  neat  and  legible. 

"Registrars  shall  be  selected  with  regard  to  their  qualifications  for  the  duties  prescribed  herein. 

"Registrars  should  be  residents  of  the  precincts  for  which  they  are  appointed,  and  they  should  be  persons  who  have  lived  long  enough  in  those 
precincts  to  be  well  acquainted  with  the  inhabitants  thereof. 

"Registrars  must  be  citizens  of  the  United  States  or  persons  (not  alien  enemies)  who  have  declared  their  intention  to  become  citizens  of  the 
United  States." 

2.  Certain  sheriffs  have  also  called  attention  to  the  difficulty  in  complying  with  the  provisions  of  the  regulations  that  the  registration  cards 
must  be  delivered  by  the  Chief  Registrar  to  the  Executive  Officer  of  the  Registration  Board.  This  matter  has  been  submitted  to  Washington 
for  the  decision  of  the  Provost  Marshal  General,  by  this  office,  and  the  ruling  has  been  made  that  the  regulations  must  be  strictly  followed. 

(Signed)     Louis  W.  Stotesbury, 

Adjidaiil  GeneTal. 
tCITY  OF  BUFFALO 
Mayor's  Office 
Louis  P.  Fuhrmann,  Mayor  Buffalo,  May  21st,  1917. 

My  Dear  Sir: 

The  Government  requires  that  all  those  who  are  to  serve  as  registrars  in  the  various  polling  places  of  the  city  on  June  5th  in  connection  with 
the  Federal  registration  shall  take  an  oath  of  office  to  support  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States  and  faithfully  perform,  on  that  day,  such 
duties  as  may  fall  to  them. 

I  have  set  May  26th,  8.00  P.  M.,  at  No,  8  Police  Station,  Fillmore  Avenue,  as  the  time  and  place  for  administering  this  oath.  No  one  can 
serve  his  country  in  this  registration  work  unless  he  has  taken  the  oath  of  office.  Knowing  your  willingness  and  desire  to  serve,  I  respectfully 
urge  that  you  be  present  on  time  at  the  PLACE  ABOVE  mentioned,  when  full  instructions  for  the  work  will  be  given  you. 

I  wish  to  thank  you  at  this  time  for  the  generous  spirit  you  have  shown  in  volunteering  your  services  for  the  taking  of  this  registration.  I  am 
advised  by  the  President  of  the  United  States  that  he  desires  the  names  of  all  those  who  take  the  oath  and  perform  the  duties  of  registrar  in  order 
that  the  government  may  express  its  appreciation  of  your  service.  And  at  a  later  date,  in  a  formal  and  public  way,  as  Mayor  of  the  city,  I  hope 
to  convey  to  you  a  just  estimate  of  the  city's  indebtedness  to  you,  and  give  expression  to  my  personal  gratitude,  for  the  services  you  are  so  gen- 
erously and  patriotically  to  render. 

With  assurances  of  my  kindest  personal  regards,  believe  me  Very  cordially  yours, 

L.  P.  Fuhrmann,  Maym. 
JGentlemen: 

In  expressing  to  you  for  the  City  of  Buffalo  my  appreciation  of  the  patriotic  spirit  which  inspires  you  to  take  this  solemn  obligation  upon  your- 
selves may  I  say  that  in  due  course  you  will  also  receive  an  acknowledgment  of  commendation  from  the  President  of  the  United  States  for  your 
loyalty  in  performing  this  service  to  our  country  in  this  hour  of  great  national  need. 

I  have  no  word,  and  no  man  has,  that  can  adequately  portray  the  importance  of  the  duty  devolving  upon  you  in  gathering  the  names  of  the 
oung  men  between  the  ages  of  21  and  30  for  the  selective  draft  on  the  .5th  of  June.  Certainly  this  responsible  duty  is  far-reaching  in  its  scope, 
and  upon  its  faithful  and  complete  performance  depends  our  military  success  subsequent  to  the  draft. 


76  Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 


CHAPTER    XXII 
TONY    MONANCO    BY    NAME:  WATER    BOY    BY  OCCUPATION 

WHILE  the  organization  for  June  5tii  was  in  progress,  the  actual  work  of  registering  thou- 
sands of  non-residents  was  going  on  night  and  day  at  the  City  Hall.  Many  extra  clerks 
were  employed  to  meet  the  rush.  It  was  all  a  new  idea  with  workers  and  registrants  alike. 
And  it  was  a  good-natured  throng  which  daily  and  nightly  filled  that  office.  The  spacious  room 
often  rang  with  hearty  laughter  over  some  of  the  answers  given  by  registrants. 

A  diminutive  Italian,  Tony  Monanco  by  name,  water  boy  by  occupation,  presented  himself  at 
the  office  early  one  morning. 

A  clerk  at  the  desk,  his  eyes  still  clouded — their  hours  of  rest  were  not  long  in  those  days — not 
recognizing  the  young  man  as  a  possible  registrant  said : 

"What  can  I  do  for  you?" 

"Ma  name  Tony  Monanco.     In  dees  countra  seex  months.     Gimme  da  gun." 

Had  Tony  descended  from  a  passenger  on  the  good  ship  Mayflower  he  could  scarcely  have 
been  more  intensely  American.  He  exemplified  the  spirit  which  was  found  in  all  classes,  even 
those  who  had  not  reached  the  initial  point  on  the  road  to  American  citizenship. 

Not  all  at  first  blush,  however,  were  able  to  see  their  duty.  An  example  of  that  class  was 
presented  by  a  grocery  boy  who  had  driven  to  the  City  Hall  in  his  employer's  wagon.  He  had 
answered  all  the  questions  until  the  clerk  asked  him  if  he  desired  to  claim  exemption  from  the 
draft. 

"What's  that?"  he  queried. 

" Is  there  any  reason  why  you  shouldn't  go  to  war  in  case  you  are  called  by  Uncle  Sam?"  said 
the  clerk. 

"Who  th'  h — 1  would  drive  the  horse?"  was  the  somewhat  apprehensive  answer. 

The  clerk  expressed  the  belief  that  the  young  man  would  probably  have  to  ask  the  captain  of 
his  company  about  that. 

A  photographer  wrote  to  the  City  Clerk  advising  him  that  he  would  be  busy  with  June  weddings 
on  June  5th  and  that  some  other  day  would  have  to  be  set  for  the  registration  as  he  positively 
could  not  appear  on  June  5th. 

The  conscientious  objector  usually  claimed  exemption  by  saying:  "I  am  against  legalized 
murder  in  any  form.  If  the  United  States  wishes  to  carry  on  war,  let  it  do  so  with  men  who 
believe  in  fighting,  I  do  not." 

The  task  of  registering  the  vast  number  who  appeared  in  the  days  immediately  preceding 
June  5th  was  not  an  easy  one,  and,  on  several  occasions,  faithful  clerks  toppled  over  at  their 
desks  from  exhaustion.  Those  were  wonderful  days  about  the  City  Hall.  Not  only  registrants, 
but  spectators,  crowded  the  corridors  of  the  big  building,  every  one  interested  in  the  work  that 
was  going  on,  all  realizing  that  a  strange  reversal  had  come  over  America's  dream  of  unending 
peace  and  absolute  aloofness  from  foreign  affairs.  It  was  a  new  atmosphere.  The  people  in 
the  corridors  seemed  to  have  hopped  right  out  of  some  book  of  ancient  history  when  nations  and 
tribesmen,  forgetting  all  else,  concentrated  their  forces  for  war. 

The  even-tempered  course  we  had  followed  for  years  had  ended.  Yesterday  was  gone  forever. 
As  the  registration  work  advanced  it  grew  more  systematic  and  was  more  efficiently  handled. 
On  May  15th  both  the  city  and  county  boards  reported  to  Albany  they  had  completed  all  ari-ange- 
ments.  Their  report  was  in  the  hands  of  the  officials  at  Washington  before  the  draft  law  was 
passed  in  Congress.  On  May  18th  the  President  issued  the  proclamation  designating  June  5th 
as  registi-ation  day.  Major  Turgeon  and  his  aides.  Mayor  Fuhrmann  and  the  other  members 
of  the  Registration  Board  held  frequent  meetings,  but,  for  the  most  part,  the  immense  organiza- 
tion formed  for  the  registration  task  simply  marked  time  until  the  coming  of  June  5th.     School 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 


77 


Scene  at  a  Buffalo  Playground 

School  children  reflect  in  their  exercises  the  predominant  sentiment  of  the  hour 

teachers  and  school  principals  volunteered  for  service  with  the  registration  boards  to  assist  wher- 
ever they  were  needed.  Rural  mail  carriers  tendered  their  services  to  Chairman  Stengel  for  work 
in  the  towns  and  gave  valuable  aid  in  perfecting  the  town  registration.  Erie  County,  from 
center  to  circumference  plainly  showed  at  that  period  its  zeal  and  its  fervor. 


78 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 


CHAPTER  XXIII 
I    AM    AN    AMERICAN 

IN  the  days  intervening  between  June  1st  and  5th,  churches,  societies,  clubs  and  like  organiza- 
tions sounded  a  patriotic  call  from  pulpit  and  banquet  board.  Class,  creed  and  color  rapidly 
lost  distinction.  In  those  days,  from  early  morn  until  late  we  saw  only,  alone,  above  every- 
thing else,  a  mass  of  stars,  in  a  field  of  blue  with  flaming  red  and  white  stripes.  Speakers  of  the 
hour  painted  the  picture  of  a  thoroughly  united  America.  An  illuminating  schoolhouse  incident 
of  that  June  day  tells  the  whole  story : 

At  a  meeting  of  the  school  children,  one  boy,  a  descendant  of  native  Americans,  spoke  as 
follows: 

"I  am  an  American.  My  father  belongs  to  the  Sons  of  the  Revolution:  my  mother  belongs  to  the  Colonial  Dames.  One  of  my  ancestors 
pitched  tea  overboard  in  Boston  Harbor:  another  stood  his  ground  with  Warren:  another  hungered  with  Washington  at  Valley  Forge.  My  fore- 
fathers were  American  in  the  making:  they  spoke  in  America's  council  halls:  they  died  on  her  battlefields:  they  commanded  her  ships:  they  cleared 
her  forests.  Dawns  reddened  and  paled.  Staunch  hearts  of  mine  beat  fast  at  each  new  star  in  the  Nation's  flag.  Keen  eyes  of  mine  foresaw 
her  greater  glory:  the  sweep  of  her  seas,  the  plenty  of  her  plains,  the  man-hives  in  her  billion-wired  cities.  Every  drop  of  blood  in  me  holds  a  her- 
itage of  patriotism.     I  am  proud  of  my  past.     I  am  an  American." 

Then  a  foreign-born  boy  arose  and  said : 

"I  am  an  .'imerican.  My  father  was  an  atom  of  dust:  my  mother  was  a  straw  in  the  wind  to  His  Serene  Majesty.  One  of  my  ancestors 
died  in  the  mines  of  Siberia:  another  was  crippled  for  life  by  twenty  blows  of  the  knout:  another  was  killed  defending  his  home  during  the  mas- 
sacres. The  history  of  my  ancestors  is  a  trail  of  blood  to  the  palace  gate  of  the  Great  White  Czar.  But  then  the  dream  came — the  dream  of 
.America.  In  the  light  of  Liberty's  torch  the  atom  of  dust  became  a  man  and  the  straw  in  the  wind  became  a  woman  for  the  first  time.  '  See,'  said 
my  father,  pointing  to  the  flag  that  fluttered  near,  'That  flag  of  stars  and  stripes  is  yours:  it  is  the  emblem  of  the  promised  land.  It  means, 
my  son,  the  hope  of  humanity.  Live  for  it,  die  for  it'.  Under  the  open  sky  of  my  new  country  I  swore  to  do  so:  and  every  drop  of  blood  in  me 
will  keep  that  vow.     I  am  proud  of  my  future.     I  am  an  American." 

Flag-raising  fever  ran  riot  in  those  days  and  every  factory  and  shop,  every  railroad  and 
steamboat  line,  every  club  and  church  and  society   had  its  flag  and  its  flag  unfolding  cere- 


I  Am  All  American 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 


79 


Scene  at  Police  Headquarters  Registering  Alien  Enemies  Under  Supervision  of  Government  Authorities 

mony.  In  every  Episcopalian  church  throughout  the  diocese  of  Western  New  York,  a 
prayer*  was  read  on  Sunday,  June  3d,  containing  an  appeal  to  the  Almighty  Ruler  of  men  that 
the  youth  of  the  Nation  might  clearly  see  its  duty  and  unhesitatingly  make  the  sacrifices  it  was 
about  to  be  called  upon  to  make. 

At  the  25th  annual  reunion  banquet  of  Buffalo  Consistory,  Scottish  Rite  Masons,  held  a  few 
days  prior  to  registration  day,  Commander  George  K.  Staples,  as  toastmaster,  dispatched  a  tele- 
gram to  President  Wilson,  saying: 

"Scottish  Rite  Masons  of  Buffalo  Consistory  in  annual  convention  here  assembled,  pledge  to  their  country,  its 
flag  and  its  President  their  unswerving  support  and  loyalty." 

The  toil  of  the  preparedness  workers  was  now  bearing  fruit.  From  store  and  shop  and  the 
professions  men  and  women,  boys  and  girls,  poured  out,  aglow  with  enthusiasm  and  the  spirit  of 
sacrifice. 


*"Almighty  God,  Who  by  thine  indwelling  Presence  didst  enable  our  fathers  to  conceive  a  nation  founded  in  liberty,  and  didst  give  them 
strength  to  toil  and  suffer  and  die  that  democracy  might  live,  we  thank  Thee  for  the  glorious  example  of  their  courage  and  steadfastness  and  for 
the  witness  they  bore  to  Thy  Truth.  And  we  pray  Thee  to  grant  to  us  their  sons  such  a  clearness  of  vision,  such  loyalty  to  Thee  that  we  may 
never  be  false  to  our  heritage  but  may  nurture  it  with  our  whole  hearted  toil  and  ungrudging  sacrifice.  We  pray  especially  for  the  youth  of  our 
country,  that  they  may  at  this  time  especially  recognize  the  privilege  of  serving  the  ideal,  and  with  glad  hearts  and  noble  courage  may  offer 
themselves  in  this  hour  of  their  nation's  need.  And  to  us  all  grant  such  a  measure  of  Thy  grace  that  giving  ourselves  and  our  substance  without 
stint,  we  in  our  generation  may  fulfill  Thy  will  in  the  establishment  of  justice  and  brotherhool  upon  the  earth  forever.  We  ask  it  all  in  the 
name  of  Him  who  died  for  thetruth,  Thy  Son  Jesus  Christ  our  Lord.    Amen." 


80  Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 


CHAPTER    XXIV 

REGISTRATION    DAY,    JUNE    5th,    1917. 

JUNE  5th,  1917,  came  and  went,  like  all  June  5ths  prior  thereto,  but  on  that  particu- 
lar June  5th  the  Nation  heard  the  heartbeat  of  patriotism  as  never  before.  From 
the  first  blush  of  day  until  a  tired  organization,  late  at  night,  filed  its  final  reports  in  the 
City  Clerk's  office  at  the  City  Hall,  the  city's  throng  crowded  about  the  registration  booths; 
one  portion  of  the  population  to  place  their  names  on  the  list  from  whence  Uncle  Sam  could  call 
them,  the  other  portion  to  assist  the  first  or  applaud  them  in  that  effort.  The  thrill  of  the  hour 
found  a  response  in  the  recruiting  stations  where  many  above  and  below  the  conscription  age 
put  their  signatures  to  enlistment  blanks.  The  downtown  section  of  the  city  was  deserted  in 
the  early  hours  of  the  day,  but,  as  the  afternoon  grew  on,  groups  of  applauding  enthusiasts  could 
be  seen  on  Main,  Niagara,  Broadway  and  other  prominent  thoroughfares  cheering  the  flag,  the  Presi- 
dent and  the  boys  who  were  then  offering  to  their  country  their  services,  and  their  lives  if  need  be. 

General  Crowder,  in  his  report  to  the  Secretary  of  War,*  paid  a  tribute  to  the  splendid  organi- 
zation formed  throughout  the  Nation  to  carry  out  the  registration  plan,  and  Governor  Whitman, 
on  a  visit  to  Buffalo  a  few  days  after  the  registration,  expressed  his  delight  in  the  fact  that  Buffalo 
had  led  all  cities  of  the  State  and  "probably  of  the  Nation"  in  making  a  complete  return  on  its 
work.  He  complimented  the  citizens  of  Buffalo,  the  Mayor  and  his  associates  on  their  achievement. 

Under  the  terms  of  the  original  proclamation,  the  city  had  been  divided  into  sixteen  districts 
containing  a  population  of  approximately  .30,000  each.  These  districts  were  made  up  of  con- 
tiguous wards  and  were  known  as  the  local  exemption  districts.  It  was  contemplated  to  have 
the  Mayor  name  a  district  board  of  three  members  for  each  of  these  districts.  The  towns  of  the 
County  were  divided  into  four  districts  of  about  30,000  each,  and  the  Sheriff  had  named  a  board 
for  each  district.  Suddenly  that  plan  was  altered,  and  the  members  of  the  exemption  boards 
were  nominated  by  the  political  organizations.  As  a  consequence  the  work  of  the  Registration 
Boards  ended  earlier  than  had  been  anticipated.  Their  duties  were  concluded  by  a  telegram  from 
the  Adjutant  General  on  July  6th  advising  those  having  custody  of  the  registration  cards  to  turn 
them  over  to  the  exemption  boards.  The  telegram  also  cited  the  penalty  for  any  failure  in  the 
process  of  exchanging  custodial  care  of  the  cards.  Until  the  receipt  of  that  telegram  the  vast 
army  of  registration  workers  were  unadvised  of  the  fact  that  their  services  being  faithfully  ren- 
dered had  earned  them  freedom  from  penal  prosecution.  The  Boards'  light  went  out  abruptly. 
Mayor  Fuhrmann  issued  a  proclamation  expressing  the  city's  appreciation  of  the  splendid  ser- 
vices the  registration  workers  had  so  patriotically  tendered. 

Major  Turgeon  reported!  for  the  Registration  Guard  thanking  the  men  who  had  served  under 
him,  expressing  to  the  Mayor  his  appreciation  of  the  honor  conferred  and  entertaining  the  hope 
that  the  work  they  performed  had  proved  of  service  to  the  Nation. 


*"  It  suffices  here  to  say  that  on  the  morning  of  June  5th.  a  perfectly  co-ordinated  system  which,  by  the  patriotic  and  devoted  co-operation  of 
the  officials  and  citizens  of  the  several  States,  had  been  created  almost  in  a  fortnight,  stood  ready  to  tlie  tasl^.  On  the  evening  of  that  day,  prac- 
tically the  entire  male  population  of  the  United  States  between  the  ages  of  21  and  30  had  presented  themselves  for  enrollment  for  service,  and 
within  48  hours  the  returns  in  the  city  of  Washington  were  90  per  cent  complete,  A  volume  that  would  read  as  an  epic  of  patriotic  ingenuity 
and  endeavor  could  be  devoted  to  the  story  of  the  registration  in  many  of  the  States.  Seemingly  insurmountable  difficulties  were  overcome. 
The  men  of  the  Nation  made  their  first  response  to  the  call  of  national  need  in  a  unison  that  removed  all  doubt  of  the  solidarit.v  and  devotion  of 
our  people.     The  event  proved  the  President's  forecast  of  it. 

"June  5th  is  destined  to  become  one  of  the  most  significant  days  in  American  history." 

From  report  of  E.  H.  Crowder,  ProvosI  Marshal  General. 

tHEADQUARTERS  REGISTRATION  GUARD 
Room  12,  City  and  County  Hall 
Newton  E,  Turoeon,  Chief  of  Guard  Buffalo,  June  7th,  1917. 

Hon.  Louis  P.  Fuhrmann,  Mayor 

Buffalo,  N.  Y. 
Sir: 

I  have  the  honor  to  report  that  in  accordance  with  your  instructions,  as  head  of  the  Registration  Board,  there  was  formed,  in  this  city,  a 
Registration  Guard,  consisting  of: 

</>ne  Chief  of  Guard:  1  .\djutant  and  Chief  of  Aides;  8  Aides;  3  Inspectors;  6  Inspectors'  Aides;  27  Ward  Captains;  191  Lieutenants  (one 
for  each  Registration  District);  7  Relay  Teams  of  from  six  to  ten  men  each  from  the  Greater  Buffalo  Club  and  the  Rotary  Club  of  this  city. 

(Continued  on  next  page) 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War  81 

PERSONNEL  OF  REGISTRATION  BOARDS 

CITY    OF    BUFFALO 
Louis  P.  Fuhrmann,  Chairman 
Daniel  J.  Sweeney,  Secretary.  Francis  E.  Fronczak,  Medical  Officer 

COUNTY    OF    ERIE 
Edward  Stengel,  Chairman 
John  H.  Meahl,  Secretary.  Fred  M.  Boyle,  Medical  Officer 

REGISTRATION    GUARD 
Chief  of  Guard — Newton  E.  Turgeon. 
Chief  of  Aides  and  Adjutant — Ernest  G.  Hatch. 
Aides — Cleveland  H.  Babcock,  J.  Remsen  Bennett,  Arthur  L.  Chambers,  Albert  J.  Chestnut,  Frank  E.  Lahey, 

Albert  A.  Mason,  F.  A.  G.  Merrill,  Ward  H.  McPherson. 
Inspector,  First  Division — Captain  Alexander  R.  Robertson. 
Aides,  First  Division — Lieut.  W.  J.  Piatt,  Lieut.  George  E.  Farthing. 
Inspector,  Second  Division — Major  G.  Barrett  Rich,  Jr. 
Aides,  Second  Division — Milton  C.  Guggenheimer,  Alan  Eraser. 
Inspector,  Third  Division — Major  R.  H.  Templeton. 
Aides,  Third  Division — Capt.  George  F.  Root,  Lieut.  Ray  B.  Kurtz. 

WARD  CAPTAINS 
1st  Ward— Capt.  H.W.  Nachbar,  6  Municipal  Bldg.;  2d  Ward— Capt.  J.  R.  Horton,  1120  Prudential  Bldg.;  3d  Ward 
—Capt.  E.  P.  Bacon,  453  Ellicott  Square;  4th  Ward— Capt.  H.  P.  Bosworth,  419  Chicago  Street;  5th  Ward— 
Capt.  J.  Craig  Roberts,  662  Ellicott  Square;  6th  Ward— Capt.  W.  C.  R.  Hazard,  310  German  Insurance  Bldg.; 
7th  Ward— Capt.  F.  C.  Fornes,  534  Main  Street;  8th  Ward— Capt.  W.  M.  Wilson,  35  Pearl  Street;  9th  Ward— 
Capt.  William  Kusztelniak,  360  Bristol  Street;  10th  Ward — Capt.  Andrew  Kazmierczak,  Woltz  Avenue  and 
Stanislaus  Street;  11th  Ward— Capt.  John  W.  Wargin,  City  Clerk's  Office;  12th  Ward— Capt.  Henry  R.  Ford; 
41  Eagle  Street;  13th  Ward— Capt.  J.  C.  Arbogast,  366  Main  Street;  14th  Ward— Capt.  G.  A.  Frisch,  443  Gene- 
see Street;  15th  Ward— Capt.  S.  C.  Moss,  170  Franklin  Street;  16th  Ward— Capt.  Joseph  W.  Becker,  21  South 
Division  Street;  17th  Ward— Capt.  Clarence  MacGregor,  690  Ellicott  Square;  18th  Ward— Capt.  J.  M.  Overfield, 
Jr.,  43  Boyd  Street;  19th  Ward— Capt.  Frank  Gibbons,  102  Erie  County  Bank  Bldg.;  20th  Ward— Capt.  Frederick 
H.  Holtz,  211  White  Bldg.;  21st  Ward— Capt.  W.  W.  McElroy,  19  W.  Genesee  Street;  22d  Ward— Capt.  Charles 
R.  Hurley,  501  People's  Bank  Bldg.;  23d  Ward— Capt.  Walter  F.  Hofheins,  1212  Prudential  Bldg.;  24th  Ward— 
Capt.  C.  T.  Doorty,  746  Seventh  Street;  25th  Ward- Capt.  D.  R.  Nott,  497  Washington  Street;  26th  Ward— 
Capt.  William  E.  Otto,  202  Pearl  Street;  27th  Ward— Capt.  H.  C.  Elwood,  800  Morgan  Bldg. 


An  Automobile  Service  Department  with  1  Chief  of  Automobile  Service;  1  Assistant  Chief  of  Automobile  Service;  15  Aides;  257  Automobile 
owners,  and  in  addition    4  Special  Service  men  and  1  Stenographer. 

Accompanying  this  communication  is  a  compilation  showing  the  personnel  of  the  Guard  as  above  outlined;  and  in  addition,  in  so  far  as  I  am 
able  to  give  it  to  you,  a  list  of  the  names  of  the  men  who  acted  as  Registrars  in  each  of  the  various  Districts  and  Wards  of  the  entire  city.  This 
latter  compilation  is  as  it  came  to  me  from  the  City  Clerk. 

It  will  be  interesting  to  you,  I  am  sure,  to  be  advised  that  all  of  the  above  service  was  rendered  voluntarily  and  without  remuneration  of  any 
kind  or  character. 

In  completing  this  tour  of  duty,  I  would  feel  that  I  had  failed  in  one  of  the  most  important  portions  of  my  work,  if  I  neglected  to  refer  to  the 
wonderful  (as  it  was  nothing  else)  support  and  co-operation  and  the  everywhere  apparent  spirit  of  loyalty  and  patriotism,  which  pervaded  the 
whole  organization,  and  prompted  every  man  connected  with  it. 

To  attempt  to  present  to  you  separately  the  work  of  the  various  individuals,  would  be  a  task  difficult  of  performance  and  would  probably 
weary  you,  but  I  feel  so  strongly  with  reference  to  the  particular  service  rendered  by  Mr.  Ernest  G.  Hatch.  Adjutant  and  Chief  of  Aides:  together 
with'the  twelve  men  under  him,  the  work  of  Mr.  Mason  B.  Hatch,  Chief  of  Automobile  Serx-ice,  Mr.  Edward  W.  Case,  Assistant  Chief  of  Auto- 
mobile Service,  and  the  fifteen  aides  working  under  them,  and  also  that  of  Mr.  John  J.  Sly,  that  I  can  not  fail  to  at  least  mention  them  especially 
here. 

I  feel  it  a  further  duty  to  call  to  your  attention  the  fact  that  the  New  York  Telephone  Company  and  the  Federal  Telephone  Company  rendered 
prompt  and  competent  service  throughout  the  day,  the  Federal  Company  even  agreeing  to  frank  the  messages  over  their  line. 

I  thank  you  for  the  honor  conferred  upon  me  in  calling  me  into  this  service,  and  I  am  more  than  repaid  if  the  work  which  has  been  done  has 
been  of  service  to  my  country,  and  satisfactory  to  you  as  its  representative. 

Respectfully, 

N.  E.  TVRGEON,  Chief  of  Guard. 


SKELETON  MAP 
SHOWING 

SELECTIVE  SERVICE 

EXEMPTION  DISTRICTS 

IN 

BUFFALO,  N.Y. 


SCALE  OF   FEET 
1000     aooo     3000     4000     f.ooo    eooo 


THE   M.-N,    WORKS,   BUFFALO 


\     South  Park  \ 


3>- 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War  83 


CHAPTER   XXV 
TWENTY    EXEMPTION    DISTRICTS    FOR    ERIE    COUNTY 

WHILE  the  Selective  Service  Bill  was  still  pending  in  Congress,  plans  were  made  to  put  the 
law  in  operation.  It  had  been  General  Crowder's  intention  to  utilize  the  registration 
mechanism  for  the  selection.  Changes  inserted  in  the  bill,  however,  required  consider- 
able readjustment  of  the  registration  system.  Under  the  original  plan  appointments  were  to 
be  made  by  the  Governor  on  the  recommendation  of  the  Mayors  of  cities  and  the  Sheriffs  of 
counties.  The  change  in  the  law  required  the  President  to  make  the  appointments,  but  the 
recommendations  and  the  general  control  of  the  law's  operation  were  left  to  the  several  States. 
In  some  States  the  registration  machinery  was  utilized,  but  a  new  plan  was  evolved  in  New  York 
State,  and  in  many  others.  The  men  nominated  by  Mayor  Fuhrmann  and  by  Sheriff  Stengel 
were  never  formally  submitted  for  appointment.  Instead,  the  actual  nomination  of  the  men 
for  service  on  the  exemption  boards  locally  was  made  by  the  leaders  of  the  two  dominant  political 
parties.  The  Democratic  organization  named  one  member  of  the  Board  and  the  Republican 
organization  named  another.  The  State  Department  of  Health  named  the  third — the  medical 
member.  The  political  complexion  of  the  boards  was  in  accord  with  that  of  the  State, 
but  no  question  of  partisan  or  party  politics  entered  into  the  disposition  of  cases,  and 
in  all  the  thousands  of  disputed  claims,  no  charge  of  political  favoritism  nor  political  dis- 
crimination was  ever  raised.  The  record  was  surprisingly  and  exceptionally  free  from  such 
criticism. 

The  change  had  come  so  quickly  from  nomination  by  the  Mayor  to  designation  by  the  political 
organizations,  the  latter  did  not  have  time  to  inquire  into  the  availability  of  draft  board  nominees, 
and  many  were  chosen  who  immediately  found  it  impossible  or  undesirable  to  serve.  Criticism 
naturally  arose  over  the  method,  and  some  of  the  newspapers  were  exceptionally  sharp  in  their 
comments.  As  the  machinery  moved  into  operation,  however,  and  the  board  members  began 
to  groan  under  the  volume  of  work  heaped  upon  them,  the  censure  changed  to  sympathy  and  soon 
auxiliary  bodies  of  various  kinds  sprang  into  existence  to  render  aid  in  carrying  out  the  draft 
regulations. 

The  areas  of  jurisdiction  of  the  local  boards  were  the  same  as  those  of  originally  contemplated 
registration  boards.  One  board  of  three  members  was  named  for  each  of  the  sixteen  city  and 
the  four  county  exemption  districts.  Local  boards  were  given  original  jurisdiction  of  all  claims 
for  exemption  or  discharge  except  those  on  the  ground  of  engagement  in  industry  and  agriculture, 
cognizance  of  which  was  vested  in  what  was  known  as  district  boards.  The  territory  of  these 
was  co-extensive  with  the  Federal  judicial  district.  From  the  local  board  the  right  of  appeal  to 
the  district  board  was  provided,  but  the  decision  of  the  latter  in  all  matters  within  the  original 
province  of  the  local  boards  was  final.  From  matters  disposed  of  by  the  district  boards 
appeal  could  be  taken  to  the  President.  The  principal  questions  to  be  decided  by  the 
local  boards  were  those  of  physical  fitness  and  dependency.  The  regulations  permitted  the 
exemption  of  any  man  who  had  a  wife,  a  child,  aged  mother  or  father,  depending  solely 
upon  him  for  support.  This  question,  from  the  point  of  view  of  the  government,  involved 
circumstances  of  domestic  relation  which  required  the  sympathetic  consideration  of  the 
neighbors  of  the  registrant.  The  personnel  of  the  local  boards  was  authorized  and  urged 
to  be  selected  with  reference  to  their  environment  rather  than  to  their  professions  or 
callings. 

On  July  2d  the  appointment  of  the  Buffalo  and  Erie  County  boards  was  announced  by  the 
Governor,  but  the  appointments  had  apparently  been  made  somewhat  earlier. 

The  following  list  contains  the  names  of  those  originally  appointed  and  the  length  of  their  ser- 
vices; also  those  named  to  fill  vacancies: 


84  Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 

Local  Board  No.  1,  City  of  Buffalo: 

Keller,  Andrew  J.,  754  Seneca  Street,  Chairman,  appointed  June  23,  1917;  Healy,  Michael  J.,  Secretary,  appointed 
June  23,  1917;  Lynch,  Charles  V.,  700  South  Division  Street,  Secretary,  appointed  July  14,  1917,  vice  Michael  J. 
Healy,  resigned;  Allen.  Dr.  Thomas  G.,  439  Elk  Street,  appointed  June  23,  1917. 

Local  Board  No.  2,  City  of  Buffalo: 

Harris,  Elmer  E.,  22  Maurice  Street,  Chairman,  appointed  June  23,  1917;  Coughlin,  Timothy  P.,  18  Kenefiek 
Avenue,  Secretary,  appointed  .June  23,  1917;  Villaume,  Dr.  Edw.  L.,  508  South  Park  Avenue,  appointed  June 
23,  1917;  Woodruff,  Dr.  John  V.,  1824  Seneca  Street,  appointed  August  19,  1918,  vice  Dr.  Edward  Villaume, 
resigned. 

Local  Board  No.  3,  City  of  Buffalo: 

Bruso,  Dr.  C.  Frank,  146  Dorchester  Road,  Chairman,  appointed  June  23,  1917;  Willert,  Charles  S.,  504  Broad- 
way, appointed  June  23,  1917;  Durr,  Abram,  276  Jefferson  Street,  appointed  July  12,  1917,  vice  Charles  S.  Wil- 
lert, resigned;  Endres,  Edward  J.,  324  Pine  Street,  appointed  June  23,  1917;  Healy,  Michael  J.,  appointed  July 
14,  1917,  vice  E.  J.  Endres,  resigned;  Endres,  Edward  J.,  324  Pine  Street,  appointed  February  23,  1918,  vice 
Michael  J.  Healy,  deceased. 

Local  Board  No.  4,  City  of  Buffalo; 

Yox,  John,  606  William  Street,  Chairman,  appointed  July  21,  1917;  Duffy,  John,  233  Bristol  Street,  appointed; 
Ditchler,  John,  870  Clinton  Street,  appointed,  vice  John  Duffy,  resigned;  Theobald,  Fred  W.,  150  Emslie  Street, 
Secretary,  appointed  March  18,  1918,  vice  John  Ditchler,  resigned;  Roberts,  Dr.  George  F.,  281  Emslie  Street, 
appointed  June  23,  1917. 

Local  Board  No.  5,  City  of  Buffalo: 

Burzynski,  Frank  S.,  591  Fillmore  Avenue,  Chairman,  appointed  June  23,  1917;  Dorasewicz,  Boleslaw,  Secretary, 
appointed  June  23,  1917;  Smokowski,  Peter  B.,  875  Fillmore  Avenue,  appointed  Secretary  July  12,  1917,  vice 
Boleslaw  Dorasewicz,  resigned;   Lustig,  Dr.  Emil,  553  Fillmore  Avenue,  appointed  June  23,  1917. 

Local  Board  No.  6,  City  of  Buffalo: 

Rahl,  Henry  J.,  254  Main  Street,  Chairman,  appointed  .June  23,  1917;  Jerge,  Henry  F.,  appointed  June  23,  1917; 
McCue,  Daniel  J.,  appointed  December  20,  1917,  vice  Henry  F.  Jerge,  resigned;  Jerge,  Henry  F.,  803  Humboldt 
Parkway,  appointed  Secretary,  vice  Daniel  J.  McCue,  resigned;  Bentz,  Dr.  C.  A.,  84  Orange  Street,  appointed 
June  23,  1917. 

Local  Board  No.  7,  City  of  Buffalo: 

Wedekindt,  Ernst,  5  Walden  Avenue,  appointed  Chairman  June  23,  1917;  Maloney,  Thomas  F.,  appointed 
January  14,  1918,  vice  Ernst  Wedekindt,  resigned;  Riehl,  Charles,  appointed  January  21,  1918,  vice  Thomas  F. 
Maloney,  resigned;  Woltz,  Charles  J.,  appointed  February  23,  1918,  vice  Charles  Riehl,  resigned;  Wedekindt, 
Ernst,  5  Walden  Avenue,  appointed  March  15,  1918,  vice  Charles  J.  Woltz,  resigned;  Lambrix,  Charles  A.,  1074 
Fillmore  Avenue,  Secretary,  appointed  June  23,  1917;  Hengerer,  Dr.  A.  W.,  441  Pratt  Street,  appointed  June 
23,  1917. 

Local  Board  No.  8,  City  of  Buffalo: 

Nixon,  James  L.,  232  Sumner  Place,  Chairman,  appointed  June  23,  1917;  Joslyn,  Edward  E.,  614  Walden  Avenue, 
Secretary,  appointed  June  23,  1917;    Charters,  Dr.  J.  W.,  540  Walden  Avenue,  appointed  June  23,  1917. 

Local  Board  No.  9,  City  of  Buffalo: 

Kloten,  Cassius  W.,  25  Glenwood  Avenue,  Chairman,  appointed  June  23,  1917;  Ulrich,  Charles,  appointed  Sec- 
retary June  23,  1917;  Bagley,  Frederick  G.,  appointed  .July  12,  1917,  vice  Charles  LHrich,  resigned;  Fix,  Charles 
J.,  629  Elhcott  Street,  appointed  July  23,  1917,  vice  Frederick  G.  Bagley,  resigned;  Kessel,  John  A.,  16  South- 
ampton Street,  appointed  August  29,  1917,  vice  Charles  J.  Fix,  resigned;  Meidenbauer,  Dr.  J.  G.,  291  Maple 
Street,  appointed  June  23,  1917. 

Local  Board  No.  10,  City  of  Buffalo; 

Fechter,  Louis,  Sr.,  1150  Bailey  Avenue,  Chairman,  appointed  June  23,  1917;  Mathew,  Thomas,  269  North 
Ogden  Street,  Secretary,  appointed  June  23,  1917;  State,  Joseph  N.,  1226  Bailey  Avenue,  Secretary,  appointed 
July  20,  1917,  vice  Thomas  Mathew,  resigned;  Cunningham,  William  P.,  1222  Bailey  Avenue,  Secretary,  ap- 
pointed August  1,  1918,  vice  Joseph  N.  State,  resigned;  Thoma,  Dr.  FridoHn,  1072  Lovejoy  Street,  appointed 
June  23,  1917. 

Local  Board  No.  11,  City  of  Buffalo: 

Paulis,  Peter,  Chairman,  appointed  June  23,  1917;  Beuchi,  William  C,  2094  Genesee  Street,  Chairman,  appointed 
July  21,  1917,  vice  Peter  Paulis,  resigned;  Tischendorf,  Carl,  Secretary,  appointed  June  23,  1917;  Reickert, 
Charles  A.,  214  Sprenger  Street,  Secretary,  appointed  June  24,  1918,  vice  Carl  Tischendorf,  resigned;  Mehnert, 
Dr.  R.  C,  appointed  June  23,  1917;  Trotter,  Dr.  Homer  A.,  16  Kehr  Street,  appointed  July  20,  1917,  vice  Dr. 
R.  C.  Mehnert,  resigned. 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 


85 


Training  the  School  Boys 


86  Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 

Local  Board  No.  12,  City  of  Buffalo: 

Smith,  Jacob  F.,  55  Eastwood  Place,  Chairman,  appointed  June  23,  1917;  Hahl,  Charles  A.,  153  Jewett  Avenue, 
Chairman,  appointed  September  30,  1918,  vice  Jacob  F.  Smith,  resigned;  Bennett,  Leslie  J.,  1745  Amherst  Street, 
Secretary,  appointed  June  23,  1917;  Lapp,  Ervin  A.,  12  Parker  Avenue,  Secretary,  appointed  January  31,  1917, 
vice  Leslie  J.  Bennett,  resigned;  Westinghouse,  Dr.  G.  H.,  2830  Main  Street,  appointed  June  23,  1917;  Gregory, 
Dr.  Joseph  A.,  158  Wallace  Avenue,  appointed  March  27,  1918,  vice  Dr.  G.  H.  Westinghouse,  resigned. 

Local  Board  No.  13.  City  of  Buffalo: 

Tovey,  Alfred  E.,  1724  Niagara  Street,  Chairman,  appointed  June  23,  1917;  Humphrey,  William  J.,  359  Dear- 
born Street,  Secretary,  appointed  June  23,  1917;  McKee,  Dr.  O.  S.,  appointed  June  23,  1917;  Hoffman,  Dr. 
H.  C,  appointed  July  12,  1917,  vice  Dr.  O.  S.  McKee,  resigned;  Frudnowski,  Dr.  Joseph  F.,  appointed  July  20, 
1917,  vice  Dr.  H.  C.  Hoffman,  resigned;  Urbanski,  Dr.  N.  A.  J.,  472  Amherst  Street,  appointed  November  24, 
1917,  vice  Dr.  Joseph  F.  Frudnowski,  resigned. 

Local  Board  No.  14,  City  of  Buffalo: 
.  Haflfa,  Elias,  265  Maryland  Street,  Chairman,  appointed  June  23,  1917;    Oppenheimer,  Jesse,  Graystone  Hotel, 
Secretary,  appointed  June  23,  1917;  Bresnahan,  James  J.,  Touraine  Hotel,  Secretary,  appointed  March  22,  1918, 
vice  Jesse  Oppenheimer,  resigned;    Briggs,  Dr.  A.  H.,  Hotel  Buckingham,  appointed  June  23,  1917. 

Local  Board  No.  15,  City  of  Buffalo: 

Francis,  George  F.,  245  Lafayette  Avenue,  Chairman,  appointed  June  23,  1917;  Conway,  William  F.,  720  Pros- 
pect Avenue,  Secretary,  appointed  June  23,  1917;  Frost,  Dr.  E.  L.,  212  Massachusetts  Avenue,  appointed  June 
23,  1917;  Clements.  Dr.  Charles  A.,  420  Richmond  Avenue,  appointed  August  14,  1918,  vice  Dr.  E.  L.  Frost, 
resigned. 

Local  Board  No.  16,  City  of  Buffalo: 

Reilley,  William  W.,  408  Brisbane  Building,  Chairman,  appointed  June  23,  1917;  Trible,  Walter  P.,  Chairman, 
appointed  February  23,  1918,  vice  W.  W.  Reilley,  resigned;  Reilley,  William  W.,  408  Brisbane  Building,  Chair- 
man, appointed  April  4,  1918,  vice  Walter  P.  Trible,  resigned;  Hull,  John  M.,  124  Lexington  Avenue,  Chairman, 
appointed  August  26,  1918,  vice  William  W.  Reilley,  resigned;  Wettlaufer,  Conrad  E.,  Secretary,  appointed  June 
23,  1917;  Yates,  Harry,  1243  Delaware  Avenue,  Secretary,  appointed  July  21,  1917,  vice  Conrad  E.  Wettlaufer, 
resigned;   Thompson,  Dr.  J.  C,  666  Auburn  Avenue,  appointed  June  23,  1917. 

Local  Board  No.  1,  County  of  Erie: 

Patton,  John  K.,  Tonawanda,  N.  Y.,  Chairman,  appointed  June  23,  1917;  Briggs,  Maxwell  E.,  Lackawanna, 
N.  Y.,  Secretary,  appointed  June  23,  1917;  Trevett,  Dr.  Ira  P.,  Lackawanna,  N.  Y.,  appointed  June  23,  1917, 

Local  Board  No.  2,  County  of  Erie: 

Pierce,  Daniel  C,  82  Pierce  Avenue,  Hamburg,  N.  Y.,  Chairman,  appointed  June  23,  1917;  Schlehr,  John  W., 
Secretary,  appointed  June  23,  1917;  Thorn,  Perry  M.,  Secretary,  appointed  July  11,  1918,  vice  John  W.  Schlehr, 
resigned;  Schlehr,  John  W.,  West  Seneca,  N.  Y.,  Secretary,  appointed  July  22,  1918,  vice  Perry  M.  Thorn,  re- 
signed;  Flemming,  Dr.  Theo.  E.,  Gardenville,  N.  Y.,  appointed  June  23,  1917. 

Local  Board  No.  3,  County  of  Erie: 

Law,  Benedict  W.,  Collins,  N.  Y.,  Chairman,  appointed  June  23,  1917;  Woodward,  Ira  C,  Secretary,  appointed 
June  23,  1917;  DeWitt,  C.  Reilley,  Hudson,  N.  Y.,  Secretary,  appointed  July  21,  1917,  vice  Ira  C.  Woodward, 
resigned;  Place,  FVed  E.,  Gowanda,  N.  Y.,  Secretary,  appointed  June  23,  1917,  vice  C.  Reilley  DeWitt,  resigned; 
Ward,  Dr.  Walden  M.,  North  Collins,  N.  Y.,  appointed  June  23,  1917. 

Local  Board  No.  4,  County  of  Erie: 

Davis,  George  A.,  Lancaster,  N.  Y.,  Chairman,  appointed  June  23,  1917;  Dickerson,  James  H.,  Akron,  N.  Y., 
Secretary,  appointed  June  23,  1917;   Helwig,  Dr.  F.  A.,  Akron,  N.  Y.,  appointed  June  23,  1917. 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 


87 


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Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War  89 


UNCLE    SAM'S    WORD   TO   DRAFT   BOARD    MEMBERS 

WAR    DEPARTMENT 

Office  of  the  PROvosr  M4RSH4L  Gemeral 

Washington 

July  26,  1917. 
To  Members  of  Local  Boards: 

You  are  entering  on  a  difficult  task,  the  gravity  of  which  "is  beyond  anything 
that  can  be  said  in  the  way  of  discussion.  You  realize  the  significance  of  what 
you  are  to  do,  and  you  know  that  a  responsibility,  heavier  perhaps  than  any 
you  have  ever  faced,  is  upon  you. 

War  demands  individual  sacrifice  to  the  common  cause.  No  people  ever  ap- 
proached war  with  a  calmer  appreciation  of  that  sacrifice  or  a  firmer  resolve  to 
bear  it  and  to  present  themselves  "to  be  classified  for  service  in  the  place  to  which 
it  shall  best  serve  the  common  good  to  call  them."  This  calm  determination 
could  not  exist  were  it  not  for  the  confidence  of  the  nation  in  its  institutions.  In 
this  public  confidence  is  found  the  very  spirit  of  the  Selective  Service  Law.  The 
most  sacred  rights  of  country,  home,  and  family  are  entrusted  for  adjudication  to 
local  citizens  and  officials,  nominated  by  State  Governors  and  appointed  by  the 
President.  The  most  equitable  rules  that  could  be  devised  have  been  prescribed 
for  guidance,  and  the  administration  of  these  rules  and  the  sacrifice  that  is  offered 
by  your  neighbors  is  entrusted  to  your  hands. 

From  every  one  is  demanded  a  sacrifice.  But  there  is  one  thought  to  be  kept 
always  in  your  mind.  The  selected  man  offers  his  life.  There  is  no  greater  giving 
than  this;  and  that  thought  should  guide  you  always.  There  may  be  a  few  who 
will  urge  upon  you  claims  for  exemption  or  discharge  that,  whatever  may  be  your 
inclinations  of  sympathy  or  afTection,  you  will  know  ought  not  to  be  granted.  It 
will  strengthen  you  to  remember  that  for  every  exemption  or  discharge  that  is  made 
for  individual  convenience,  or  to  escape  personal  loss  of  money  or  property,  or  for  favor 
or  affection,  some  other  man  ivhose  time  umild  not  otherwise  have  come,  rmist  incur 
the  risk  of  losing  his  life. 

You  are  not  a  court  for  the  adjustment  of  differences  between  two  persons  in  con- 
troversy. You  are  agents  of  the  Government,  engaged  in  selecting  men  for  the 
Government  and  there  is  no  controversy.  You,  acting  for  the  Government, 
are  to  investigate  each  case  in  the  interests  of  the  Nation,  and  never  in  the  interests  of 
an  individual.  There  is  not  one  exemption  or  discharge  in  the  law  or  regulations 
that  is  put  there  for  the  benefit  of  any  individual.  All  are  there  for  the  benefit  of 
the  Nation  and  to  the  end  that  "the  whole  Nation  may  be  a  team  in  which  each 
man  shall  play  the  part  for  which  he  is  best  fitted." 

There  should  be  no  rules  like  those  of  court  procedure,  no  technical  rules  of  evi- 
dence. You  should  proceed  to  investigate  cases  about  which  you  are  not  satis- 
fied exactly  as  you,  as  an  individual,  would  proceed  to  inform  yourself  of  any  fact 
about  which  you  are  in  doubt. 

Last  of  all,  it  is  important  to  say  a  word  about  your  own  sacrifice.  The  place 
to  which  you  have  been  called  is  one  which  no  man  would  seek  save  in  the  per- 
formance of  one  of  the  highest  of  patriotic  duties. 

The  Nation  needs  men,  and  needs  them  quickly.    The  hours  will  then  be  long 

and  the  work  absorbing.    The  duty  is  always  to  take  and  never  to  give,  and  human 

nature  is  such  there  will  be  little  praise  and  some  blame.    The  sacrifice  of  many  of 

those  whose  cases  are  to  be  decided  is  no  greater  than  that  of  the  men  who  are  to 

decide  them;  and  your  only  reward  must  be  the  knowledge  that,  at  great  personal 

sacrifice,  you  are  rendering  your  country  an  indispensable  service  in  a  matter  of 

the  utmost  moment.  „   ^^    ^ 

E.  H.  Crowder, 

Provost  Marshal  General. 


90 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 


CHAPTER   XXVI 
EXEMPTION    DISTRICT    MACHINERY    IN    OPERATION 

THE  quota  for  Buffalo  and  the  other  cities  and  towns  of  the  county  was  allocated  by  Gov- 
ernor Whitman  on  July  24th.  Buffalo  was  called  upon  to  produce  4,204  men,  and  the  bal- 
ance of  the  county  1,461.  Regulations  and  instructions  required  each  board  immediately 
to  call  before  it  for  physical  examination,  in  the  order  of  their  liability,  a  sufficient  number  of 
registrants  to  procure  about  one-half  of  the  first  quota  of  the  board.  Under  the  conditions  which 
obtained  each  registrant  was  required  to  present  his  claim  for  exemption  within  seven  days  from 
the  date  he  was  called.  In  the  absence  of  such  a  claim  the  registrant  was  deemed  to  have  waived 
his  right  to  make  a  claim.  Boards  had  been  instructed  that  no  exemption  authorized  in  the  selec- 
tive service  law  was  intended  for  the  direct  benefit  of  an  individual  and  that  every  such  exemption 


Mason  Hatch's  Flying  S()uadron 
Scene  in  front  of  City  Hall  during  the  registration  period 

was  for  the  sole  benefit  of  the  Government.  Very  generally  that  principle  was  observed  through- 
out the  entire  period  of  the  draft  law,  and  especially  so  in  those  earlier  days  of  its  operation.  In 
the  arduous  time  to  come  the  board  members  could  more  readily  pick  out  the  good  from  the  bad, 
the  true  from  the  false  in  the  mass  of  evidence  and  affidavits  constantly  piling  up  before  them. 

The  work  of  the  draft  boards  had  not  proceeded  far  when  it  became  apparent  that  the  claims 
for  exemption  on  the  ground  of  dependency  were  dangerously  large.  The  Senate,  in  passing  the 
bill,  had  debated  at  length  the  question  of  whether  or  not  married  men  should  be  exempted  as  such. 
On  that  point  the  Senate  voted  negatively.  Dependency,  to  secure  exemption,  would  have  to  be 
proved.  Accordingly,  married  men  came  forward  with  their  claims.  Some  claimed  exemption 
whose  wives  were  taking  in  washing,  doing  laundry  work,  to  support  themselves,  their  children 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War  91 

and  worthless  husbands — -now  cringing  registrants.  Men  of  considerable  wealth,  in  occasional 
instances,  and  husbands  who  had  not  lived  with  their  wives  for  years,  were  among  the  number 
to  claim  exemption  on  the  ground  of  their  wives  being  "mainly  dependent  on  their  daily  labor  for 
support."  On  August  8th,  the  Provost  Marshal  General,  in  an  endeavor  to  relieve  the  trouble  and 
danger  of  that  situation,  ruled  that  in  the  class  of  cases  where  the  registrant,  as  a  matter  of  fact, 
had  a  wife  not  depending  on  his  daily  labors  for  support,  and  the  parents  of  the  registrant  or  of 
his  wife  were  ready,  able  and  willing  to  undertake  the  support  of  the  wife  during  the  absence  of 
the  husband,  the  boards  were  justified  in  finding  such  a  registrant  had  not  a  good  claim  for  ex- 
emption on  the  ground  of  dependency. 

Local  Board  Sixteen,  because  it  had  within  its  confines  the  wealthiest  portions  of  the  city, 
found  itself  in  a  peculiar  situation.  From  such  homes  as  abounded  in  its  districts,  more  married 
men,  probably,  were  called  under  these  first  rules,  than  elsewhere  in  the  city.  Naturally  some 
dissatisfaction  resulted.  Lengthy  affidavits  were  submitted,  tending  to  show  dependency  where 
public  opinion  had  long  suppo.sed  none  existed.  The  local  board  members,  in  an  eifort  to  decide 
every  case  on  the  same  basis,  confined  themselves  strictly  to  the  regulations,  as  in  fact  they  had 
no  choice  but  to  do.  The  board  was  confronted  with  this  rule:  "Whenever  *****  the  wife 
is  not  left  without  reasonably  adequate  support  but  will  receive  such  support  from  other  sources, 
there  is  no  dependency  rendering  discharge  advisable."  The  following  classes  of  cases  came 
within  that  ruHng: 

First — Where  the  parents  or  other  relatives  of  the  wife  or  the  husband  were  able,  ready  and 
willing  to  provide  adequate  support  for  her  (and  children,  if  any)  during  the  absence  of  the  hus- 
band. 

Second — Where  there  existed  some  arrangement  by  which  salary  or  wage  of  husband  was  con- 
tinued *  *  *  * 

In  addition  to  the  above,  the  President,  being  asked  to  elucidate  further,  said:  "There  are 
undoubtedly  many  cases  *  *  *  of  men  who  are  married  and  yet  whose  accumulations  or  other 
economic  surroundings  are  such  that  no  dependency  of  the  wife  exists  in  fact."  Economic  sur- 
roundings such  as  automobiles,  clubs,  summer  homes,  etc.,  naturally  pointed  either  to  "accumu- 
lations" or  to  income  from  parents.  In  some  cases  where  the  income  was  shown  to  come  from  the 
parents,  these  parents,  in  the  particular  cases  referred  to,  now  announced  that  they  were  not 
able,  ready  and  willing  to  support  dependents  if  the  registrant  went  to  war.  These  people  were 
put  on  record  when  the  board  finally  adopted  a  supplementary  affidavit.  In  this,  all  registrants 
claiming  exemption  were  obliged  to  have  both  the  registrant's  and  his  wife's  parents'  signature 
to  the  affidavit,  stating  that  they  were  not  able,  ready  and  willing  to  support  the  dependents  of 
the  registrant.  In  this  way,  the  burden  of  proof  rested  upon  the  registrant  and  his  family  to  de- 
clare their  position  and  left  no  doubt  in  the  minds  of  the  people  what  their  position  was.  When 
the  registrant  furnished  these  affidavits  from  the  parents,  discharge  was  granted. 

On  December  15th,  1917,  when  the  questionnaires  were  issued,  that  trouble  was  overcome  by 
the  class  system,  whereby  registrants  were  put  in  classes  from  one  to  five.  Before  that  time,  a 
man  was  either  accepted  or  rejected. 

The  other  feature  which  gave  the  boards  much  trouble  was  the  question  of  marriages  consum- 
mated after  May  18th,  1917.  The  regulations  provided  that  each  case  should  receive  individual 
attention.  Had  that  been  literally  lived  up  to,  it  would  have  been  absolutely  impossible  to  give 
satisfaction,  because  each  individual  thought  his  case  was  good  and  the  others  bad.  As  a  result 
most  boards  adopted  a  rule,  some  knowingly,  others  instinctively,  whereby  they  held  every  man 
who  married  after  May  18th,  1917,  as  having  been  aware  of  the  fact  that  he  was  drafted  and  there- 
fore unqualified  to  take  upon  himself  dependents.  W.  W.  Reilley,  Chairman  of  Board  16,  appeared 
to  be  the  leader  in  that  determination.  The  position  of  his  board,  in  that  respect,  was  fully  justi- 
fied later,  when  the  War  Department  issued  regulations  taking  practically  the  same  ground.  Had 
the  regulations  beeen  issued  sooner  they  would  have  saved  the  local  boards  a  tremendous  amount 
of  work. 


92 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 


CHAPTER   XXVII 
RANN'S    APPEAL    AGENT    VOLUNTEERS 

Realizing  that  registrants  coming  from  every  walk  of  life  into  a  new  and  hopelessly  unfamiliar 
field  would  require  some  assistance  in  properly  putting  before  the  boards  all  the  facts  essential 
'  to  a  reasonable  consideration  of  their  individual  cases,  provision  was  madefor  the  appointment 
of  government  appeal  agents.  Early  in  September,  1917,  William  S.  Rann,  corporation  counsel 
of  Buffalo,  received  a  letter  from  Adjutant  General  Stotesbury  informing  him  that  by  command 
of  the  Governor  he  had  been  appointed  government  appeal  agent  for  the  City  of  Buffalo.  He 
was  somewhat  pointedly  referred  in  that  letter  to  section  six  of  the  Selective  Service  Law  which 
provided,  among  other  things,  that  if  any  person  charged  with  the  duty  of  carrying  into  effect 
the  provisions  of  the  act  or  the  regulations  made  thereunder  should  fail  or  neglect  fully  to  perform 
any  duty  required  of  him,  he  would  be  guilty  of  a  misdemeanor  and  upon  conviction  be  punished 
by  imprisonment  for  a  period  of  not  more  than  one  year,  unless  he  was  subject  to  military  law, 
in  which  case  he  would  be  tried  by  court  martial  and  suffer  such  punishment  as  a  court  martial 
might  direct.  Mr.  Rann  was  not  a  timid  man.  He  had  held  public  office  in  Buffalo  for  a  number 
of  years.  His  duties  under  a  new  form  of  government  had  become  exceedingly  extensive,  arduous 
and  exacting.  Being  a  fair  number  of  years  beyond  the  military  age,  he  conceived  it  his  duty  to 
"do  his  bit"  in  whatever  way  the  government  pointed  it  out  to  him,  and  despite  the  rather  har- 
rowing list  of  conditional  punishments  which  his  letter  of  appointment  contained  he  took  up  the 
new  task.  First  securing  authority  to  appoint  an  appeal  agent  for  each  district  in  the  city,  and 
an  additional  appeal  agent  as  his  associate  in  the  handling  of  details,  he  began  the  work.  The 
appeal  agents  first  named  for  the  several  divisions  were  as  follows: 


Girls  of  School  No.  41  Knitting  for  Soldiers 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War  93 

Associate  Appeal  Agent,  Louis  J.  Voltz. 

First  Division,  Bart  J.  Shanahan;  Second  Division,  Harry  F.  DeCeu;  Tliird  Division,  Andrew  T.  Beasley;  Fourth 
Division,  Lech  T.  Niemo;  Fifth  Division,  Leon  J.  Nowal<;  Sixth  Division,  Jacob  Kaufman;  Seventh  Division,  J. 
Neil  Mahoney;  Eighth  Division,  Lewis  F.  Lindal;  Ninth  Division,  Preston  M.  Albro;  Tenth  Division,  George  L.  Grobe; 
Eleventh  Division,  Raymond  C.  Voght;  Twelfth  Division,  John  V.  Maloney;  Thirteenth  Division,  Fred  D.  Russell; 
Fourteenth  Division,  Edward  N.  Mills;  Fifteenth  Division,  Henry  W.  Willis;  Sixteenth  Division,  Charles  W.  Strong. 

Some  changes  were  made  afterwards  owing  to  the  resignation  of  several  of  the  appeal  agents 
on  account  of  pressure  of  other  duties,  and  in  some  instances  because  of  other  war  work  assumed 
by  them.  Mr.  Shanahan  was  succeeded  in  the  first  division  by  James  V.  Downey.  Mr.  Beasley 
was  transferred  from  the  third  to  the  fourth  division  and  Harry  Lipsitz  was  appointed  in 
his  place  for  the  third  division.  Shortly  after  this  transfer  Mr.  Beasley  became  a  successful 
candidate  for  member  of  the  Assembly  and  his  place  in  the  fourth  division  was  filled  by  the  ap- 
pointment of  Elmer  C.  Miller.  Mr.  Mahoney  enlisted  in  the  navy  and  Charles  J.  Woltz  was 
chosen  in  his  place  for  the  seventh  division.  Walter  F.  Schmieding  succeeded  Mr.  Lindal  in  the 
eighth  division  and  in  the  ninth  division  Chester  McNeil  was  the  successor  of  Preston  M.  Albro, 
who  enlisted  in  the  military  service. 

Section  forty-seven  of  the  regulations  provided  that  it  be  the  duty  of  appeal  agents  to  appeal 
from  any  deferred  classification  of  a  local  board  which  in  the  opinion  of  the  agent  should  be  re- 
viewed by  the  district  board;  to  care  for  the  interest  of  uninformed  registrants,  and  where  the 
decision  of  a  local  board  was  against  the  interests  of  such  registrants  and  where  it  appeared  that 
such  registrants  would  not  take  appeals,  due  to  their  own  nonculpable  ignorance,  to  inform  them 
of  their  rights  and  assist  them  to  enter  appeals  to  the  district  board;  to  investigate  and  report 
upon  matters  which  were  submitted;  to  suggest,  when  advisable,  the  reopening  of  any  case;  to 
impart  to  the  local  boards  information  which,  in  the  opinion  of  the  appeal  agent,  ought  to  be 
investigated;  and,  also,  to  make  such  suggestions  and  impart  such  information,  as  the  case  might 
be,  to  the  district  board  in  order  that  it  might  more  efficiently  exercise  its  power  to  instruct  local 
boards  to  take  additional  proof. 

It  will  be  readily  understood  that  the  work  of  the  government  appeal  agents  was  not  altogether 
pleasant.  Many  times  it  was  their  duty  to  inform  registrants  who,  innocently  or  otherwise,  were 
escaping  from  the  military  service  that  they  must  report  to  their  local  boards  and  accept  classifi- 
cation in  class  one  to  avoid  more  disagreeable  consequences.  Much  information  in  regard  to 
such  cases  was  received  through  anonymous  communications.  Mr.  Rann  reported  one  instance 
in  which  the  mother  of  four  boys,  three  of  whom  had  been  sent  to  camp,  was  left  without  means 
of  supporting  herself  and  a  remaining  child  except  what  she  could  get  from  the  boys  in  camp. 
Application  was  made  for  the  return  of  one  of  the  sons  to  her  and  it  so  happened  that  the  son  who, 
when  at  home,  was  a  burden  to  her  instead  of  a  help,  succeeded  in  being  returned.  Subsequently 
he  was  sent  back  to  camp. 

Of  course,  there  were  innumerable  instances  where  appeal  agents  were  called  upon  to  investi- 
gate marriages  which  had  taken  place  after  May  18,  1917,  the  day  when  the  Selective  Service  Law 
was  approved.  That  problem  became  a  hideous  nightmare  to  the  draft  boards.  The  evidence 
ofi'ered  by  the  registrants  in  substantially  all  of  those  cases  was  startlingly  similar.  Receipts 
were  produced  to  show  the  purchase  of  engagement  rings  and  of  furniture,  the  leasing  of  premises 
and  the  announcement  of  the  engagement,  together  with  the  date  fixed  for  the  wedding,  and  in 
each  case  the  betrothal  was  weeks  or  months  prior  to  May  18th,  while  the  wedding  was  weeks  or 
months  subsequent  thereto.    In  most  cases  such  claims  were  disallowed. 

The  Provost  Marshal  General,  in  his  report  to  the  Secretary  of  War,*  December,  1918,  paid  a 

*  It  was  not  intended,  nor  did  they  (appeal  agents)  interpret  their  duty  to  be,  that  they  should  be  partisan  representatives  of  the  Government 
for  the  purpose,  if  possible,  of  placing  every  registrant  in  military  service,  as  would  normally  be  the  case  of  a  prosecuting  attorney  trying  his  docket. 
They  properly  conceived  their  duty  to  be"  that  of  representing  the  Government  by  seeing  that  the  selective  principle  of  the  selective  service  law 
was  applied— that  no  man  escaped  who  owed  the  duty  to  go,  and  that  the  Government  was  not  put  to  the  expense  of  sending  to  the  camps  men  who 
were  better  fitted  to  preserve  the  necessary  industries  at  liome  and  to  protect  the  family  integrity.  Their  province  was  to  see  that  substantial 
fairness  was  observed;  and  the  relative  fewness  of  discharges  at  camps,  of  men  finally  accepted  for  service,  is  ample  proof  of  the  admirable  manner 
in  which  that  duty  was  performed.  The  outstanding  fact  that  this  duty  was  performed  uncomplainingly  and  without  any  compensation  what- 
ever, places  them  in  the  enviable  position  of  the  patriot  who  is  unrewarded,  save  in  the  consciousness  of  duty  well  performed,  and  in  the  knowledge 
that  both  the  Government  and  the  people  composing  it  proudly  acknowledge  a  debt  which  cannot  be  liquidated. 

Such  devotion  to  duty  can  only  be  described  by  the  tliought  that  these  men  were  putting  into  their  part  of  the  great  tight  the  conscience  of  the 
American  people. — From  General  Crowder's  Report. 


94 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 


Lafayette  Square  Any  Day— 1917 

Crowd  assembling  as  prominent  speakers  appeal  for  military  enlistment 

splendid  tribute  to  the  work  of  the  appeal  agents,  and  in  his  report  concerning  their  work  Mr. 
Rann  said: 

"  I  know  of  no  class  of  men  who,  without  hope  of  pecuniary  reward,  labored  night  and  day  for 
the  enforcement  of  the  provisions  of  the  Selective  Service  Act  and  regulations  more  faithfully 
and  unselfishly,  sacrificing  recreation  and  business,  than  the  appeal  agents  of  Buffalo.  Those 
who  contributed  to  the  great  part  which  the  United  States  took  in  the  world  war,  no  matter  in 
what  branch  of  the  service,  are  entitled  to  everlasting  credit,  and  not  the  least  of  these  are  the 
appeal  agents  who  were  animated,  not  by  love  of  applause  or  hope  of  gain,  but  by  a  zeal  for  the 
welfare  of  the  country  and  of  the  world.  In  the  early  months  of  their  service  many  of  them  had 
to  work  against  the  opposition  and,  in  some  instances,  the  prejudice  of  members  of  the  local 
boards,  who  felt  that  the  appeal  agents  were  spying  upon  their  work.  I  think  this  feeling  faded 
when  it  was  discovered  that  the  members  of  the  local  boards,  the  district  board,  the  appeal  agents, 
the  legal  advisory  boards  and  the  medical  advisory  boards  were  all  co-operating  in  the  same 
great  cause." 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War  95 


CHAPTER   XXVIII 
UNLIMITED    SERVICE    BY    MEMBERS    OF    BUFFALO    BAR 

AGENCIES  for  the  assistance  of  registrants  and  draft  boards  multiplied  rapidly  as  America's 

/\  great  National  Army  began  to  form.  Every  citizen  who,  by  reason  of  advancing  years  or 
-^  -*-  physical  defect,  was  outside  the  realm  of  military  service  felt  an  obligation  to  assist  in  all 
governmental  activities.  A  potential  force  could  readily  be  gathered  in  any  district  for  any  work 
which  came  to  hand.  Minute  men  were  around  in  abundance.  In  addition  to  all  that,  the  Presi- 
dent was  authorized  to  appoint,  on  recommendation  of  the  Governor,  legal  and  medical  advisory 
boards  for  every  locality.  Pursuant  to  that  authority,  contained  in  section  30  of  the  selective 
service  regulations.  Governor  Whitman  nominated  County  Judge  Philip  A.  Laing,  chairman, 
General  Samuel  M.  Welch,  secretary,  and  Edward  R.  O'Malley  to  compose  the  legal  advisory 
board  for  Erie  County  and  they  were  duly  appointed  by  President  Wilson.  The  board  organized, 
and  prevailed  upon  Lawrence  J.  Collins  to  act  as  chief  deputy  for  the  county.  Like  Corporation 
Counsel  Rann  and  his  associate  appeal  agents,  these  legal  advisers  were  exceptionally  busy  men 
at  that  time  with  private  affairs,  but  private  affairs  counted  little  in  those  days.  At  the  outset 
this  board  proceeded  to  effect  an  organization  sufficiently  large  and  competent  to  correctly  advise 
and  correctly  assist  all  registrants  in  filling  out  their  questionnaires,  to  the  end  that  each  quota 
certified  to  the  various  local  boards  could  be  filled  within  the  allotted  time. 

The  organization  so  effected,  was  known  as  the  associate  legal  advisory  committee  and  num- 
bered in  Erie  County,  eleven  hundred  and  ten  men  and  women,  for  the  most  part  lawyers  and 
school  teachers.  Their  period  of  service  covered  eleven  months,  commencing  in  the  latter  part 
of  December,  1917,  and  terminating  in  the  latter  part  of  November,  1918.  Throughout  the 
period  of  their  service,  the  legal  advisory  board  regulated  and  advised  these  workers  from  day 
to  day  on  the  various  phases  of  their  work. 

The  greatest  volume  of  work  performed  by  the  legal  advisory  boards  grew  out  of  the  question- 
naire, an  instrument  designed  to  draw  from  the  registrant  every  fact  of  value  in  allotting  him 
to  his  most  useful  place  in  the  country's  service.  With  the  advent  of  the  questionnaire,  the  cen- 
sus man,  the  meter  inspector,  and  all  the  other  banes  of  human  existence  promptly  slipped  into 
positions  of  trivial  importance.  That  masterpiece,  while  most  efficacious  to  the  Government, 
proved  baffling  to  the  average  registrant. 

One  local  board  received  a  questionnaire  with  nothing  answered,  but  containing  the  notation 
across  the  face:  "I'm  ready  when  you  are." 

Upon  investigation,  it  was  found  that  the  registrant  was  a  colored  man,  who,  after  attempting, 
without  assistance,  to  fill  out  the  paper  concluded  that  the  effort  was  beyond  him,  and  hit  upon 
this  way  of  clearing  the  situation. 

The  length  and  complexity  of  the  questionnaire,  coupled  with  the  magnitude  of  its  purpose  in 
the  conduct  of  the  war,  seemed  to  work  confusion  in  the  minds  of  a  majority  of  registrants,  and 
especially  those  of  foreign  extraction.  One  attorney  tells  of  a  registrant  whom  he  was  aiding  in 
filling  out  his  questionnaire.  When  that  section  was  reached  which  required  each  registrant  to 
underline  that  branch  of  the  army  in  which  he  would  prefer  to  serve  if  selected,  the  attorney 
enumerated  the  various  branches,  commencing  with  the  artillery  and  ending  with  the  signal 
corps.  The  registrant  seemed  absorbed  in  deep  thought  for  some  moments,  then  turning  to  the 
attorney,  he  said  in  all  earnestness,  "  I  prefer  the  Home  Defense.    Please  put  a  line  under  that." 

As  in  the  category  of  war  machinery,  nothing,  from  the  standpoint  of  immediate  importance, 
overshadowed  the  questionnaire,  so  in  the  ranks  of  the  great  civilian  army  during  the  crisis,  none 
rendered  more  effective  aid  to  the  Government  than  this  associate  legal  advisory  committee.  It 
was  made  up  of  a  number  of  small  committees,  one  acting  for  each  local  division  and  having  as 
its  chairman  the  appeal  agent  for  such  division.    These  committees  in  the  City  of  Buffalo  used 


96 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 


as  their  headquarters  for  aiding  registrants  a  grammar  or  high  school  in  their  respective  districts. 
The  work  of  the  chief  deputy  to  the  legal  advisory  board  consisted  mainly  in  recruiting  members 
for  the  associate  legal  advisory  committee  from  various  walks  of  life  and  in  supplying  help  hurried- 
ly to  districts  where  the  number  of  registrants  was  too  great  for  the  regular  committee  to  handle. 

The  volume  of  work  performed  by  General  Welch,  as  secretary  of  the  legal  advisory  board, 
and  the  conscientious  manner  of  its  execution,  was  almost,  if  not  wholly,  without  parallel  of  its 
kind  throughout  the  country. 

The  associate  legal  advisory  committee,  like  the  members  of  the  legal  advisory  board,  received 
no  compensation  whatsoever.  The  effectiveness,  and  the  untiring  devotion  to  the  cause,  which 
characterized  the  labors  of  the  legal  advisoiy  board,  was  splendidly  sustained  by  the  associate 
legal  advisory  committee.  The  task  assigned  to  them  was  one  that  taxed  to  the  utmost  both 
nerves  and  patience,  and  for  their  splendid  attitude  in  that  trying  ordeal,  the  lawyers  and  school 
teachers  of  Buffalo  are  forever  entitled  to  commendation. 


Motor  Corps  Girls  at  Work 

Chief  Edward  P.  Murphy.  Buffalo  Fire  Department,  and  two  ambulance  drivers  at  a  big  Buffalo  fire — 1917 

Nor  did  their  efforts  by  any  means  cease  with  the  aid  they  afforded  registrants.  It  would  be 
difficult  to  say  how  many  claims  for  exemption  or  deferred  classification,  the  district  appeal  board 
and  the  local  boards  for  Erie  County  would  otherwise  have  had  to  pass  upon,  were  it  not  for  the 
patriotism  that  was  incessantly  infused  into  luke-warm  registrants  by  the  members  of  the  legal 
advisory  committee.  The  tendency  to  escape,  where  possible,  induction  into  the  service  was 
quite  natural  and  not  altogether  infrequent,  and  it  was  the  manifestation  of  this  tendency  in  its 
various  phases,  which  the  legal  advisory  committee  was  forced  to  combat,  and  with  tact  and  in- 
genuity, to  overcome.  Hence  it  may  be  safely  asserted  that  the  members  in  themselves  were, 
indeed,  a  powerful  contributing  force  to  the  upbuilding  of  the  nation's  man-power.  Each  regis- 
trant naturally  sought  to  determine  his  right  to  exemption  from  military  service,  but  once  he 
learned  it  was  his  turn  to  go  he  quickly  and  bravely  stepped  into  his  place  and  it  was  that  spirit 
which  created  the  victorious  United  States  Army. 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War  97 


CHAPTER  XXIX 

DISTRICT    BOARD    NUMBER    THREE 

ON  August  thirteenth,  Nineteen  Hundred  and  Seventeen,  occurred  the  first  meeting  of  District 
Board  Number  Three  (Selective  Service  for  the  Western  Federal  District  of  New  York. 
It  was  one  of  nine  such  Boards  in  New  York  State.  Its  jurisdiction  covered  the  counties 
of  Erie,  Niagara,  Orleans,  Wyoming  and  Genesee.  These  counties  were  divided  into  twenty-six 
local  boards.  The  meeting  was  held  in  quarters  in  the  Iroquois  Gas  Building,  at  Church  and 
Franklin  Streets. 

As  the  Selective  Service  Law  was  put  into  operation,  it  speedily  became  evident  that  industrial 
classification  was  the  most  important  work  confronting  the  Board.  The  accomplishment  of  a 
two-fold  result  was  imperative;  first,  to  obtain  a  definite  number  of  soldiers  for  the  fighting  force 
abroad,  and,  secondly,  to  conserve  an  army  of  industrial  workers  of  the  highest  efficiency  at 
home. 

At  first  hand  this  appeared  a  simple  process,  but  it  soon  became  seriously  complicated,  by 
reason  of  the  fact  that  many  preferred  to  battle  on  the  home  field,  and  into  the  refuge  furnished 
by  the  war  factories  men  poured  from  every  line  of  endeavor.  Frequent  claims  were  made  on 
behalf  of  "skilled  industrial  laborers"  whose  previous  experience  (often  carefully  camouflaged) 
showed  "seven  years  a  barber,"  "three  years  an  actor,"  through  every  field — clerks,  waiters, 
students,  musicians,  etc.  Wages  were  no  evidence  of  worth.  As  in  other  walks  along  with  in- 
dustry's "necessities"  came  industry's  "substitutes."  Instances  were  noted  of  men  receiving 
$75  a  week,  who  in  peace  times  could  not  command  more  than  $20.  The  task  of  the  district 
board  to  "part  the  goats  upon  the  left  hand  and  the  sheep  upon  the  right"  thus  became  a  stu- 
pendous undertaking. 

The  Board's  success  is  demonstrated  by  the  fact  that  Buffalo  never  failed  to  answer  the  call 
for  men;  each  time,  they  were  entrained  on  the  minute,  and  certainly  no  industries  anywhere 
in  the  United  States  ran  with  greater  efficiency.  The  members  often  felt  themselves  hard  pressed, 
but  that  was  their  contribution  to  the  great  achievement. 

Classification  of  agricultural  claims  was  more  or  less  routine  work,  for  at  all  times  farmers 
were  suffering  from  shortage  of  labor  and  it  was  evident  to  the  Board  that  any  man 
whose  vocation  was  farming,  or  who  was  working  on  a  farm  before  May  18,  1917,  should 
be  left  on  that  farm,  and  the  Board's  policy  in  regard  to  agricultural  claims  was  to  grant 
every  bonafide  claim  where  the  production  showed  any  material  surplus  beyond  the  needs  of  the 
farm  occupants. 

Perhaps  the  worst  struggle  of  all  came  with  classification  on  appeal  of  dependency  cases,  re- 
sulting from  marriages  after  May  18th,  1917.  District  Boards  were  left  to  work  out  a  line  of 
action  which  would  result  in  uniformity  so  far  as  that  was  possible  of  attainment. 

It  was  not  until  complete  new  regulations  were  issued  in  September,  1918,  that  definite 
rules  were  laid  down  for  the  handling  of  such  cases,  the  final  ruling  being  that  the  only 
valid  dependency  claim  would  be  for  the  dependency  of  a  child  of  such  marriage,  born  or 
unborn. 

A  few  statistics  set  forth  the  gigantic  task  accomplished  by  District  Boards,  the  Buffalo  Board 
being  an  average  illustration. 

It  must  be  remembered  that  under  the  jurisdiction  of  this  Board  there  were  besides  Buffalo, 
five  counties,  having  a  registration  of  90,146,  making  our  complete  number  of  registrants 
230,744.  From  this  number,  until  the  signing  of  the  armistice,  the  Board  entertained  36,906 
claims.  Of  these  29,206  were  industrial  and  agricultural,  and  20,037  were  granted.  There 
were  7,700  appeals  from  Local  Board  decisions  on  various  grounds,  and  of  these  2,611  were 
granted. 


98  Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 

Many  humorous  occurrences*  and  communications  enlivened  the  work.  The  Board  was 
showered  with  criticism  and  compliments,  and  no  matter  what  it  did,  it  was  sure  of  being 
roundly  abused  and  enthusiastically  praised.  The  work  certainly  had  many  rewards.  No 
agency  ever  established  in  Buffalo  received  heartier  co-operation.  City  and  county  officials  dis- 
played an  eagerness  to  assist,  and  every  request  made  of  them  was  quickly  met.  Any  necessities 
in  the  line  of  supplies  which  could  not  be  obtained  from  the  Government,  were  immediately  sup- 
plied by  Buffalo  merchants.  The  Board  had  only  to  make  its  wants  known  and  they  were  satis- 
fied.   To  mention  Buffalo's  patriotic  citizens  by  name  would  fill  several  pages. 

When  the  work  of  the  classification  of  the  registrants  of  September  12,  1918,  was  contemplated, 
it  was  seen  that  greater  latitude  should  prevail  in  regard  to  them.  Up  to  September  1,  1918, 
only  those  industries  which  could  show  that  they  were  contributing  substantially  and  materially 
to  the  maintenance  of  the  military  establishment,  to  the  effective  operation  of  the  military  forces, 
or  to  the  national  interest  during  the  emergency  could  obtain  deferred  classification  for  their  men. 
The  general  rule  followed  was  that  such  concerns  should  be  immediate  producers  of  war  materials 
or  allied  concerns  once  removed,  immediately  supplying  such  major  industries. 

As  time  passed,  the  activities  of  the  country  were  rapidly  converted  to  war  purposes,  and  the 
Government  extended  this  rule  to  include  "occupations  and  employments"  of  a  commercial 
nature,  so  that  practically  all  barriers  were  down  and  claims  were  received,  running  the  extremes, 
from  laundries  to  patent  medicines.  To  provide  for  the  necessary  adjustments  between  the 
necessities  of  the  industries  already  given  consideration  and  those  not  of  that  description,  but 
contributing  to  the  national  interest  during  the  emergency,  there  were  appointed  three  industrial 
advisors  to  assist  the  District  Board.  The  armistice  came  so  quickly  that  only  an  indication  was 
obtained  of  the  important  services  these  men  were  to  render. 

The  following  advisors  were  named:  G.  P.  Berner,  of  Buffalo,  appointed  by  the  Federal  De- 
partment of  Labor;  Charles  Parker,  of  Lockport,  appointed  by  the  Department  of  Agriculture, 
and  Henry  P.  Werner,  of  Buffalo,  appointed  by  the  members  of  the  District  Board, 


*  The  registrants  themselves,  in  their  questionnaires,  unconsciously,  and  the  writers  of  the  following  letters,  per- 
haps not  always  unconsciously,  contributed  to  the  Board's  rejuvenation. 
We  do  not  know  how  this  man  finished,  but  he  began  as  a  plain  private: 

"Dear  Sirs: 

"  i  have  registered  in  BulTalo  on  June  5  but  i  didn't  stay  in  the  City,  i  left  shortly  and  haven't  been  notified,  i  would  like  very  much  for  you 
to  write  if  i  have  bin  called  to  the  colors  and  if  i  am  i  am  willing,  i  have  bin  in  the  army  before,  i  have  bin  a  commanding  officer  in  the  8th  ill. 
N.  G.  and  i  am  cable  of  holding  the  same  in  any  other  regiment. 

"Now  i  will  close  as  i  have  other  things  to  tend  to  but  at  present  time  our  god  comes  first,  our  country  next  then  Mother  Dear  ao  this  is  all." 

This  is  from  a  father  who  must  have  been  surprised  at  the  wonders  Uncle  Sam  was  able  to  perform: 

"I  never  was  more  surprised  in  my  life  to  hear  that  my  son  is  excepted  and  I  appeal  to  you  for  another  and  thorough  examination.  He  is  a 
subject  of  rheumatism.  In  damp  weather  he  has  leakage  of  the  heart  and  Asthmatic  trouble  of  the  Bronchial  tube.  He  has  two  lap-over  toes, 
one  on  each  foot  and  has  lost  the  grip  from  his  right  hand.  The  Dr.  told  him  to  get  an  outside  job  and  beware  of  excitement.  This  sure  is  a  sur- 
prise to  everybody." 

M'any  such  as  this  one  had  to  be  caught  on  the  fly: 

"I  am  writing  for  my  questioneer  papers.  When  I  registered  I  was  in  the  Erie  Co.  Pen  doing  one  year.  Now  Ifam  in  the  Erie  Co.  farm  doing 
30  days.    My  time  will  be  up  May  11th,  and  I  don't  know  what  my  address  will  be  next." 

Not  all  mothers  wanted  their  sons  to  stay  at  home: 

"I  have  a  son  whom  is  drafted  by  the  newspapers.  I  would  like  to  know  if  he  has  been  medically  examined  and  if  so,  how  is  he?  Also  if  ex- 
empted, what  for?  his  mother." 

He  seems  to  have  done  his  bit: 

"You  ask  me  to  report  change  of  employment.  I  was  formerly  a  Pennsylvania  Telegraph  operator  but  through  merger  of  the  Penn,  R  R.  and 
Nickel  Plate  R.  R.  and  the  Nickel  Plate  R.  R.  taking  over  the  Penn.  R.  R.  makes  me  a  Nickel  Plate  man.  Only  change  is  new  boss,  twice  as  much 
work,  two  roads  instead  of  one." 

We  were  the  clearing  house  for  many  complaints,  this  one  being  quite  out  of  the  ordinary: 

"I  have  just  received  a  card  from  Albert,  saying  he  is  safe  in  France.  He  took  out  $10,000  insurance  for  me  and  I  have  not  received  a  penny 
yet." 

The  war  was  a  popular  place  for  many  to  consign  their  troublesome  "in-laws."  No  relief  was  furnished  in  this 
case,  for  the  man  proved  to  be  beyond  the  age  limit: 

"Dear  Men  of  Military: 

"Please  excuse  me  for  writing  to  you  but  I  can't  help  it.  I  was  over  to  Buffalo  for  the  weak  end  to  see  my  sister.  I  really  must  say  you  have 
overlook  a  man  that  should  be  helping  win  this  great  war.  Why  I  say  this  is,  he  is  fiting  day  by  day  at  home.  I  realy  was  in  fear  the  one  night 
I  stade  there.     I  ask  my  sister,  duse  he  go  on  like  this,  she  said  'yes  and  worse.' 

"If  you  get  him  I  am  sure  this  war  will  be  over  with  fur  if  ever  there's  a  devil  on  earth  he  is  one.    Such  a  broot,  he  is  not  a  man. 

"I  give  you  people  a  lot  of  prayers  and  hope  you  get  him,  when  he  has  been  in  France  he  will  treet  a  woman  write." 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 


99 


DISTRICT    BOARD 
Division  No.  3,  of  the  Western  Jitoicial  District 

Mack,  Norman  E.,  Buffalo,  N.  Y.,  appointed  August  4,  1917;  Streifler,  Henry,  Buffalo,  N.  Y.,  appointed  vice 
Norman  E.  Mack,  resigned;  Crosby,  W.  H.,  Buffalo,  N.  Y.,  appointed  September  10,  1918,  vice  Henry  Streifler, 
resigned;  Moore,  Dr.  A.  N.,  Lockport,  N.  Y.,  Secretary,  appointed  August  4,  1917;  Smallwood,  W.  W.,  Warsaw, 
N.  Y.,  appointed  August  4,  1917;  Wickser,  John  G.,  Buffalo,  N.  Y.,  appointed  August  4,  1917;  Houck,  George 
E.,  Buffalo,  N.  Y.,  appointed  March  26,  1918,  vice  John  G.  Wickser,  resigned;  O'Brian,  John  Lord,  Buffalo, 
N.  Y.,  appointed  August  4,  1917;  Davidson,  George  G.,  Jr.,  appointed  September  28,  1917,  vice  John  Lord 
O'Brian,  resigned;  Reilley,  W.  W.,  410  Delaware  Avenue,  Buffalo,  N.  Y.,  appointed  August  26,  1918,  vice 
George  G.  Davidson,  resigned;  Williams,  Silas  W.,  East  Aurora,  N.  Y.,  appointed  March  14,  1918;  Curtiss, 
Harlow  C,  Buffalo,  N.  Y.,  appointed  March  14,  1918. 


Red  Cross  Campaign 

Buffalo  volunteers  preparing  bandages  for  Red  Cross  work 


100  Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 


CHAPTER   XXX 
"THE    ROSE    OF    NO    MAN'S    LAND" 

Buffalo  realized  very  quickly  after  the  declaration  of  war  that  something  more  than  fighting 
men  was  necessary  to  win  the  war.  Early  in  June,  1917,  the  Liberty  Loan  campaign  had 
crashed  in  on  a  tightwad  community.  Not  that  Buffalonians  were  a  more  penurious  people 
than  the  inhabitants  of  Cleveland,  Penn  Yan,  Paducah,  or  any  other  American  city,  but  they 
were  not  in  the  habit  of  giving.  With  Puritan-like  fidelity  and  devotion  they  were  brightening 
the  corner  where  they  were,  and  holding  fast  to  the  sermon  philosophy  of  the  Baseball  Evan- 
gelist:   "Get  what  you  can  and  can  what  you  get." 

The  martial  airs  and  the  marching  of  troops  of  1917  had  stin-ed  their  blood,  however,  while 
Elliott  C.  McDougal  and  Walter  P.  Cooke,  with  their  little  band  of  liberty  loaners,  were  shaking  the 
town  loose  from  some  of  its  hoarded  thousands.  Frank  S.  McGraw,  a  treat-'em-rough  Red  Cross 
chairman,  had  succeeded  in  unraveling  many  a  care-free  and  plethoric  bankroll  during  the  early 
weeks  of  the  year  and  a  sufficient  number  of  dollars  rolled  therefrom  to  equip  a  base  hospital.  While 
the  old  community  was  still  rocking  and  disturbed  from  the  shock  of  such  financial  upsets,  Robert 
W.  Pomeroy  and  his  advance  army  of  Red  Cross  workers  set  up  their  stand  and  announced  their 
purpose  to  raise  $1,500,000  in  Buffalo  for 

THE    ROSE    OF    NO-MAN'S    LAND 

"There's  a  rose  that  grows  "It's  the  one  red  rose 

On  No-Man's  Land,  Th'  soldier  knows, 

And  it's  wonderful  to  see;  It's  the  work  of  the  Master's  hand. 

Though  it's  sprayed  with  tears,  'Neath  the  war's  great  curse 

It  will  live  for  years  Stands  the  Red  Cross  nurse — 

In  my  garden  of  memory.  She's  the  rose  of  No-Man's  Land." 

Buffalo  stood  up  especially  fine  in  the  first*  and  subsequent  Red  Cross  drives.  Campaigns  for 
hospital  funds,  orphan  collections  and  charity  oi'ganization  work  had  in  the  prior  years  met  with 
only  fair  success.  Donations  had  been  small.  It  is  not  surprising  that  Mr.  Pomeroy  and  his 
associates  approached  their  Red  Cross  task  with  diffidence,  albeit,  determination.  General  Chair- 
man Davison  had  advised  the  local  committee  that  Buffalo's  proportion  of  the  sum  to  be  raised 
was  fixed  at  $1,500,000 — a  tremendous  figure  at  that  period  in  our  community  existence,  but 
when  William  A.  Rogers  announced  he  would  give  $100,000  the  people  caught  the  spirit  of  the 
times.  Patriotism  was  not  confined  entirely  to  the  youth  of  the  land.  Bankers,  brokers,  artisans, 
laborers,  clerks,  the  girls  in  the  box  factories,  and  those  picking  rags  on  the  slides  at  the  city 
dumps  gave  in  equal  measure  from  their  respective  incomes. 

On  June  18th  Mayor  Fuhrmann  received  a  telegram  from  President  Wilson — in  reality  a  tele- 
gram to  the  people  of  Buffalo — as  follows: 

Washington,  D.  C.  4  P.  M.,  June  18,  1917. 
Mayor  L.  P.  Fuhrmann, 

Buffalo,  N.  Y.: 
TJie  American  people,  by  their  overwhelming  subscriptions  to  the  Liberty  Loan  have  given  a  new  endorsement  to  the 
high  principles  for  which  America  entered  the  war.  Diiring  the  week  now  beginning,  which  I  have  designated  Red  Cross 
Week,  they  will  have  a  unique  privilege  of  manifesting  America's  unselfishness,  as  well  as  the  real  spirit  of  sacrifice  that 
animates  our  people.  May  I  urge  that  your  city  do  its  part  in  (he  raising  of  the  $100,000,000  Red  Cross  War  Fund, 
measuring  the  generosity  of  its  gifts  by  the  urgency  of  the  need. 
WooDROW  Wilson. 

*  In  population  Buffalo  is  the  tenth  city  of  the  Union.  In  giving  to  the  Red  Cross  she  stands  seventh.  This  is  a  good  record.  It  speaks  volumes 
for  the  charity  and  the  patriotism  of  the  people.  It  reflects  credit  upon  the  earnest  men  and  women  who,  under  the  direction  of  Mr.  Robert  W. 
Pomeroy,  worked  so  diligently  for  the  success  of  the  campaign. 

The  allotment  for  Buffalo  compared  with  some  other  cities  was  high,  but  that  did  not  daunt  those  behind  the  movement.  It  merely  spurred 
them  on  to  renewed  effort  and  they  are  justly  entitled  to  the  thanks  of  the  community  for  their  good  work. 

They  have  put  Buffalo  upon  the  map  as  one  of  the  cities  whose  loyalt.v  to  the  Government  has  shown  itself  in  the  most  practical  and 
helpful  of  wa.vs." — (Buffalo  Commercial,  June  29,  1917.) 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 


101 


The  campaign  oganization  was  completed  before  Saturday,  June  16th,  and  at  a  mass  meeting 
on  that  Saturday  night  at  Elmwood  Music  Hall  the  project  was  formally  launched.  Speeches 
were  made  by  Mayor  Fuhrmann,  the  Rev.  Newell  Dwight  Hillis  of  Brooklyn,  one  of  America's 
best  pulpit  orators,  and  by  Baroness  Huard,  who  related  some  of  her  personal  experiences  when 
driven  from  her  home  in  northern  France  by  German  invaders. 

On  Monday  the  team  captains  began  their  quest  for  subscriptions,  and  the  week  was  enlivened 
with  noonday  luncheons  and  team  novelties.  A  dinner  of  very  generous  proportions  was  held 
prior  to  the  campaign,  and  another  dinner,  the  prerequisite  obligation  of  each  guest  being  a  $10,000 
contribution,  was  held  during  the  campaign,  and  the  drive  concluded  with  the  money  in  hand, 
at  an  enthusiastic  spread  held  at  the  Hotel  Statler  on  Monday  evening,  June  25th.  George  P. 
Keating  served  as  toastmaster  at  the  final  dinner,  and  speeches  were  made  by  Chairman  Pomeroy, 


Parade  n<  Red  Cross  Workers,  Mav,  1918 


Mayor  Fuhrmann,  Noel  Marshall  of  Toronto,  Walter  P.  Cooke,  Roscoe  R.  Mitchell,  A.  H.  Whit- 
ford  of  the  Y.  M.  C.  A.,  John  D.  Wells,  of  the  Buffalo  Evening  News,  and  the  Rev.  Dr.  Andrew 
V.  V.  Raymond.  At  the  conclusion  of  the  dinner.  Dr.  Edward  J.  Meyer  presented  to  Robert  W. 
Pomeroy  a  large  loving  cup.  It  came  to  the  chairman  as  an  expression  of  the  esteem  of  his  cap- 
tains and  as  a  token  of  good  fellowship  which  grew  and  bloomed  and  shed  a  fairer  radiance  in  the 
more  arduous  days  which  followed.    The  cup  was  inscribed : 

"Robert  W.  Pomeroy 

President  Buffalo  Citizens'  Committee 

Red  Cross  Campaign,  June  18-25,  1917 

From  His  Co-Workers." 

The  complete  team  reports  handed  in  that  night  showed : 

Division  A— Evan  Hollister,  chairman.  Team  No.  1,  Capt.  Hollister,  $78,348;  No.  2,  Charles  L.  Gurney,  $49,425; 
No.  3,  Charles  R.  Huntley,  $48,363;  No.  4,  Ralph  C.  Hudson,  $41,524:  No.  5,  C.  H.  McCullough,  Jr.,  $83,509; 
No.  6,  George  F.  Rand,  $72,415.75;  No.  7,  Robert  K.  Root,  $42,650.50;  No.  8,  Arnold  B.  Watson,  $44,022.46; 
No.  9,  Clinton  R.  WyckofF,  $45,949.     Division  Total,  $505,687.16. 


102 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 


Scene  at  Lafayette  Square 

Ceremony  attached  to  unveiling  of  Red  Cross  Flag 

Division  B — Dr.  Conrad  E.  Wettlaufer,  chairman.  Team  No.  11,  James  H.  McNulty,  $45,516;  No.  13,  Mayor  Louis 

P.  Fuhrmann,  $48,079.75;  No.  14,  William  E.  Robertson,  $25,671.55;  No.  15,  Kenneth  W.  Waiters,  $26,064.50; 

No.  16,  Henry  P.  Werner,  $47,590.37;  No.  17,  Dr.  Wettlaufer,  $162,732.32;     No.   18,   Frank  Winch,   $29,804. 

Division  Total,  $395,458.49. 
Division  C— M.  S.  Tremaine,  chairman.     Team  21,  Capt.  Tremaine,  $27,806;  No.  22,  Herbert  E.  Crouch,  $47,812.10; 

No.  23,  E.  B.  Eggert,  $48,975;  No.  24,  Nesbit  Grammar,  $34,837;  No.  25,  William  H.  Hill,  $60,913.38;  No.  26; 

Clark  L.  Ingham,  $24,716.10;  No.  27,  T.  M.  Pomeroy,  $31,347.01;  No.  28,  H.  T.  Ramsdell,  $52,584.40;  special 

gifts  to  credit  of  Division  C,  $50,000.     Division  Total,  $327,944.98. 
Division  D— Dr.  Edw.  J.  Meyer,  chairman.    Team  No.  31,  Capt.  Meyer,  $102,681.50;  No.  32,  Gerrit  B.  Lansing, 

$26,114;  No.  33,  Le  Grand  De  Graff,  $69,999.50;  No.  34,  Frank  H.  Goodyear,  $50,230.54;  No.  35,  Henry  May, 

$75,190.29;  No.  36,  B.  C.  Oliphant,  $25,451;  No.  37,  Roswell  Park,  $38,452;  No.  38,  Frank  Ruszkiewicz,  $13,368; 

No.  39,  Harry  Yates,  $51 ,297.    Division  Total,  $409,216.89. 

Total $1,895,089.89 

Special  contribution 5,000.00 

Buffalo  Base  Hospital   Fund 100,000.00 

Grand  Total $2,000,089.89 

Subsequently  this  total  was  increased  somewhat  by  delayed  subscriptions. 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War  103 


CHAPTER   XXXI 
COAL    SHORTAGE    THROUGH    WINTER    OF    1917    1918 

ON  the  16th  day  of  October,  1917,  Albert  H.  Wiggin,  Federal  Fuel  Administrator  for  New 
York  State,  appointed  Elliott  C.  McDougal  of  Buffalo,  Federal  Fuel  Administrator  for 
Erie  County.  Mr.  McDougal  knew  nothing  about  the  fuel  business  and  suggested  that 
it  would  be  better  to  appoint  an  experienced  Buffalo  coal  jobber  who  also  was  familiar  with  trans- 
portation problems.  He  was  told  his  suggestion  was  not  in  accordance  with  the  policy  of  the 
Government;  that  any  material  interest  in  the  coal  business  would  be  considered  a  disqualifica- 
tion for  the  office.    He  then  accepted. 

He  appointed  as  his  first  deputy  Mr.  W.  A.  McDougal,  who  had  enjoyed  practical  experience 
in  buying  and  using  bituminous  coal  as  a  manufacturer  and  who  was  familiar  with  transportation 
conditions  and  practices.  Unfortunately  the  first  deputy  resigned  his  office  and  left  the  city 
before  the  winter  was  well  begun.  The  office  of  the  Administrator  for  Erie  County  was  opened 
in  the  Prudential  Building  on  October  27th,  1917,  with  a  small  force  under  charge  of  Miss  M. 
Kathryn  Kelly  as  chief  clerk.  During  the  first  few  weeks  the  work  was  not  heavy.  Its  three 
principal  branches  were : 

The  procuring  of  bituminous  coal  for  manufacturers  and  others  who  could  not  get  supplies, 
either  because  they  had  not  made  contracts,  or  because  the  dealers  with  whom  they  had  made 
contracts  could  not  deliver  the  coal;  furnishing  coal  for  the  City  of  Buffalo,  for  the  pumping 
station  and  other  municipal  uses,  and  supplying  the  public  schools  and  other  public  offices  where, 
as  a  rule,  anthracite  coal  was  burned. 

The  Fuel  Administrator  undertook  to  procure  hard  coal  for  domestic  consumption,  many 
householders  being  unable  to  get  coal  to  heat  their  homes.  During  the  first  few  weeks  the  orders 
of  this  kind  which  the  fuel  office  handled  did  not  average  more  than  forty  per  day. 

The  supervision  and  restriction  of  electric  lighting  in  accordance  with  instructions  and  rulings 
from  Washington,  which  were  frequently  changed,  was  also  handled  from  the  Fuel  Administra- 
tor's office.  That  work  was  started  on  November  19,  1917.  Controlling  of  electric  lighting 
brought  with  it  many  difficulties.  Some  of  the  regulations  received  from  Washington  either  were 
not  well  considered  or  were  not  applicable  to  Buffalo,  but  had  to  be  enforced  until  they  could  be 
amended  or  rescinded.  While  our  citizens  as  a  whole  showed  a  disposition  to  obey  the  law,  even 
at  a  considerable  sacrifice,  there  were  a  few  persistent  offenders  who  had  to  be  disciplined  by  the 
shutting  off  of  their  electric  current  before  they  could  be  brought  to  realize  that  the  law  must  be 
obeyed.  In  this  work  the  office  had  the  very  best  of  co-operation  from  the  Buffalo  General  Elec- 
tric Company,  which  allowed  two  of  its  best  men  to  be  appointed  deputy  fuel  administrators 
that  they  might  be  able  to  give  efficient  assistance. 

In  connection  with  every  one  of  these  duties,  the  office  was  constantly  called  upon  for  rulings 
and  opinions,  many  of  which  questions  had  to  be  submitted  to  the  State  Fuel  Administrator  of 
New  York  and  by  him  in  turn  to  Washington,  causing  delays  which  at  times  were  damaging  to 
the  questioners.  The  Erie  County  Fuel  Administrator's  office  incessantly  tried  to  impress  upon 
the  State  Fuel  Administration  that  matters  should  be  handled  promptly  as  they  came  up  and 
that  the  office  could  not  properly  be  run  unless  the  Erie  County  Fuel  Administrator  was  allowed 
to  use  his  common  sense  in  ordinary  matters  and  to  act  upon  them  at  once  without  delay.  It 
was  at  first  hard  to  get  authority  from  Washington  along  these  lines  but  in  this  respect  the  situa- 
tion gradually  improved. 

Soon  after  the  office  was  fairly  under  way  the  weather  became  very  severe  and  continued  so. 
Because  of  the  continued  snow  storms  and  extreme  cold,  the  coal  supply  was  less  than  one-half 
of  normal,  while  the  consumption  was  greater  than  normal.  Many  domestic  consumers,  especially 
those  who  lived  from  hand  to  mouth  and  made  no  provision  for  the  future,  became  panic-stricken. 


104  Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 

About  the  middle  of  January  the  crowd  of  appHcants,  which  had  been  growing  for  some  time, 
became  a  mob  which  required  the  assistance  of  the  police  to  keep  in  order.  Women  stood  in  Hne 
for  hours  waiting  for  their  turn  for  orders.  The  system  of  handling  orders  required  that  after 
an  application  for  coal  had  been  made,  the  name  should  be  sent  to  a  police  station  and  the  house 
visited  by  a  police  officer  to  be  sure  that  the  coal  was  actually  needed.  Then  it  was  reported  back 
to  the  Fuel  Administrator's  office  and  the  order  issued.  While  this  system  worked  fairly  well 
when  orders  were  light,  it  caused  great  delay,  confusion  and  hardship  when  orders  were  heavy. 

The  situation  became  so  serious  that  at  the  suggestion  of  the  Fuel  Administrator  Mayor  Buck 
called  a  conference  at  his  office  on  January  20  at  which  were  present  Mayor  Buck,  Chief  of  Police 
Girvin,  representatives  of  miners  and  shippers,  jobbers  and  men  who  controlled  coal  trestles, 
other  citizens,  and  the  United  States  Fuel  Administrator  for  Erie  County.  At  that  conference 
it  was  decided  that  the  Fuel  Office  would  put  clerks  in  every  police  station  in  the  city  so  that  appli- 
cants for  coal,  instead  of  being  obliged  to  come  down  town,  could  go  to  the  police  stations  in  their 
own  precincts.  Chief  Girvin  said  the  police  would  promptly  investigate  the  cases  and  report 
back  and  that  orders  for  coal  could  then  go  out  immediately  direct  from  the  clerk  at  the  police 
station.  The  clerks  were  placed  in  the  station  houses  on  January  21,  1918.  The  record  days  for 
orders  were:  .January  21,  22,  23,  24  and  25,  on  all  of  which  days  an  average  of  about  four  thousand 
a  day  was  handled.  Too  much  acknowledgment  cannot  be  made  of  the  splendid  work  of  the 
police  during  that  time  of  stress.  Their  co-operation  saved  the  situation.  Without  it  the  Fuel 
Office  would  have  been  helpless. 

For  some  time  the  weather  continued  severe.  About  the  middle  of  February  it  had  consider- 
ably moderated.  Then  the  Fuel  Office  commenced  to  reduce  the  forces  at  the  station  houses. 
Next  it  closed  two  or  three  of  the  stations  very  near  the  downtown  Fuel  Administrator's  office, 
handling  the  orders  from  there.  By  the  first  part  of  March  all  of  the  stations  were  closed,  and  the 
weather  continuing  mild  and  the  coal  supply  improving,  the  applications  dropped  off  fast.  By 
March  5,  1918,  the  office  stopped  issuing  orders.  By  April  1  the  main  difficulties  of  the  domestic 
situation  were  over. 

Bituminous  coal  still  continued  to  be  scarce,  the  situation  having  been  aggravated  by  the  fact 
that  on  January  12,  1917,  the  Fuel  Administration  at  Washington  had  ordered  bituminous  coal 
diverted  from  Buffalo  to  Boston,  which  practically  shut  off  the  best  sources  of  supply.  We  had 
been  short  all  the  winter.    This  new  order  made  the  condition  much  worse. 

Village  and  country  districts  suffered  even  more  than  Buffalo.  While  special  deputy  adminis- 
trators were  appointed  to  care  for  their  needs,  it  was  harder  than  in  Buffalo  to  get  coal  delivered 
on  track  ready  for  the  local  dealers  to  distribute.  Many  country  stations  waited  weeks  for  the 
one  car  of  coal.    (Continued  in  Chapter  XLIX.) 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War  105 


CHAPTER    XXXII 
PEACE    PROPOSAL    OF  POPE    BENEDICT    XV 

A  MERiCA's  entrance  into  the  war,  coupled  with  another  event  of  world-wide  importance  in  the 
ZA  early  days  of  1917  had  given  a  new  direction  to  the  great  struggle. 
■*-  -^-The  development  of  the  vast  machinery  of  registration  and  selection,  and  the  knowledge  that 
it  was  going  to  reach  into  the  homes  and  draw  therefrom  the  youth  of  the  country,  laid  a  check 
upon  the  care-free  indifference  of  the  people.  We  no  longer  looked  at  Europe  through  the  eyes 
of  a  disinterested  spectator.  Buffalo  fathers  and  mothers  grew  serious,  and  boys  grew  anxious. 
The  day  of  real  sacrifices  had  arrived.  As  the  draft  boards  sweltered  through  July,  wrestling 
with  the  intricacies  of  the  selective  service,  and  slowly  solving  its  problems,  Buffalonians  focused 
attention  on  the  events  in  Europe.  The  entire  nation  was  likewise  engaged.  Every  mother, 
every  father,  and  sister  and  brother,  every  family  which  numbered  a  member  in  the  draft,  began 
not  unnaturally,  to  speculate  on  the  possible  duration  of  the  war,  possible  extent  of  our  partici- 
pation, and  the  possible  strength  of  the  contending  forces  then  engaged  on  the  battle  fronts  of 
Europe. 

White  Books  and  Blue  Books  had  been  written,  telling  the  world  from  whence  the  war  had 
come.  Red  books  could  have  been  wi-itten  telling  of  its  toll.  These  books  and  manifestos  had 
not  cleared  the  atmosphere,  and  the  issue,  to  the  American  people,  was  still  clouded  and  entangled. 
Germany  claimed  to  be  fighting  a  defensive  war,  yet  her  agencies  of  war  were  agencies  of  bar- 
barism, panoplied  and  equipped  with  all  the  inventions  for  the  destruction  of  human  life  which 
modern  ingenuity  could  devise,  and  were  running  ruthlessly  on  sea  and  land. 

France  and  England  claimed  to  be  fighting  the  cause  of  Democracy  and  freedom  against  autoc- 
racy and  military  aggression;  and  yet,  they  were  allied  with  the  Government  of  Russia,  an  abso- 
lute despotism,  notorious  throughout  the  world  for  its  suppression  of  human  rights  and  individual 
liberties. 

The  first  great  event  of  1917  was  America's  entrance  into  the  war;  the  second  was  the  over- 
throw of  the  Russian  autocracy.  The  moral  handicap  of  trying  to  fight  a  war  for  freedom  in 
alliance  with  the  chief  enemy  of  freedom  was  removed  when  the  government  of  the  Czar  fell. 
England  and  France  eventually  lost  an  ally  but  gained  a  moral  issue.  The  substantiality  of  the 
Allies'  claim  to  be  fighting  for  Democracy  was  then  established  by  America's  participation,  and 
the  declaration  of  President  Wilson  that  our  continuation  in  the  war  was  to  last  until  "all 
the  world  was  made  safe  for  Democracy." 

Those  two  events  gave  to  the  people  a  clearer  knowledge  of  the  issues  of  the  war  and  the  righte- 
ousness of  the  Allies'  cause.  The  people  continued,  however,  to  look  with  apprehension  on  the 
changes  that  were  taking  place  in  the  new  Republic  of  Russia.  Her  weakening  military  strength 
meant  that  America  must  contribute  more  than  was  at  first  expected.  Fathers  and  mothers, 
when  the  call  came  to  their  homes,  gladly  gave  up  their  sons.  It  is  needless  to  say  they  wished 
it  were  otherwise,  but  they  were  willing  to  have  their  boys  take  their  places  with  other  boys,  and 
do  their  share.  Mothers  tearfully  saw  them  go  to  the  draft  board  headquarters  to  take  their 
physical  examinations.  Their  hearts  were  breaking  but  they  held  their  heads  high.  Women  and 
men  prayed  mightily  in  those  days  for  a  termination  of  the  struggle. 

At  that  time  attention  began  to  center  on  events  transpiring  at  Berlin.  During  the  month  of 
.July  the  German  Chancellor  Von  Bethmann-Hollweg  resigned  and  Michaelis  came  into  office — 
the  first  internal  disturbance  Germany  experienced.  It  may  or  may  not  have  been  a  real  dis- 
turbance. The  Reichstag  refused  to  vote  the  war  credits  until  some  time  after  Michaelis  came 
into  office,  but  passed  what  became  known  as  the  Reichstag  Resolutions  of  1917.  Some  believed 
that  these  internal  troubles  were  occasioned  by  the  war  preparations  going  on  in  this  country, 
and  the  determination  of  America  to  have  "force  to  the  bitter  end." 


106  Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 


The  Pope  apparently  felt  the  time  had  arrived  for  peace.  On  August  15th  His  Holiness  sent 
a  note  to  all  the  Powers,  making  a  strong  appeal  to  them  to  bring  the  war  to  a  close  on  the  basis 
of  mutual  concessions.  Despite  the  fact  that  Buffalo  boys  were  then  going  through  their  physical 
examinations  for  military  service,  and  family  ties  were  about  to  be  severed,  Buffalonians  had 
smelt  the  smoke  of  battle.  No  peace  save  the  surrender  of  the  Hohenzollern  War  Party  would 
be  an  acceptable  peace.  The  whole  country  voiced  that  sentiment.  It  was  not  an  easy  decision; 
but  it  was  patriotic,  and  it  was  unmistakable.  On  August  27th,  President  Wilson  replied*  ex- 
pressing the  conviction  that  peace  could  not  be  negotiated  with  the  then  rulers  of  the  German 
people,  and  declining  the  Pope's  invitation. 

The  peace  proposal,  which  seemingly  came  at  the  most  opportune  moment  presented  up  to  that 
time,  being  swept  away,  we  turned  again  to  war  work.  Food  and  fuel  control  systems  became 
operative.  Hustle  was  the  slogan  of  the  draft  boards.  The  call  came  for  additional  men  to  aug- 
ment Pershing's  force,  and  the  people  gradually  but  surely  and  irrevocably  settled  into  the  deter- 
mination of  irresistible  war,  no  matter  what  its  cost  in  money  and  men.  The  first  of  August  found 
the  draft  boards  making  their  first  physical  examination.  Before  the  end  of  the  month,  the  quota 
of  each  Buffalo  board  for  the  first  call  was  ready.  On  August  29th  the  members  of  the  boards  in 
Buffalo  and  Erie  County  received  orders  from  Adjutant  General  Stotesbury  to  call  five  per  cent, 
of  their  first  quota  for  entrainment  on  September  5th.  This,  the  first  order  for  induction  of  men 
into  the  national  army  through  the  selective  service  system,  naturally  occasioned  a  general  interest. 
The  number  from  each  board  was  necessarily  small.  No  local  district  sent  more  than  20  men 
in  that  first  call.  Each  board  had  40  per  cent,  of  its  quota  ready.  Of  course,  it  would  have  been 
proper  and  possible  to  send  the  first  men  according  to  their  draft  number,  but  most  of  the  boards 
submitted  the  question  to  the  men  themselves,  and  in  every  board  more  than  a  sufficient  number 
volunteered  to  meet  the  call.  There  was  always  present  in  those  days  a  possibility,  in  the  minds 
of  the  people  at  least,  that  something  unforeseen  might  happen  and  end  the  war.  Accordingly, 
there  was  no  particular  desire  on  the  part  of  any  great  number  of  the  drafted  men  to  leave  for 
camp.  The  national  guardsmen,  trained  soldiers,  were  still  here,  and  that  fact  created  a  question 
in  many  minds  as  to  whether  or  not  the  Government  would  need  many  drafted  men.  It  is  ap- 
parent, therefore,  that  the  original  five  per  cent  of  selective  service  men  who  stepped  forward  to 
make  up  the  first  contingent  were  in  reality  selective  service  volunteers.  Information  began  to 
filter  through  that,  possibly,  the  Government  wanted  a  small  number  at  the  camps  for  early 
training  as  non-commissioned  officers.  And  that,  it  later  developed,  was  the  reason  for  calling 
a  small  number  in  advance  of  the  first  40  per  cent,  of  the  contemplated  army. 


*  In  part  President  Wilson  said  in  his  reply  to  Pope  Benedict  XV: 

"The  object  of  this  war  is  to  deliver  the  free  peoples  of  the  world  from  the  menace  and  the  actual  power  of  a  vast  military  establishment  con- 
trolled by  an  irresponsible  Government  which,  having  secretly  planned  to  dominate  the  world,  proceeded  to  carry  the  plan  out  without  regard 
either  to  the  sacred  obligations  of  treaty  or  the  long-established  practices  and  long-cherished  principles  of  international  action  and  honor;  which 
chose  its  own  time  for  the  war;  delivered  its  blow  fiercely  and  suddenly;  stopped  at  no  barrier  either  of  law  or  of  mercy;  swept  a  whole  continent 
within  the  tide  of  blood — not  the  blood  of  soldiers  only,  but  the  blood  of  innocent  women  and  children  also  and  of  the  helpless  poor;  and  now 
stands  balked  but  not  defeated,  the  enemy  of  four-fifths  of  the  world.  This  power  is  not  the  German  people.  It  is  the  ruthless  master  of  the  Ger- 
man people.  *  *  *  To  deal  with  such  a  power  by  way  of  peace  upon  the  plan  proposed  by  His  Holiness  the  Pope  would,  so  tar  as  we  can  see, 
involve  a  recuperation  of  its  strength  and  a  renewal  of  its  policy;  would  make  it  necessary  to  create  a  permanent  hostile  combination  of  nations 
against  the  German  people,  who  are  its  instruments;  and  would  result  in  abandoning  the  new-born  Russia  to  the  intrigue,  the  manifold  subtle  inter- 
ference, and  the  certain  counter-revolution  which  would  be  attempted  by  all  the  malign  influences  to  which  the  German  Government  has  of  late 
accustomed  the  world.  Can  peace  be  based  upon  a  restitution  of  its  power  or  upon  any  word  of  honor  it  could  pledge  in  a  treaty  of  settlement 
and  accommodation  ?  *  *  *  The  test,  therefore,  of  every  plan  of  peace  is  this:  Is  it  based  upon  the  faith  of  all  the  peoples  involved  or  merely 
upon  the  word  of  an  ambitious  and  intriguing  Government,  on  the  one  band,  and  of  a  group  of  free  peoples,  on  the  other?  This  is  a  test  which 
goes  to  the  root  of  the  matter;  and  it  is  the  test  which  must  be  applied  *  *  *  We  cannot  take  the  word  of  the  present  rulers  of  Germany  as 
a  guarantee  of  anything  that  is  to  endure,  unless  explicitly  supported  by  such  conclusive  evidence  of  the  will  and  purpose  of  the  German  people 
themselves  as  the  other  peoples  of  the  world  would  be  justified  in  accepting." 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 


107 


CHAPTER    XXXIII 
GUARDSMEN    SPEND    SUMMER    OF    1917    IN    BUFFALO    CAMP 

ON  June  26th,  1917,  the  First  Ai-my  Division  of  the  American  Expeditionary  Forces  arrived 
in  France.  The  news  of  the  arrival  abroad  thrilled  Buffalonians  at  home.  National  guards- 
men immediately  stirred  about  in  anticipation  of  an  early  departure.  The  members  of  the 
local  regiments  having  had  experience  on  the  Mexican  border  viewed  themselves,  and  we  looked 
upon  them,  as  trained  men  of  war.  They  were  bronzed,  carried  their  equipment  in  a  soldierly 
way,  could  keep  step,  and  were  experienced  in  the  use  of  firearms.  The  average  man  of  that 
period  possessed  a  thorough  conviction  that  the  members  of  the  74th  Infantry,  the  3d  Artillery 
and  Troop  I  were  then  in  complete  readiness  for  front  line  fighting.  All  that  remained,  in  the 
judgment  of  the  home  folks,  was  a  short  training  in  the  methods  of  trench  warfare.  The  masses 
were  just  hearing  of  gas  masks,  and  steel  helmets  and  trench  mortars,  of  tanks,  machine  gun  nests 
and  pill  boxes.  The  guardsmen  began  to  chafe  at  the  task  of  guarding  railroad  bridges,  elevators 
and  the  like.     They  were  looking  for  action. 

Spring  was  rapidly  merging  into  summer,  draft  boards  were  getting  under  way,  and  the  new 
national  army  was  already  discernible  rising  in  the  distance,  when  word  was  passed  around  that 
•the  entire  National  Guard  was  to  be  federalized.  The  thing  of  paramount  importance  there  was 
in  the  fact  that  federalizing  meant  overseas  service.  Many  had  believed  that  the  "regulars" 
would  be  sent  overseas  and  the  National  Guard  used  in  manning  army  posts  here.  Now  the  talk 
veered  to  the  guardsmen  going  overseas  while  the  drafted  men  would  man  the  home  posts.  Though 
the  order  for  federalization  was  expected  about  July  1st,  it  had  not  materialized  at  that  time  and 
the  guardsmen  fell  back  to  their  guard  duty  assignment.  Those  not  so  assigned  continued  to 
report  at  the  local  armories  and  secure  leave  from  day  to  day. 

On  July  1st  an  accident  at  Niagara  Falls  brought  the  guardsmen  into  favorable  prominence. 
A  stretch  of  earth  south  of  the  cantilever  bridge  on  the  line  of  the  Gorge  Railway  at  Niagara 
Falls,  just  where  the  track  slopes  toward  the  Whirlpool  Rapids,  disintegrated  and  dropped  a 


Lompany  1,  74tn  Kegiment,  Mess  Time  at  Kenilworth 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War  109 

loaded  trolley  car  into  the  river.  Many  were  killed  in  the  crashing  of  the  car.  Others  were 
drowned.  Soldiers  on  guard  at  the  bridge  were  the  first  to  see  the  accident.  A  half  dozen  guards- 
men hurriedly  rendered  assistance.  Private  Joseph  Crowley  of  the  74th  Infantry  was  first  to 
give  aid  to  the  survivors  and  engage  in  the  work  of  rescue.  He  climbed  over  the  upturned  trucks 
and  into  the  shallow  water  where  he  dragged  victims  through  a  window  and  stood  waist  deep 
holding  two  unconscious  women  above  the  water.  He  remained  at  his  post  until  the  rescuing 
party  could  give  assistance.  Crowley  was  aided  in  the  work  by  Private  McCue  and  Corporal 
Poison,  all  of  whom  were  commended  for  distinguished  service. 

On  July  10th,  President  Wilson  issued  the  proclamation  drafting  the  national  guardsmen  into 
the  army  of  the  United  States,  and  providing  for  their  mobilization.  The  President  fixed  August 
5th  as  the  date  on  which  all  national  guardsmen  would  be  formally  taken  into  the  United  States 
service.  Orders  issued  by  the  Governor*  through  Adjutant  General  Stotesbury  provided  for  the 
mobilization  of  the  3d  Artillery  and  Troop  I  on  July  12th.  On  the  same  day.  General  O'Ryan 
issued  orders!  for  the  care  of  the  armories  after  the  departure  of  the  old  regiments.  The  74th 
Infantry  had  been  federalized  prior  to  that  period,  and  the  work  was  then  directed  to  the  con- 
struction of  a  temporary  camp  until  such  time  as  the  troops  should  be  ordered  to  a  national  train- 
ing camp.  Considerable  time  was  spent  in  recruiting  work  to  bring  the  regiments  up  to  full 
strength,  but  it  was  not  then  very  difficult  to  get  men.  The  draft  machinery  was  in  motion. 
Many  Buffalo  boys  felt  they  would  rather  go  with  a  Buffalo  unit  than  into  the  army  through  the 
selective  service  route.  Accordingly  the  regiments  filled  rapidly.  Members  of  the  3d  Artillery 
and  of  Troop  I  reported  daily  at  their  armories  on  Masten  Street  and  Delavan  Avenue  respec- 
tively. About  August  1st  a  detachment  from  the  74th  and  another  from  the  3d  Artillery  were 
named  to  go  to  Spartanburg  to  aid  in  preparing  the  camp  for  the  guardsmen  soon  to  be  mobilized 
into  an  army  division  at  that  point.  A  few  days  later,  Captain  Bradley  Goodyear  of  the  3d  Artil- 
lery was  detached  and  ordered  to  Fort  Sill,  Oklahoma,  for  a  course  in  artillery  training. 


*STATE    OF    NEW    YORK 

The  Adjutant  General's  Office  Albany,  July  12,  1917. 

General  Orders  No.  35 

I.  The  President  of  the  United  States,  by  virtue  of  the  authority  vested  in  him  by  the  Constitution  and  Laws  of  the  United  States,  having 
called,  through  the  Governor  of  the  State  of  New  York,  into  the  service  of  the  United  States,  as,  of  and  from  July  15th,  1917,  all  members  of  the 
National  Guard  and  all  enlisted  members  of  the  National  Guard  Reserve  of  this  State,  who  are  not  now  in  the  service  of  the  United  States,  except 
members  of  Staff  Corps  and  Departments  not  included  in  the  personnel  of  tactical  organizations  and  except  such  officers  of  the  National  Guard 
as  have  been  or  may  be  specifically  notified  by  his  authority  that  they  will  not  be  affected  by  said  call,  and  the  Commanding  General,  Eastern 
Department  having  designated  the  herinafter-mentioned  organizations  of  the  National  Guard  of  this  State,  including  the  enlisted  personnel  of  the 
National  Guard  Reserve  as  included  in  said  call,  and  having  designated  the  hour,  date  and  place  of  assembly  pursuant  to  said  call,  as  hereinafter 
indicated,  the  Commanding  General,  New  York  Division,  will  cause  the  following  organizations  of  the  National  Guard  of  this  State  to  be  assembled 
at  their  respective  armories  for  initial  muster  into  the  service  of  the  United  States  on  Monday,  July  16.  1917,  at  9  o'clock  A.  M.,  except  those 
organizations  now  engaged  in  guarding  public  utilities  under  orders  of  the  Governor,  which  will  "assemble  at  the  same  time  and  will  be  mustered  at 
the  stations  where  now  on  duty,  as  hereinafter  indicated,  and  except  the  15th  N.  Y.  Infantry  and  4th  N.  Y.  Field  Hospital,  which  will  be  assembled 
at  the  same  time  at  Camp  Whitman,  N.  Y.,  for  initial  muster,  and  which  last  two  named  organizations  will  be  assembled  at  their  respective  home 
stations  on  July  16.  1917,  in  ample  time  to  arrive  at  Camp  Whitman  by  9  o'clock  A.  M.  on  that  date. 

II.  All  organizations  assembled  for  initial  muster  under  this  order  will  have  their  company  records  and  unserviceable  property  in  immediate 
readiness  for  inspection  by  mustering  officer.  Every  effort  will  be  made  to  prevent  absentees  from  initial  muster  and  to  promote  normal  induction 
into  Federal  service. 

III.  In  accordance  with  memorandum  from  Headquarters  Eastern  Department,  organizations  assembled  for  initial  muster  under  this  order 
at  company,  battalion  or  regimental  armories  are  authorized  to  arrange  for  messing  and  sleeping  such  number  of  the  men  of  their  command  stationed 
at  said  armories  as  may  be  necessary  outside  of  the  armories.  Under  the  same  authority,  commutation  of  ration  at  the  rate  of  seventy-five  cents 
per  day  may  be  provided  wherever  troops  cannot  be  messed  in  company  or  larger  messes. 

IV.  Special  Regulation  No.  55.  Mobilization  of  the  National  Guard,  requires  all  Federal  property  in  the  State  to  be  transferred  to  the  United 
States  when  the  National  Guard  is  called  into  Federal  service.  There  are  certain  classes  of  property,  however,  that  are  not  needed  by  the  Federal 
Government  at  this  time,  and  such  articles  should  not  be  brought  into  the  United  States  service  with  the  National  Guard.  No  blue  uniforms  will 
be  transferred  with  organizations.  No  target  material  will  be  so  transferred.  If,  in  special  cases,  such  material  is  needed,  authority  for  transfer 
will  be  granted.  No  Coast  Artillery  material  (dummy  armament,  etc.)  will  be  transferred.  Every  article  of  Federal  property  comprising  the  field 
equipment  fas  shown  by  Circular  No.  10,  Militia  Bureau,  1916)  will  be  transferred  to  the  United  States.  Prompt  settlement  by  supply  officers 
with  the  State  authorities  of  transfers  of  property  to  Federal  service  is  imperative.  All  adjustments  of  property  accountability  will  be  made  be- 
tween the  date  of  the  call  and  date  troops  are  moved  to  concentration  camp.  Attention  is  invited  to  General  Orders  No.  24,  this  office,  dated 
June  6,  1917. 

By  command  of  the  Governor: 
Official:  Louis  W.  Stotesbury, 

The  Adjutant  General. 
tHEADQUARTERS    NEW    YORK    DIVISION,    NATIONAL    GUARD 

New  York,  July  12,  1917. 
General  Orders  No.  II 

I.  In  accordance  with  telegraphic  instructions  of  this  date  from  the  Adjutant  General  of  the  State,  and  pursuant  to  G.  O.  35,  A.  G.  O.,  1917, 
organizations  of  the  National  Guard  will  assemble  at  their  several  stations,  as  specified,  preparatory  to  initial  muster  into  the  service  of  the  United 
States,  on  Monday,  July  16.  1917,  at  9  o'clock  A.  M.  The  provisions  of  Special  Regulations  No.  55,  Mobilization  of  the  National  Guard,  1917, 
will  obtain. 

II.  Upon  the  assembly  of  organizations  at  armories,  the  guards  there  maintained  will  stand  relieved  from  duty  under  State  orders,  as  of  July 
15,  1917. 

III.  By  direction  of  The  Adjutant  General,  when  armories  are  vacated  by  troops  drafted  into  the  service  of  the  United  States,  Commanding 
Officers  of  depot  units  will  detail  the  appropriate  number  of  their  respective  commands  for  the  protection  of  armories,  in  accordance  with  G.  O.  8, 
D.,   1917.     (1116) 

By  Command  of  Major  General  O'Ryan. 
Official:  H.  H.  Bandholtz, 

Lieut.  Col.,  U.  S.  Infly.,  D.  O.  L.,  .■\eling  Chief  of  Staff. 


110  Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 

On  August  3d,  Colonel  Arthur  C.  Kemp,  74th  Infantry,  designated  Company  I  to  establish 
a  camp  at  the  Kenilworth  rifle  range  and  begin  the  schooling  of  non-commissioned  officers.  Cap- 
tain John  H.  Kneubel  was  placed  in  charge  of  the  post.  By  August  14th  all  the  companies  of  the 
old  74th  were  encamped  on  the  Kenilworth  range.  Practically  all  the  men,  including  the  out-of- 
town  boys  got  into  camp  on  the  evening  of  the  13th  of  August,  in  time  to  encounter  a  sweeping 
rain  storm.    Their  first  night  under  canvas  was  a  wet  one. 

Police  Chief  Martin  and  Sheriff  Stengel  swore  in  extra  police  officers  to  take  up  the  work  of 
guarding  elevators  and  munition  plants,  as  the  soldiers  were  withdrawn.  The  detachments  from 
Olean,  Westfield,  Jamestown,  Tonawanda  and  other  places  where  74th  boys  had  been  on  guard 
moved  to  Kenilworth  amid  the  plaudits  of  the  people  at  various  points  along  the  route.  Kenil- 
worth soon  became  a  city  of  tents.  The  74th  was  there  assembled  as  the  102d  U.  S.  Infantry. 

On  August  18th  information  was  given  out  at  Washington  that  the  26th  Division,  composed  of 
New  England  guardsmen,  and  the  42d  Division  composed  largely  of  New  York  City  guardsmen, 
prominent  in  which  was  the  "Fighting  Sixty-Ninth" — the  New  York  Irish  regiment — would 
soon  be  sent  to  France.  Buffalo  had  acquired  a  very  intense  interest  in  the  69th  regiment  by 
reason  of  the  fact  that  Captain  William  J.  Donovan  of  Troop  I  had  been  promoted — commissioned 
Major  and  assigned  to  the  command  of  a  battalion  of  the  old  69th,  renamed  the  165th  Infantry 
and  attached  to  the  42d  "Rainbow  Division."  The  news  that  guardsmen  were  going  overseas 
made  the  Buffalo  men  eager  to  get  to  their  training  camp  at  Spartanburg,  and  the  days  spent  at 
Kenilworth  from  that  time  on  were  anxious  and  dreary  ones.  Each  day  brought  new  hope  for 
the  order  to  move.  But  day  after  day  passed  and  the  days  became  weeks,  while  Kenilworth 
still  held  them.  Up  in  the  old  65th  Armory,  where  the  members  of  the  3d  Artillery,  soon  to  be- 
come the  106th  Field  Artillery,  were  quartered,  the  same  spirit  of  restlessness  was  shown.  While 
the  draft  board's  work  was  rushed,  and  the  governmental  agencies  for  the  creation  of  the  selective 
service  army  moved  along  with  the  speed  of  an  airship,  time  hung  heavily  on  the  border-trained 
troops  of  the  New  York  National  Guard  at  Kenilworth  and  in  the  Buffalo  armories. 

The  monotony  of  camp  life,  however,  found  some  interruptions.  Frank  B.  Baird  entertained 
the  officers  and  men  of  Buffalo  Base  Hospital  Unit  No.  23  at  dinner  at  the  Buffalo  Club  on  the 
evening  of  August  28th.  The  officers  of  the  74th  and  the  3d  were  also  his  guests  on  that  occasion. 
At  the  armories,  chaplains  and  Y.  M.  C.  A.  workers  filled  in  the  days  and  hours  with  various  forms 
of  amusement. 

On  August  29th  Colonel  Kemp  received  word  to  proceed  to  Spartanburg  as  soon  as  transpor- 
tation could  be  furnished  and  Buffalo  grew  excited.  The  camps  and  armories  began  to  crowd 
up  at  all  hours  of  the  day  with  relatives  and  friends  of  the  soldiers  and  the  committees  in  charge 
of  farewell  ceremonies  became  active.  The  Festival  of  Light  and  Song  was  held  on  August  31st. 
On  September  1st,  Chairman  Walter  S.  Goodale  called  his  committee  together  to  complete  final 
arrangements  for  the  departure  of  the  men.  The  Committee  planned  a  fitting  farewell  parade 
in  which  the  entire  city  could  participate.  Colonel  Kemp  reported  repeatedly  at  that  time,  the 
inability  of  the  regiment  to  secure  transportation  accommodations.  The  review  of  the  regiment 
by  Mayor  Fuhrmann  and  the  members  of  the  Council  at  the  Country  Club,  after  several  post- 
ponements, was  finally  held  on  Wednesday,  September  5th. 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War  111 


CHAPTER    XXXIV 

FESTIVAL    OF     LIGHT    AND    SONG— A    FORMAL    GOOD-BY 

A  UGUST  31,  1917,  proved  to  be  a  bright  summer  day  in  Buffalo.    When  the  shadows  of  night 

/\    came  on,  a  shght  breeze  off  the  lake  drove  away  the  last  lingering  heatwaves  of  the  mid- 

■*-  -*-  Summer  sun  and  left  us  a  balmy,  cool,  refreshing  evening.    The  day  had  been  set  apart  by 

the  City  to  give  expression  in  a  formal  manner,  with  music  and  song,  to  the  city's  pride  in  her 

citizen-soldiers,  and  extend  to  them  a  formal  farewell. 

The  Little  Meadow  at  Delaware  Park,  setting  as  it  does  a  fairy  garden  amid  the  giant  old  trees 
of  Buffalo's  beautiful  breathing  space,  was  illuminated  on  that  particular  night,  in  every  nook  and 
corner,  by  innumerable  though  partly  hidden  and  subdued  lights.  Buffalonians  by  the  thousands 
were  scattered  on  the  benches  and  on  the  grass  under  the  trees.  Every  path  leading  to  Little 
Meadow  was  thronged  with  earnest  citizens  eager  to  extend  the  hand  of  fellowship  to  the  depart- 
ing soldiers.  The  night  was  cool  and  still,  and,  stepping  lightly  over  the  velvety  lawn,  the  immense 
audience,  moving  in  almost  reverent  attention  did  not  break  the  forest  silence.  The  suiToundings 
and  the  atmosphere  in  which  the  Festival  was  held  added  immeasurably  to  its  success. 

The  evening's  program  had  run  through,  the  departing  speech  had  been  delivered,  the 
musical  numbers  had  been  rendered  and  the  presentations  had  been  made  when  the  most  impres- 
sive feature  of  the  evening's  program,  an  added  feature,  was  presented.  A  woman  clad  in 
immaculate  white  stepped  out  on  the  platform,  and  the  strains  of  the  popular  song  of  the  hour, 
"There's  a  Long,  Long,  Trail"  broke  the  stillness  of  the  woods.  Her  voice  was  clear  and  the 
notes  of  her  song  floated  over  the  night  air  and  found  a  hundred  echoes  in  the  nooks  and  ravines 
around  the  lake.  When  she  concluded,  fifty  thousand  voices  acclaimed  their  appreciation  of  the 
singer  and  her  song.  The  singer  was  Mrs.  George  B.  Barrell.  She  had  planned  the  great  ceremonial 
had  led  the  work  from  its  inception,  and,  in  the  absence  through  illness  of  the  soloist  of  the  even- 
ing, had  herself  stepped  into  the  breach  and  completed  the  programme  in  a  grandeur  that  had 
not  been  anticipated.  Thousands  of  soldiers  stood  up  on  the  lawn  and  cheered  again  and  again 
and  then  all  joined  in — 

THERE'S  A  LONG,  LONG  TRAIL 

Nights  are  growing  very  lonely,  All  night  long  I  hear  you  calling. 

Days  are  very  long.  Calling  sweet  and  low. 

I'm  a-growing  weary  only,  Seem  to  hear  your  footsteps  falling, 

List'ning  for  your  song.  Ev'ry  where  I  go. 

Old  remembrances  are  thronging  thro '  my  memory,  Tho '  the  road  between  us  stretches  many  a  weary  mile, 

Till  it  seems  the  world  is  full  of  dreams  I  forget  that  you're  not  with  me  yet, 

Just  to  call  you  back  to  me.  When  I  think  I  see  you  smile. 

Chorus. 
There's  a  long,  long  trail  a  winding, 

Into  the  land  of  my  dreams. 
Where  the  nightingales  are  singing, 

And  a  white  moon  beams. 
There's  a  long,  long  night  of  waiting, 

Until  my  dreams  all  come  true; 
Till  the  day  when  I'll  be  going  down, 

That  long,  long  trail  with  you. 

—  Words  by  Sloddard  Ki)ig.     Music  by  Zo  ElliotU 

CITY    CEREMONIAL— AUGUST    31,    1917. 

Buffalo's  tribute  to  her  men  and  women,  who,  by  the  dedication  of  their  lives  to  the 
service  of  our  country,  bring  honor  to  their  City. — From  Official  Program. 


112 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 


^m^^j/k'^^M:M^>^m^'. '' 


W^':^"'^ 


•<^-v 


#S'^>'ft 


Saluting  the  Colors  at  Country  Club  Review 
74th  on  March  to  Country  Club  for  Final  Review,  September  10,  1917 
Reviewing  Party  on  Country  Club  Grounds— Fuhrmann,  Kreinheder,  Heald,  Hill,  Malone,  Sweeney 
Company  E  on  Practice  March  at  Kenilworth 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War  113 

Song  and  Light  was  given  as  a  tribute  to  the  National  Guardsmen.  The  spirit  that  prompted 
the  undertaking  and  guided  the  efforts  of  the  Committee  in  charge  was  born  of  a  desire  that  the 
citizens  of  Buffalo  might  gather  and  give  expression  to  the  affection  and  family  interest  with 
which  they  surrounded  the  men  and  women  going  out  to  represent  Buffalo  at  the  front;  to  affirm 
together  their  faith  in  the  righteousness  of  the  cause,  and  their  belief  in  the  power  of  the  Spirit  of 
Ciod  to  sustain  our  Arms  in  the  mighty  conflict.  The  program  was  planned  and  executed  in  the 
hope  that  it  might  serve  the  people  of  the  Community  on  such  an  occasion. 

Mayor  Fuhrmann  issued  a  proclamation  as  follows: 

"Buffalo  is  realizing  more  clearly  every  day  the  large  part  we  are  to  play  as  a  city  in  the  carrying  on  of  the  war. 
Our  troops,  our  two  regiments,  the  men  soon  to  be  called  into  the  service,  our  naval  militia,  and  the  base  hospital 
unit,  will  represent  us  at  the  front,  and  it  is  fitting  that  as  a  community  we  should  have  the  opportunity  of 
expressing  our  appreciation  of  the  honor  due  these  men  and  women,  and  of  uniting  in  a  farewell  to  them.  The 
President  of  the  United  States  has  himself  expressed  a  desire  that  some  appropriate  recognition  be  accorded  them, 
and,  in  this  desire,  I  am  sure  that  all  our  citizens  will  concur.  The  evening  of  August  .31st  has  been  set  apart  for 
such  a  civic  ceremonial,  to  be  held  in  Delaware  Park.  While  it  is  to  be  regretted  that,  owing  to  military  exigencies, 
all  of  our  troops  may  not  be  present,  this  should  not  prevent  us  from  honoring  those  who  are  about  to  make  such 
great  sacrifices  for  their  country,  and  all  citizens  of  Buffalo  are  urged  to  attend  and  participate,  that  those  who 
have  gone  and  are  going  may  feel  the  united  support  and  affection  of  their  home  city." 

The  Little  Meadow,  with  its  broad  expanse  of  lawn,  completely  surrounded,  as  it  is,  with  trees, 
was  an  ideal  location  for  the  ceremony.  The  platform  for  band,  speakers.  Community  Chorus, 
and  a  children's  chorus  of  five  hundred,  was  erected  at  the  eastern  end  of  the  enclosure  and  was 
the  climax  of  the  lighting  plan.  Against  the  background  of  trees,  with  the  great  wheel  of  light 
in  the  centre  and  the  many  lanterns  and  screens  of  curious  design  and  color  combination  on  either 
side,  it  was  a  beautiful  picture.  All  about  the  Little  Meadow  in  the  trees  hung  great  lanterns 
some  eight  and  ten  feet  high,  of  Mr.  Bragdon's  design  and  through  the  Park  from  Lincoln  Parkway 
and  Rumsey  Road,  hundreds  of  small  .Japanese  lanterns  served  as  guides  on  the  pathways  lead- 
ing to  the  scene  of  the  Ceremony. 

The  regiments  marched  into  the  park  from  different  directions,  and  were  seated,  at  the  request 
of  their  Commanding  Officers,  on  the  ground,  in  a  space  reserved  for  them,  directly  in  front 
of  the  platform. 

Excerpts*  from  Buffalo  newspapers  of  the  following  day  give  an  excellent  impression  of  the 
evening.  An  account,  however,  would  be  incomplete  without  speaking  of  the  ready  and  splendid 
cooperation  met  with  during  the  days  of  preparation  and  carrying-out  of  the  plans.  Members  of 
the  Park,  Police,  and  Fire  Departments  and  of  the  City  Bureau  of  Weights  and  Mea.sures  were 
untiring  in  their  assistance;  the  Red  Cross  and  many  firms  of  the  city  carried  the  hundreds  of 


*THE    FIRST    PAREWELIx— From  Buffalo  Enquirer 

Nu  more  impressive  scene  was  ever  witnessed  in  Buffalo  than  that  last  night  when  upwards  of  50,000  men,  women,  and  children  participated  in 

the  program  at  Delaware  park  in  honor  of  those  citizens  who  are  soon  to  leave  to  accept  roles  in  the  great  drama  that  is  being  enacted  across 

the  Atlantic.   Seated  on  the  ground  in  a  section  reserved  for  them,  the  regiments  of  infantry  and  artillery,  the  hospital  units  and  the  Red  Cross 

nurses  heard  and  saw  the  great  patriotic  demonstration  which  they  will  carry  with  them  as  long  as  they  live.   It  was  a  scene  never  to  be  forgotten. 

SONG    AND    LIGHT    MAKE    FAIRYLAND    OF   PARK    MEADOW— From  Buffalo  Express 

A  full  moon  climbing  through  heavy  clouds  gave  the  final  touch  of  splendor  to  a  setting  which  made  the  meadow  a  fairyland  and  won  success 
for  the  City  Ceremonial  of  Song  and  Light  at  Delaware  Park  last  night.  There  was  a  touch  of  awed  surprise  in  the  attitude  of  the  great  crowd 
that  filled  the  meadow  to  overflowing  when  the  first  note  of  music  burst  forth  and  song  and  light  became  a  harmonious  whole. 

Paths  between  the  trees  were  transformed  into  lantern-lined  vistas.  The  lanterns  beckoned  everywhere.  They  pointed  the  way  for  the  throngs 
that  flowed  through  every  entrance  toward  the  glowing  center  of  the  celebration. 

The  74th  infantry,  the  3rd  artillery,  and  the  base  hospital  unit  faced  the  dark  green  wall  of  the  trees  before  which  rose  in  a  profusion  of  light 
and  color  the  stand  for  members  of  the  Community  Chorus.  All  the  women  were  in  white,  while  in  front,  below  the  rostrum  upon  which  Director 
Harry  Barnhart  directed  the  accompaniment  and  chorus,  were  grouped  the  children. 

+     +     + 

The  police  attempted  to  estimate  the  size  of  the  crowd,  but  estimates  were  futile.  *  *  *  There  may  have  been  .50,000  people.  It  was  the  biggest 
crowd  that  ever  attended  a  public  celebration  in  Buffalo 

*     *     * 

Colonel  Arthur  Kemp  of  the  74th  infantry,  in  accepting  the  kits  for  his  men  and  thanking  the  Red  Cross  for  them,  said;    "These  kits  will  be  a 
constant  reminder  of  this  great  farewell  and  will  bring  back  the  God  Bless  You  of  Mayor  Fulirmann  as  given  to-night  in  behalf  of  the  whole  city." 
FAREWELL   TO  KHAKI-CLAD    SOLDIER  BOYS— From  Buffalo  Commercial 

When  3,000  soldiers  of  Buffalo's  various  military  units  marched  out  of  Delaware  Park  last  night  they  carried  with  them  the  cheers  and  well 
wishes  of  60,000  persons  who  had  come  to  the  park  to  witness  the  song  and  light  festival  arranged  as  a  farewell  to  the  boys  in  khaki.  Last  night's 
celebration — the  largest  attended  of  any  public  affair  in  Buffalo — was  splendidly  staged  and  successful  in  every  detail. 

The  meadow  and  paths  surrounding  were  tilled  to  overflowing.  'There  was  that  hesitancy  that  marks  the  step  in  the  dark.  For  once  the  bois- 
terous laughter  was  stilled;   the  character  of  the  entertainment  seemed  to  strike  the  thousands — leaving  them  silent  and  awed. 

BUFFALO    HAS    REASON    TO    BE    PROUD— From  Buffalo  Times 

None  who  participated  in  the  ceremony  of  light  and  song  at  the  Little  Meadow  in  Delaware  Park  last  night  will  ever  forget  the  beauty,  splendor 
and  the  patriotism  of  the  occasion.  It  was  a  magnificent  spectacle,  artistically  arranged  and  consummated  by  an  outpouring  of  more  than  60,000 
people,  who  with  cheers  and  songs  showed  their  love  and  loyalty  to  the  flag  and  its  defenders.  Affairs  of  that  kind  will  leave  their  imprint  alike 
on  soldier  and  civilian  and  Buffalo  has  reason  to  be  proud  of  the  occasion  and  above  all  they  are  proud,  as  they  showed  last  night,  of  the  boys  in 
whose  honor  it  was  held. 

{Continued  on  page  113.) 


114 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 


Buffalo  Bids  Good-By  to  Old  74th  Regiment.  Through  Lanes  of  Cheering  Thousands  the  Troops  Marched  Away 

Upper — Mayor  Fuhrmann  is  shown  at  the  head  of  the  hne;  next,  Councilmen  Heald,  Hill.  Kreinheder,  Malone,  from  left  to  right; 
Councilman  Heald  is  shown  waving  his  hand.    Colonel  Arthur  Kemp,  Adjutant  Ralph  K.  Robertson  and  staff 

Lower — The  74th  Regiment  off  to  war 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War  115 

children  to  and  from  rehearsals  and  the  performance  itself;  the  Albright  Art  Gallery  allowed  the 
Court  to  be  used  for  the  children's  practising;  and  the  Boy  Scouts  assumed  full  charge  of  the  seating 
arrangements  and  ushering.  It  would  be  impossible  to  mention  individually  all  those  who  gave 
of  their  time  and  energy,  but  an  enthusiastic  response  to  all  requests  for  help  was  unfailing  from 
everyone  approached  and  all  were  eager  to  contribute  and  have  some  share  in  the  city's  God- 
speed to  her  sons  and  daughters. 

The  Committee  directly  in  charge  consisted  of  Mrs.  Chauncey  J.  Hamlin,  Miss  EfRe  Burns, 
Mrs.  George  B.  Barrell,  Mrs.  Henry  Ware  Sprague,  Mrs.  Walter  P.  Cooke,  Mrs.  A.  -J.  Elias, 
Mrs.  William  Moncrieff  and  Mrs.  William  A.  Morgan.    Following  is  the  official  program: 

"I  See  America  go  Singing  to  Her  Destiny" Walt  Whitman 

Buffalo  Community  Chorus  Buffalo  Park  Band        Children's  Chorus 

Fanfare  Harry  Barnhart,  Conductor  Claude  Bragdon,  Master  of  Lights 

Military  March — "America" Francis  MacMillm 

Buffalo  Park  Band 
"America" — Everybody  sing 

Invocation— Rev.  John  C.  Ward,   Chaplain  74th  Regiment 

"Hail,  Bright  Abode" Wagner 

Chorus  and  Band 
Address  by  the  Hon.  Louis  P.  Fuhrmann 

Band  Number— "Cortege  du  Serdare" Ippolitov  Iwanov 

New  Hymns  of  the  People: 

"March!   March!" Farwell 

"Our  America"      Stetson 

"These  Things  Shall  Be" Griffes 

"New  Hymn  to  Free  Russia" Gretchaninow 

Chorus  and  Band 
Presentation  of  American  Flag  by  Mrs.  John  Miller  Horton,  Regent,  Buffalo  Chapter, 

N.  S.  D.  A.  R.  to  the  Base  Hospital  Unit  23,  U.  S.  A. 
Presentation  of  Comfort  Kits  by  Ansley  Wilcox  on  behalf  of  the  Buffalo  Chapter, 
American  Red  Cross,  to  Members  of  the  3rd  Field  Artillery,  the  74th  Regiment  and 
the  Naval  Militia. 
•     Acceptance  by  Col.  Kemp  for   the   74th   Regiment,  by   Col.    Howland   for   the    3d 
Field  Artillery  and  Lieut.  Bailey  for  the  Naval  Militia. 
Community  Singing 

"The  Heavens  Are  Telling  The  Glory  of  God" Haydn 

Double  Trio,  Chorus  and  Band 

"Ave  Maria" Bach-Gounod 

tMary  Ward  Prentiss 

(a)  "Spring  Song" Riibenstein 

(6)  "Lullaby" Stetson 

(c)  "The  Red,  White  and  Blue". 

Children's  Chorus 

"Pilgrim's  Chorus" Wagner 

Community  Chorus  and  Band 

"Hallelujah  Chorus" — (from  "The  Messiah") Handel    ■ 

Benediction— Rev.  Walter  F.  Fornes,    Chaplain  3d  Field  Artillery 
"STAR  spangled   banner" 

♦BUFFALO'S   benediction— From  The  News 

The  "Little  Meadow",  Delaware  park,  last  evening  was  the  scene  of  a  gathering  unique  in  Buffalo's  history— an  inspiring  and  unforeettable 
event — a  festival  of  light  and  song. 

Conceived  in  the  spirit  of  affection  and  pride  in  our  soldier  boys,  its  proponents  witnessed  the  consummation  of  their  desires— the  tangible 
whole-hearted  expression  of  the  community's  love  and  faith  in  our  boys  who  are  soon  to  go  forth  to  fight  for  the  loftiest  ideals  that  ever  entered 
the  mind  of  man. 

Well  and  aptly  chosen  was  the  designation  "Festival  of  Light  and  Song."   Light  is  the  symbol  of  truth:  it  is  the  torch  of  liberty 

And  It  is  to  uphold  these  principles— to  establish  truth  and  to  intensify  the  love  of  liberty— that  our  boys  have  pledged  themselves  in  the  name 
oi  the  Nation. 

The  "Festival  of  Light  and  Song"!  *  *  * 

Wondrously  carried  out  was  the  idea  and  a  more  inspiring  and  thrilling  event,  or  one  so  full  of  deep  feeling  and  meaning  was  never  experienced 
by  the  community. 

To  the  boys  who  wore  the  uniform  of  service  the  gathering  signified  consecration  to  duty. 

To  us  it  was  as  if  we  stood  mentally  and  spiritually  with  uncovered  heads  as  our  boys  go  forth,  bidding  them  Godspeed  in  their  task 

It  was  Buffalo  s  benediction  on  her  fighting  sons. 

tOwing  to  illness  at  the  last  moment,  Mrs.  Prentiss  was  unable  to  sing  and  Mrs.  Barrel!  sang  "The  Long.  Long  Trail"  The  Audience  and 
Chorus  joined  in  singing  the  refrain. 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 


ll'i 


CHAPTER  XXXV 

NATIONAL  ARMY  OF  THE  UNITED  STATES 

Wednesday  night,  September  3d,  1917,  the  foundation  men  of  the  great  national  army 
left  Buffalo — five  per  cent  from  each  exemption  district.  From  every  corner  of  the  city 
they  assembled,  surrounded  by  a  cheering  throng  of  relatives  and  friends  as  they  prepared 
for  the  march  to  the  station.  The  city  committee  provided  an  escort  headed  by  mounted  police  and 
including  a  platoon  of  city  firemen,  the  Home  Defense  Regiment,  and  the  Police  Reserves.  Regi- 
mental bands  took  their  allotted  places  in  the  line,  and  early  evening  saw  the  procession  in  motion 
down  Main  Street  toward  the  railroad  stations.  Immense  banners  indicating  that  the  ceremony 
was  in  honor  of  the  departure  of  the  first  increments  of  The  National  Army  waved  at  the  head 
of  the  line.  Chief  Martin  filled  the  post  of  grand  marshal,  and  the  members  of  the  Council, 
headed  by  Mayor  Fuhrmann,  marched  at  the  head  of  the  escort.  Along  the  route  to  the  trains 
bombs  were  exploded  high  in  the  air  and  colored  fire  illuminated  the  route;  crowds  pressed  from 
the  walks  into  the  streets,  passed  the  cordon  of  police,  some  to  slap  the  soldier  boys  on  the  back, 
wish  them  luck,  imparting  instructions  which  ran  the  gamut  from  "Take  Berlin!"  to  "Bring 
back  the  Kaiser's  whiskers!" 

Along  the  lines  from  the  prancing  horses  of  the  mounted  police  in  the  van  to  the  loiterers  and 
stragglers  at  the  end,  floated  the  Stars  and  Stripes.  Soldiers  on  the  sidewalks  stood  at  attention 
as  the  flags  went  by  and  civilians  doffed  their  hats.  We  had  all  learned  in  that  day  to  reverently 
salute  the  flag.  It  was  dearer  to  us  then  as  we  saw  it  amid  the  storm  clouds  of  war  than  it  ever 
was  back  in  the  days  of  peace.  Theretofore  it  had  meant  simply  a  token  of  our  right  to  life,  liberty 
and  the  pursuit  of  happiness;    the  emblem  of  American  institutions  and  citizenship.    On  that 


Scene  at  a  Draft  Board  Headquarters  When  Boys  Were  About  to  Leave 


118 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 


Old  65th  Regiment  Getting  Under  Way 

Packing  up  equipment  at  Armory  grounds 
Loading  gun  carriages  on  cars  in  railroad  yards 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War  119 

trying  day,  when  the  first  contingent  of  Buffalo  boys  was  marching  away,  all  recognized  that 
the  flag  had  taken  on  a  new  significance.  It  was  now  a  symbol  of  service.  Men  and  women  of 
Buffalo  knew  then  the  boys  would  have  to  march  behind  its  folds  and  sleep  beneath  its  sentinel 
stars  on  shell-torn  fields.  The  throng  along  the  line  of  march  did  not  cheer.  They  were  criticised 
the  next  day  by  the  newspapers  for  their  lack  of  enthusiasm.  But  their  hearts  were  heavy.  They 
were  proud  of  those  boys,  but  they  idealized  the  horrors  of  war.  Accordingly,  they  were  silent. 
All  had  read  the  President's  letter*  to  the  new  soldiers. 

The  sun  was  sinking  across  the  river  as  they  gathered  that  day  to  see  the  boys  off,  and  in  the 
growing  dusk  it  was  not  difficult  to  visualize  the  training  camp — France — the  trenches — the 
battlefields — the  heroic  sacrifices — the  supreme  sacrifice!  It  was  not  surprising  that  the  people 
did  not  cheer  when  the  boys  were  leaving.  The  bands  struck  up  the  "Old  Grey  Mare,"  and 
other  catchy  tunes  of  the  hour,  and  the  marchers  put  a  "punch"  into  the  parade. 

As  they  neared  the  train  sheds  they  sang;  "We  Won't  Come  Back  'Till  It's  Over  Over  There. " 

Most  people  tried  to  be  merry.  But  as  the  youngsters  boarded  the  train  mothers  and  sisters — • 
and  fathers — wept.  They  may  have  shed  tears  of  regret;  perhaps  they  shed  tears  of  pride  and 
of  glory.  But  they  shed  tears.  The  members  of  the  draft  boards  marched  at  the  head  of  their 
respective  contingents.  The  station  reached,  they  began  calling  the  roll.  Police  tried  to  keep 
the  passenger  areas  clear  of  the  crowd.  But  the  mothers  demanded  the  last  farewell,  and  no 
patrolman  in  the  immense  platoon  of  police — to  their  honor  be  it  said — had  the  heart  to  deny 
them  that  right.  Finally  the  board  members,  hopped  from  the  trains,  perspiration  trickling  from 
under  their  hat  bands.  Trainmen  shouted,  the  crowd  was  pushed  and  hauled  back  and  forth, 
bands  were  playing  "America",  and  boys  and  mothers  were  still  exchanging  from  car  windows 
their  good  bye  caresses  as  the  heavy  trains  pulled  out  of  the  station.  Buffalo  had  sent  away  its 
first  contingent  to  the  National  Army  of  the  United  States,  bound  for  Camp  Dix,  N.  J.  It  was 
an  historic  day. 

Soon,  however,  scenes  of  that  character  became  a  common  occurrence.  Neighborhood  celebra- 
tions were  held  as  the  various  draft  contingents  departed.  Banquets  were  given  in  many  instances 
to  the  departing  men.  Knitting  societies  and  relief  associations  equipped  the  boys  with  kits, 
sweaters,  caps,  scarfs  and  socks.  On  September  26th,  more  than  2,000  boys  were  sent  away.  And 
gradually  it  became  a  monthly  affair.  The  departure  of  the  big  colored  contingent  was  the  occa- 
sion for  an  immense  parade  and  a  banquet  at  St.  Stephen's  Hall,  arranged  by  the  Rev.  Henry 
A.  Mooney  and  a  committee  of  the  draft  board  members  with  -James  A.  Ross  as  Chairman. 
Speeches  were  made  by  public  officials  and  prominent  colored  citizens.  Parades  and  dinners, 
aerial  bombs  and  red  fire  illuminated  the  occasion.  No  contingent  left  Buffalo  without  a  good-by 
celebration  of  some  sort. 


*"To  the  soldiers  of  the  national  army:  You  are  undertaking  a  great  duty.  The  heart  of  the  whole  country  is  with  you.  Everything  that  you 
■do  will  be  watched  with  the  deepest  interest  and  with  the  deepest  solicitude,  not  only  by  those  who  are  nearer  and  dearer  to  you,  but  by  the  whole 
nation  besides.  For  this  great  war  draws  us  all  together,  makes  us  all  comrades  and  brothers,  as  all  true  Americans  felt  themselves  to  be  when  we 
first  made  good  our  national  independence. 

'*The  eyes  of  all  the  world  will  be  upon  you  because  you  are  in  some  special  sense  the  soldiers  of  freedom.  Let  it  be  your  pride  therefore,  to 
show  all  men  everywhere  not  only  what  good  soldiers  you  are,  but  also  what  good  men  you  are,  keeping  yourselves  fit  and  straight  in  everything 
and  pure  and  clean  through  and  through.  Let  us  set  for  ourselves  a  standard  so  high  that  it  will  be  a  glory  to  live  up  to  it,  and  then  let  us  live  up 
to  it  and  add  a  new  laurel  to  the  crown  of  America.  My  affectionate  confidence  goes  with  you  in  every  battle  and  every  test.  God  keep  and  guide 
you. — WooDROw  Wilson." 


120 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 


t.    /^A 


\^r. 


When  Orders  Came  to  Leave  for  Spartanburg 

Old  74th  boys  cheering  the  glad  news  of  their  departure 
Breaking  camp,  preparatory  to  departure 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War  121 

CHAPTER    XXXVI 

AMID  CHEERS  AND  TEARS  GUARDSMEN  LEAVE  HOME 

A  UGUST  had  given  way  to  September  and  the  falhng  leaves  announced  the  coming  of  Winter 
l\  before  the  old  guardsmen  finally  boarded  the  cars  for  Spartanburg.  On  September  22d  at 
-*■  -*-  Kenilworth  Field  the  74th  marched  in  its  last  Buffalo  review.  Brig.  General  George  C. 
Fox,  General  Edgar  B.  Jewett,  Lieut.  Colonel  Edmund  P.  Cottle,  Maj.  Lee  H.  Smith  and 
August  Schneider,  who  held  the  post  of  drum  major  for  more  than  twenty-five  years,  were  in 
the  reviewing  stand.  Another  mass  meeting  for  a  demonstration  of  loyalty,  with  Job  Hedges  as 
the  principal  speaker,  several  parades,  and  plenty  of  red  fire,  served  to  fill  in  the  time  through 
the  latter  part  of  September  until  the  soldiers  departed. 

After  weeks  of  waiting,  and  innumerable  hours  of  preparation  by  the  farewell  committee,  the 
order  finally  came  to  the  3d  Artillery  Regiment  to  get  under  way.  All  the  committee's  plans 
went  a-glimmering.  The  regiment  was  under  way  during  the  night  of  the  24th  of  September. 
Trucks  rattled  down  Michigan  Avenue  to  the  Erie  Station  through  the  night,  carrying  equipment 
and  supplies.  No  time  was  given  for  a  formal  parade  nor  did  the  people  have  an  opportunity  to 
say  good-by.*  The  first  section  left  early  on  the  morning  of  September  25,  and  by  one  o'clock 
of  that  day  the  last  section  pulled  away  from  Buffalo.  Sirens  on  the  fire  tugs  sounded  their  screech- 
ing farewells.  Mayor  Fuhrmann  shook  hands  with  Captain  P.  J.  Keeler,  in  charge  of  the  last  sec- 
tion, and  the  regiment,  destined  to  participate  in  the  gi'eat  barrages  which  finally  swept  the 
German  Army  across  the  Meuse,  was  rattling  over  the  ties  toward  Spartanburg. 

Buffalo  erected  a  towering  monument  of  well  wishes  for  her  soldiers  in  the  old  74th  Regiment 
of  Infantry  when  finally,  on  Saturday,  September  29th,  they  left  their  home  city  en  route  to  the 
western  battlefront  via  Spartanburg,  France  and  Belgium.  Denied  the  opportunity  to  do  honors 
to  the  Artillery  boys,  Buffalonians  showered  their  well-wishes  on  the  Infantry  Regiment.  Factory 
whistles,  fire  tug  sirens  and  church  bells  joined  in  the  tumult  of  sound  which  announced  their 
departure.  They  marched  down  Main  Street  through  lanes  of  thickly  packed,  sad-eyed,  thou- 
sands. Buffalo  had  never  before  tendered  such  a  demonstration  to  civilians  or  soldiers.  The 
ceremony  began  in  the  early  hours  of  the  morning  and  lasted  long  into  the  afternoon  when 
the  last  section  of  the  train  pulled  out  of  the  Lehigh  Valley  yards  leaving  heavy  hearted 
thousands  with  nothing  but  the  memory  of  khaki-coated  marchers  and  tousled  heads  poked 
from  car  windows. 

It  was  estimated  that  more  than  300,000  people  thronged  the  streets  along  the  line  of  march. 
The  crowds  began  to  assemble  as  early  as  eight  o'clock,  at  which  time  the  74th  men  had  been 
ordered  to  report  at  the  armory,  having  spent  their  last  night  in  Buffalo  at  home.  Ropes  strung 
along  the  curbs  in  front  of  the  armory  kept  back  the  crush  of  thousands.  At  9.30  the  shrill  call 
of  the  bugle  sent  the  men  scurrying  into  their  company  rooms  to  emerge  a  few  minutes  later 
with  their  marching  equipment  and  packages.  At  9.45  o'clock  the  regimental  band  gave  a  con- 
cert and  the  various  companies  formed  on  the  main  drill  floor. 

Every  man  was  there  and  the  loyal  guardsmen  were  proud  of  it  for  their  voices  lifted  in  the  bars 
of  "  Hail,  Hail,  the  Gang's  all  Here — What  the  Hell  do  we  Care  Now. "  There  was  little  of  pathos 
there  then.   That  came  later. 

Shortly  before  10  o'clock  Chaplain  .lohn  C.  Ward  delivered  a  brief  invocation  and  the  men  in 


*"It  is  unfortunate  that  the  movement  of  the  3d  artillery  comes  so  unexpectedly  that  nothing  in  the  way  of  an  official  send-olT  can  be  arranged. 
The  regiment  will  move  so  irregularly  that  it  will  be  almost  impossible  even  for  the  citizens  to  line  the  streets  and  give  the  boys  a  cheer. 

"The  regiment  will  slip  out  of  Buffalo  and  the  vast  majority  will  know  nothing  about  it.  War  is  a  coldly  businesslike  proposition  nowadays. 
Regiments  leave  their  home  stations  for  the  front  with  little  or  no  excitement  on  the  part  of  the  populace.  An  unsentimental  war  office  has  abolished 
gold  lace,  buliioned  epaulettes  and  brilliant  uniforms.   Even  the  inspiriting  colors  have  been  abandoned. 

"But  hearts  still  beat  fast,  and  this  going  away  to  war  is  the  stirring  thing  it  has  always  been.  There  are  the  pangs  of  parting,  the  unspoken 
curse  against  the  thing  that  drives  a  great  free  people  into  bloody  arms;  the  hope  they'll  all  come  back  and  the  wish  that  they'll  acquit  them- 
selves well  and  obtain  their  share  of  glory.  We'd  like  to  believe  those  guns  of  the  Third  will  never  be  called  on  to  speak  their  message  of  death 
and  destruction,  but  this  seems  a  wish  doomed  to  unfulfillment.  Our  hope  is  then  that  the  regiment  does  its  duty  well.  We  feel  sure  it  will.  All 
Buffalo  will  be  waiting,  watching,  hoping  brave  things  from  her  boys  "over  there." — Buffalo  Commercial,  September  24,1917. 


122 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 


Off  to  War 

Old  74th  marching  from  their  armory  for  the  last  time 
First  Battalion  moving  out 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War  123 

khaki  stood  reverently  with  bowed  heads.    "Oh  God.  give  us  strength  to  serve  Thee  as  soldiers 
of  freedom,"  said  the  little  chaplain. 

Then  Col.  Arthur  Kemp,  commanding;  Lieut.  Col.  William  R.  Pooley,  and  staff  marched  out 
of  the  armory  preceded  by  200  members  of  the  74th  Regiment  Veterans '  Association  and  followed 
by  the  regiment.  With  salvo  after  salvo  of  cheers  breaking  from  the  crowds  assembled  along 
Prospect  Park,  the  men  marched  over  Connecticut  Street  to  Prospect,  thence  to  the  Circle  at 
Richmond  Avenue  where  they  were  met  by  Grand  Marshal  .John  Martin,  Mayor  Fuhrmann, 
Councilmen  Charles  M.  Heald,  Charles  B.  Hill,  Arthur  W.  Kreinheder  and  John  F.  Malone, 
with  the  escort  made  up  of  firemen,  police  officers,  home  guardsmen,  volunteer  police  patrolmen, 
the  G.  A.  R.  and  various  fraternal  and  other  bodies  in  uniform. 

Shortly  after  eight  o'clock  the  marching  organizations  gathered  at  the  Circle  and  long  before 
the  time  set  to  start  the  parade  several  thousand  men  had  assembled  at  the  points  designated 
by  the  grand  marshal.  In  front  of  the  First  Presbyterian  Church  Colonel  Herbert  I.  Sackett 
formed  his  Home  Defense  Corps.  About  1,000  men  were  in  this  section  in  their  natty  grey  uni- 
forms. Major  E.  C.  Shoemaker  was  in  command  of  the  first  battalion,  Captain  Edward  L.  Jung 
led  the  second  battalion,  Captain  Knight  Neftel  was  at  the  head  of  the  third  battalion  and  Captain 
Harry  S.  Johnson  led  the  battalion  composed  of  companies  from  East  Aurora,  Depew,  Tonawanda 
and  two  companies  from  the  east  side. 

G.  A.  R.  members  formed  in  line  on  the  Porter  Avenue  side  of  the  Circle. 

City  firemen,  about  500  strong,  formed  at  the  Jersey  Street  firehouse  and  marched  around  the 
Circle  to  their  position  in  the  line,  Chief   Bernard  J.  McConnell  commanding. 

Knights  of  St.  John, in  full  dress  uniform,  led  by  Colonel  John  L.Schwartz  followed  the  Knights 
Templar  and  Scottish  Rite  Consistory,  led  by  George  K.  Staples  and  William  H.  Ellis.  A  number 
of  uniformed  bodies  were  in  that  division. 

The  policemen  were  at  the  head  of  the  line  and  they  formed  the  first  division  at  North  and 
Main  Streets.  At  a  few  minutes  after  ten  o'clock  Grand  Marshal  John  Martin  gave  the  word  to 
start.   The  parade  moved  out  rapidly  and  in  splendid  formation. 

The  Circle  had  been  a  busy  place  that  morning.  People  in  hundreds  gathered  there  at  an 
early  hour.   Lawns  were  trampled  down  in  North  Street  by  the  surging  multitude. 

In  Main  Street  the  crowd  was  indescribable.  Atop  buildings,  hanging  perilously  out  of  win- 
dows, hectoring  the  police  along  the  curb  lines — the  thousands  waved  flags,  handkerchiefs  and 
wafted  good-bys. 

The  committee  appointed  to  arrange  the  farewell  demonstration  was  composed  of  the  fol- 
lowing: 

Mayor  Louis  P.  Fuhrmann,  chairman;  Councilman  Charles  M.  Heald,  Councilman  Arthur  W. 
Kreinheder,  Councilman  John  F.  Malone,  Gen.  Edgar  B.  Jewett,  Albert  H.  Adams,  Patrick  H. 
Cochrane,  Daniel  W.  Emerling,  Howard  A.  Forman,  Dr.  Francis  E.  Fronczak,  Dr.  Walter  S. 
Goodale,  Chief  John  Martin,  Chief  Bernard  J.  McConnell,  Enerio  Randaccio,  Herbert  I.  Sackett, 
George  K.  Staples,  Daniel  J.  Sweeney,  Col.  John  L.  Schwartz,  Major  N.  E.  Turgeon,  Moses 
Wallens,  Albert  B.  Wright. 

ORDER   OF    PARADE 

Mounted  police.  Grand  marshal.  Chief  of  Police  John  Martin;  Aides  to  grand  marshal.  Dr. 
Walter  S.  Goodale  and  Daniel  J.  Sweeney;  Mayor  Louis  P.  Fuhrmann  and  Councilmen  Charles 
M.  Heald,  Charles  B.  Hill,  Arthur  W.  Kreinheder,  John  F.  Malone;  Park  Band. 

Division  No.  1 — Major  Newton  E.  Turgeon,  marshal,  uniformed  police  department,  uni- 
formed fire  department,  police  reserve. 

Division  No.  2 — Albert  B.  Wright,  marshal;  Knights  Templar;  Scottish  Rite  Consistory; 
Knights  of  St.  John;  miscellaneous  uniformed  bodies. 

Division  No.  3 — Captain  Herbert  I.  Sackett,  marshal;   Home  Defense  Corps. 

Division  No.  4— Albert  H.  Adams,  marshal;   Grand  Army  of  the  Republic. 

Division  No.  5 — 74th  Regiment,  Col.  Arthur  Kemp,  commanding. 


124  Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 

The  battalions  were  up  to  the  standard  of  recruiting  and  were  commanded  by:  1st,  Major 
Minnis;  2d,  Major  Gibson;  3d,  Major  Wood;  headquarters  company.  Captain  Robertson,  com- 
manding; machine  gun  squad,  Captain  Branch;  supply  company,  Captain  Hubbell;  sanitary 
corps.  Major  Beebe.  Dr.  Arthur  C.  Schaefer  Deputy  Health  Commissioner  of  Buffalo  and  a 
captain  on  the  headquarters  staff  was  chosen  sanitary  officer  at  Spartanburg. 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 


125 


CHAPTER  XXXVII 
GEORGE    S.    BUCK,    WAR    MAYOR    1918-1919. 

THROUGH  the  summer  of  1917  Buffalo,  like  her  sister  American  cities,  was  involved  in  war 
work  to  such  an  extent  that  local  affairs  were  wholly  subordinated.  Every  man,  woman  and 
child  was  doing  his  or  her  "bit"  toward  winning  the  war.  Attention  locally  was  centered 
on  the  munition  plants  and  the  farms.  However,  we  were  approaching  another  municipal  elec- 
tion. No  matter  how  earnest  and  exciting  were  the  war  work  campaigns,  the  political  struggle 
lost  none  of  its  attractive  power.    Not  only  the  men,  but  the  women,  were  eager  for  political 


E.  B.  Holmes  Selling  First  War  Savings  Stamp  to  Mayor  George  S.  Buck 

combat;  the  men  concerned  in  the  mayoralty  election,  and  the  women  absorbed  in  the  campaign 
for  the  extension  of  suffrage  to  the  women  of  New  York  State,  which  happily  ended  in  a  decisive 
victory  for  them. 

Louis  P.  Fuhrmann  had  had  two  terms  as  Mayor — eight  years.  His  friends  enthused  over  the 
prospect  of  another  election.  He  had  neither  asked  nor  given  quarter  in  the  bitter  political  battle 
for  the  commission  form  of  government  two  years  previously,  and  the  adoption  of  the  new  charter 
was  particularly  a  personal  defeat  for  him.  When  the  time  for  nominations  in  the  late  months 
of  1917  rolled  around,  however,  there  seemed  to  be  an  exceptionally  strong  demand  for  his  re- 
nomination.  A  committee  of  citizens  of  various  political  affiliations,  headed  by  William  E.  Robert- 
son, a  former  president  of  the  Chamber  of  Commerce,  called  on  the  Mayor  and  urged  him  to 
become  a  candidate  for  renomination.   That  may  have  been  part  of  a  political  play  or  political 


126  Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 

program,  but  whether  it  was  or  not,  it  gave  expression  to  a  genuine  sentiment  in  business  circles, 
and  surely  was  expressive  of  what  we  called  "observable  public  opinion." 

So  strong  was  the  demand  for  Mayor  Fuhrmann's  renomination,  that  a  number  of  prominent 
business  men  who  were  approached  by  political  antagonists  of  the  Mayor,  declined  to  listen  to 
the  suggestion  that  they  become  candidates  against  him. 

Finally,  the  opposition  forces  turned  to  George  S.  Buck,  County  Auditor,  and  Mr.  Buck 
agreed  to  become  a  candidate  for  Mayor.  Of  course,  the  new  charter  provided  that  partisan- 
ship should  be  eliminated  from  the  city  government,  and  candidates  were  assumed  to  be  entirely 
removed  from  partisan  designation.  It  was  well  known,  however,  that  Mayor  Fuhrmann  would 
have  the  support  generally  of  Democratic  party  men,  while  Mr.  Buck  would  have  the  support 
of  the  Republican  party  men,  or  those  among  them  in  each  case  who  supported  candidates  on 
party  affiliation. 

George  S.  Buck  was  considered  a  good  candidate  though  not  a  particularly  strong  one.  He 
had  been  re-elected  County  Auditor  two  years  before  by  scarcely  one  hundred  majority.  He 
was  a  young  man,  however,  fearless  in  the  discharge  of  his  duties  in  the  county  office,  fair-minded, 
just,  and  wholly  without  prejudice.  He  had  no  smell  of  smoke  in  his  official  garments.  He  had 
played  the  game  square  with  all  men;  had  never  taken  unfair  advantage  of  any  political  associ- 
ate or  opponent,  and  never  sought  his  personal  advancement  over  the  ruined  reputation  of  others. 
He  was  conceded  to  be  a  clean,  decent  candidate,  but  was  not  generally  looked  upon  as  possess- 
ing the  personal  popularity  or  the  aggressive  qualities  which  would  make  him  a  formidable  oppo- 
nent of  Mayor  Fuhrmann.  A.  .J.  Elias,  successful  business  man,  without  any  particular  organiza- 
tion support,  also  entered  the  field. 

Another  factor  entering  into  the  1917  election  was  the  increasing  strength  of  the  Socialist 
Party  movement.  Franklin  P.  Brill  became  a  candidate,  backed  by  the  members  of  that  party. 
The  Socialist  element  had  been  augmented  by  those  who  desired  to  register  a  protest  against  the 
war,  and  the  supporters  of  candidate  Brill  were  listed  generally  as  being  in  a  large  measure  the 
pacifistic  element  of  the  community.  Of  course,  many  of  the  Brill  supporters  were  out  and  out 
Socialists  who  had  been  such  prior  to  the  war,  but  they  numbered  not  to  exceed  3,000,  while  his 
vote  at  the  primaries  exceeded  14,000. 

No  candidate  had  a  party  column  or  party  emblem  on  the  official  ballot,  but  though  unde- 
signated the  candidates  wei-e  not  untagged,  and  the  voting  public  knew  the  party  alignment  of 
each.  Mayor  Fuhrmann  polled  upward  of  17,000  votes  in  the  primaries;  Mr.  Buck  14,600  and 
Mr.  Brill  14,200.  Mr.  Elias  polled  something  over  6,000  and  the  balance  of  the  votes  were  blank 
or  scattering.  The  two  receiving  the  highest  number  of  votes  were  declared  the  nominees  to  con- 
test for  the  office  at  the  regular  election  in  November. 

The  campaign  was  not  unlike  other  political  campaigns  of  preceding  years  with  this  one  excep- 
tion— the  soldiers  were  authorized  to  vote  at  their  various  camps.  The  National  Guard  Units 
were  then  at  Spartanburg.  The  sailors,  for  the  most  part,  were  at  the  Great  Lakes  Training 
Station.  Camps  Dix  and  Upton  held  many  selective  service  boys  from  Buffalo.  The  campaign, 
while  particularly  active  in  Buffalo,  was  none  the  less  active  about  the  camps,  but  it  all  ended 
with  a  general  reversal  of  the  surface  sentiment  prevalent  at  its  start.  On  election  day  George 
S.  Buck  was  chosen  Mayor  by  upward  of  10,000  plurality. 

Councilman  .John  F.  Malone  who  was  on  the  ticket  for  re-election  and  who  was  of  the  same 
political  party  as  Mayor  Fuhrmann,  withstood  the  tide  that  was  running  against  his  ticket 
and  was  re-elected  by  a  substantial  plurality. 

Mayor  Buck  went  into  office  on  January  1,  1918.  He  took  the  oath  in  the  Council  Chamber 
on  New  Year's  Day  before  an  enthusiastic  audience  which  packed  the  chamber.  Flowers  were 
everywhere  about  the  hall,  and  the  new  Mayor,  indeed,  had  a  throng  of  well-wishers  and  a  host 
of  supporters  from  all  walks  of  life  about  him,  as  he  set  out  on  his  mayoralty  career. 

In  his  inaugural  address  he  laid  down  concisely  and  clearly  his  plan  of  action.  In  brief,  he 
promised  a  clean  city;  and,  for  his  own  part,  equal  and  exact  justice  to  all  men,  no  matter  what 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War  127 

creed,  color  or  party  affiliation.  In  the  year  and  a  half  that  has  elapsed  between  his  entrance 
into  office  and  this  publication,  Mayor  Buck  has  adhered  religiously  to  that  promise.  Some  of  the 
days  have  been  exceptionally  dark  and  cloudy,  and  he  has  encountered  no  end  of  storms.  Support- 
ers have  fallen  away  from  him  and  undoubtedly  new  friendships  have  been  formed.  The  wheel 
of  politics  never  ceases  to  grind,  and  not  infrequently  the  friends  of  yesterday  become  the  enemies 
of  to-day,  and  vice  versa.  But  no  one  at  this  period  would  venture  to  say  that  the  Mayor  failed 
in  the  slightest  in  the  promises  he  made  in  the  Council  Chamber  on  that  New  Year's  Day. 

Though  Buffalonians  were  then  thoroughly  saturated  with  the  needs  of  the  war.  Mayor 
Buck's  first  message*  contained  only  a  slight  reference  to  it.  American  soldiers  had  not  entered 
into  combat,  but  many  Buffalo  boys  were  then  in  training  overseas  with  the  First  and  Second 
Army  Divisions,  composed  of  regulars,  and  with  the  42nd  Division  to  which  Maj.  William  J. 
Donovan  was  attached,  and  the  camps  were  I'apidly  filling  up  with  Buffalonians  who  were  soon 
to  see  hard  service. 


*We  have  every  reason  to  be  proud  of  the  part  that  Buffalo  has  played  in  the  service  of  the  country.  We  sent  troops  to  the  Mexican  border  in 
numbers  far  in  excess  of  our  share.  Our  people  have  responded  splendidly  to  every  call  to  duty  since  the  nation  took  up  its  share  of  the  burdens 
of  the  great  war.  We  go  about  our  daily  routine  so  peacefully  that  it  is  hard  for  us  to  realize  that  Buffalo  is  a  strategic  point  of  great  importance. 
Its  shipping  facilities  by  water  and  by  land  are  arteries  for  the  movement  of  precious  supplies.  There  is  no  harm  in  speaking  of  this  for  the  enemy 
knows  it,  but  it  is  important  that  our  people  realize  the  situation  and  be  prepared  to  co-operate  with  the  federal  government  in  any  measures 
it  may  deem  necessary  to  protect  our  water  front,  our  factories  and  tiur  railroads  from  damage  by  the  enemy. 

While  the  war  has  added  heavily  to  our  burdens  and  our  problems,  it  has  brought  with  it  this  compensation.  I  believe  there  never  was  a  spirit 
of  helpfulness  and  willingness  to  co-operate  as  exists  among  our  citizens  to-day.  The  growth  of  this  spirit  nas  been  most  marked,  and  combined 
with  all  the  wonderful  natural  advantages  which  the  people  of  this  city  possess  I  believe  there  never  was  a  time  when  we  could  look  forward  with 
greater  hopefulness  to  the  future  than  at  present.    Let  us  congratulate  ourselves  that  we  are  Buffalonians. 


128  Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 


CHAPTER   XXXVIII 
FORT    PORTER    PLAYS    ITS    PART    IN    WORLD    WAR 

FORT  Porter  is  located  between  Massachusetts  and  Connecticut  Streets  on  the  north  and 
south,  and  Front  Street  and  Niagara  River  on  the  east  and  west.  It  is  situated  on  a  sixty 
foot  bluff  at  the  northeast  end  of  Lake  Erie,  where  the  lake  opens  into  its  outlet,  the  Niagara 
River  and  toward  the  Canadian  Shore.  The  reservation  covers  about  28J/2  acres  and  is  practically  a 
continuation  on  the  north  of  one  of  Buffalo's  Parks,  "The  Front." 

Fort  Porter  was  named  in  honor  of  General  Peter  B.  Porter,  a  distinguished  volunteer  officer 
in  the  war  of  1812,  Secretary  of  War  in  1828,  and  at  one  time  part  owner  of  Niagara  Falls. 

The  early  history  of  Fort  Porter  is  nebulous  but,  so  far  as  known,  it  has  never  been  the  scene 
of  a  siege  or  battle.  After  the  fall  of  Fort  Erie  on  the  Canadian  side  and  after  the  battle  of  Lundy's 
Lane  in  1814,  American  troops  were  encamped  near  the  present  post  site.  After  the  Patriot  War 
(1837)  in  Canada,  troops  were  stationed  in  a  neighboring  portion  of  Buffalo  for  about  six  years. 

In  1841  a  governmental  appropriation  of  $50,000  was  made  for  the  purchase  of  grounds  for  a 
defensive  works  near  Buffalo  and  the  present  reservation  was  obtained  partly  by  such  purchase 
and  partly  by  various  small  cessions  from  the  State  of  New  York. 

Up  to  1861  Fort  Porter  was  under  the  jurisdiction  of  the  Corps  of  Engineers  with  an  ordnance 
sergeant,  or  other  suitable  person,  in  charge  but  in  August  of  that  year  the  Secretary  of  War 
designated  it  as  a  volunteer  rendezvous,  and  the  second  Buffalo  Regiment,  under  General  Bidwell 
and  an  Artillery  Company  under  Major  Weidrick  were  the  first  volunteer  organizations  here 
assembled.  From  that  time  on  throughout  the  Civil  Wai',  the  reservation  was  used  as  a  military 
camp  for  the  collection,  organization  and  instruction  of  volunteers. 

In  1866  the  post  was  in  process  of  abandonment,  when  the  "Fenian  Raid"  of  that  year  brought 
troops  to  Buffalo,  and  Fort  Porter  dates  its  charter  as  a  permanent  garrisoned  post  from  that 
time. 

After  1869  the  Fort  was  used  as  an  infantry  post  until  this  country  entered  the  World  War. 
At  that  time  there  was  a  detachment  of  the  22nd  Infantry  on  the  post  assigned  there  to  do  guard 
duty.  During  the  months  of  June,  July  and  August,  1917,  all  New  York  State  candidates,  with 
the  exception  of  those  from  New  York  City,  were  examined  at  Fort  Porter  for  the  2d  Officers' 
Training  Camp.  Lieutenant  John  H.  Baker,  who  was  the  Commander  of  the  Post,  was  in  charge 
and  Captain  John  G.  Stove  was  the  Chief  Medical  Officer. 

During  that  summer  the  people  of  Buffalo  were  greatly  interested  in  the  idea  of  a  Hospital 
Unit  being  organized,  consisting  wholly  of  local  men  and  this  was  realized  when  Base  Hospital  23 
was  mobilized  at  Fort  Porter  on  August  21,  1917,  under  the  command  of  Major  Marshall  Clinton. 

Three  other  hospital  units  were  organized  at  Fort  Porter  while  Base  Hospital  23  was  still  at 
the  post.  They  mobilized  on  November  12th.  They  were  Unit  A  from  Philadelphia,  with  Major 
John  A.  Jopson  commanding;  Unit  F  from  New  York  City,  with  Major  L.  K.  Noft' commanding; 
Unit  K  from  Omaha  with  Major  Donald  Macrae  Jr.  commanding.  Unit  F  left  Fort  Porter  on 
January  7,  1918,  and  three  days  later  the  other  two  units  followed  all  bound  for  overseas. 

Fort  Porter  officially  became  U.  S.  Army  General  Hospital  No.  4  on  November  10,  1917,  with 
Major  Thomas  D.  Woodson  commanding.  Only  medical  and  surgical  cases  were  treated  for  the 
first  few  months  but  on  February  28,  1918,  the  first  psychiatric  cases  were  received,  being  22  in 
number.  During  the  rest  of  the  year  there  was  a  gradual  increase  in  the  number  of  cases  each 
month.  The  total  number  of  admissions  for  the  first  year  was  1062  and  the  number  of  discharges 
was  835.   The  discharges  were  either  to  the  homes  of  the  patients  or  to  a  government  institution. 

The  hospital  had  now  become  a  special  institution  for  the  cai'e  of  psychiatric  and  nervous  cases 
although  medical  and  surgical  cases  were  still  treated  at  the  post  hospital.  Extensive  alterations 
had  been  made  in  the  old  barracks  building  to  fit  it  for  the  proper  care  of  psychiatric  patients. 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War  129 

The  old  squad-rooms  were  made  into  wards  and  the  apparatus  for  the  treatment  of  such  cases 
was  installed.  In  caring  for  the  patients  all  available  means,  of  a  surgical,  medical  and  hydro- 
therapeutic  nature,  were  used  in  order  to  improve  their  condition  and  hasten  their  recovery.  The 
doctors  assigned  here  to  treat  these  patients  were  men  who  had  had  from  ten  to  fifteen  years'  ex- 
perience in  State  Hospitals  caring  for  psychiatric  cases. 

Besides  these  medical  officers  and  the  experienced  attendants  there  was  a  very  efficient  staff 
of  nurses  of  the  Army  Nurse  Corps,  and  Army  Reserve  Nurse  Corps.  The  first  group  of  nurses 
arrived  at  the  hospital  February  16,  1918,  and  rendered  a  splendid  service  under  the  leadership 
of  Anna  G.  McCrady,  A.  N.  C.  As  the  number  of  patients  increased  there  was  naturally  a  greater 
need  of  more  nurses  and  the  staff  gradually  grew  to  36  in  number.  Miss  McCrady  was  sent 
overseas  the  following  .July  and  was  replaced  by  .Jane  B.  Sylvester,  A.  N.  C.  Miss  Sylvester  was 
transferred  in  October  of  the  same  year  and  Lutie  F.  Tufts,  A.  N.  C.  was  assigned  to  fill  the 
vacancy. 

Occupational  work  for  the  patients  was  introduced  October  2,  1918,  by  competent  Recon- 
struction aides  under  the  leadership  of  Miss  Alma  L.  Whitney.  This  included  rug-weaving, 
basket-making  and  other  work  in  the  line  of  Arts  and  Crafts. 

The  full  value  of  the  work  of  these  nurses  and  reconstruction  aides  will  never  be  fully  appre- 
ciated except  by  the  patients  who  came  under  their  care. 

In  order  that  the  patients  be  kept  continually  in  a  cheerful  atmosphere  the  post  orchestra  and 
the  Commission  on  Training  Camp  Activities  furnished  a  musical  program  throughout  the  wards 
daily.  Two  vaudeville  programs  were  given  by  professional  talent  from  the  theaters  in  the  city 
each  week,  so  that  there  was  plenty  of  entertainment. 

The  patients  were  given  daily  exercise  and  daily  walks  in  the  vicinity  of  the  Fort.  The  weather 
during  the  winter  of  1918-1919  was  very  mild  and  the  nearby  park  made  an  ideal  promenade. 
The  men  did  not  suffer  from  the  cold  winds  that  usually  sweep  over  the  Fort  and  Park,  from  the 
river,  during  the  winter  months. 

The  Fort  Porter  Reporter,  a  weekly  newspaper,  was  published  in  the  interests  of  the  patients 
and  the  enlisted  personnel,  and  copies  of  this  paper  were  sent  to  the  homes  of  all  the  patients  so 
that  the  families  of  these  men  were  kept  informed  as  to  what  was  going  on  at  the  hospital  and 
the  Fort.   The  paper  acted  as  a  sort  of  weekly  letter  home. 

Major  Woodson,  now  Lieutenant  Colonel  Woodson,  was  transferred  to  Plattsburg,  N.  Y.,  in 
June,  1918,  to  take  charge  of  the  General  Hospital  at  that  place.  Upon  his  transfer.  Major  Albert 
E.  Brownrigg  assumed  command  of  the  post.  He  was  Commanding  Officer  until  January  22, 
1919,  when  Lieutenant  Colonel  Joseph  E.  Bastion  arrived  to  take  command. 

Colonel  Bastion's  staff  consisted  of  the  following  officers: 

Lieutenant  Colonel  Joseph  E.  Bastion,  Commanding  Officer;  Captain  Paul  F.  Compton,  Ad- 
jutant; Major  Oliver  E.  Balch,  Quartermaster  and  Supply  Officer;  Captain  Phihp  Smith,  Chief 
of  Service;  1st  Lieutenant  George  P.  Kent,  Personnel  Adjutant;  1st  Lieutenant  Frank  A.  Stock- 
well,  Chaplain;   2nd  Lieutenant  John  P.  Flanders,  Registrar. 

This  old  army  post  probably  never  did  any  greater  service  to  the  Government  than  it  rendered 
during  the  World  War,  especially  after  it  became  a  General  Hospital.  To  have  a  part  in  the 
restoration  to  health  of  the  unfortunate  soldiers,  most  of  whom  saw  active  warfare,  was  indeed  a 
noble  work  and  Buffalo  may  well  be  proud  of  Fort  Porter  for  the  services  done  there  during 
the  greatest  war  in  history. 


130 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 


CHAPTER    XXXIX 
BASE    HOSPITAL    NO.    23 

THE  Base  Hospital  23  of  Buffalo,  organized  by  the  Red  Cross  and  manned  by  Buffalonians 
and  people  from  the  surrounding  towns,  was  mobilized  on  the  21st  of  August,  1917,  at 
Fort  Porter.  The  unit  was  in  training  there  for  three  months.  It  numbered  28  Doctors, 
75  Nurses  and  153  enlisted  men.  They  had  several  disappointments  while  at  Fort  Porter,  expect- 
ing every  day  to  get  orders  to  move  for  "Somewhere  in  France,"  or  somewhere  in  the  United 
States.  Four  or  five  times  they  were  ordered  to  leave  within  24  hours,  but  just  at  the  last  minute 
the  order  was  cancelled.  Finally  they  got  away  on  the  21st  of  November,  1917,  leaving  Fort 
Porter  at  6.30  P.M.  It  was  pouring  rain,  and  they  marched  through  dark  streets  to  the  Lehigh 
Valley  depot. 

A  small  crowd  followed,  mostly  relatives,  who  had  waited  all  day  to  see  them  off.  Amid  tears, 
smiles  and  kisses  from  the  loved  ones  they  were  leaving  behind,  the  train  pulled  out  at  8.20  P.M. 
They  had  no  idea  of  the  whereabouts  of  their  destination. 

This  story  of  the  trip  is  told  by  Private  Hourigan:  "We  arrived  in  Jersey  City  at  7.15  A.M. 
The  Red  Cross  served  us  breakfast,  good  hot  coffee,  sandwiches  and  cigarettes.  At  8.30  A.M. 
we  boarded  a  feny-boat  and  crossed  to  Hoboken.  Here  we  lined  up,  and  everything  seemed  to 
be  figured  out  ahead  of  our  arrival.  Our  list  of  officers,  nurses  and  men,  was  already  in  the  hands 
of  the  shipping  officers.  At  last  our  turn  came  to  board  the  troopship,  our  names  were  called, 
and  as  we  went  up  the  gangplank  we  each  got  a  card  with  our  bunk  number  on  it,  also  a  meal 
card.  The  boys  were  all  excited,  knowing  by  this  time  that  we  were  bound  for  Somewhere  in 
France.  The  boat  finished  loading  about  11  o'clock  and  we  left  New  York  at  12.15  P.M.  the  22nd 
of  November. 


In  Railroad  Yard  at  6  A.  M.  as  Troop  Train  Pulled  Out 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War  131 

"The  name  of  our  troopship  was  the  Carpathia,  Cunard  Line,  and  manned  by  a  British  crew. 
We  started  out  with  rather  bad  luck,  one  man  was  accidentally  shot  and  instantly  killed  by  a 
guard  going  on  first  duty.  He  was  examining  his  rifle  which  went  off,  causing  this  sad  affair,  the 
boat  slowed  down  and  the  body  was  taken  off  at  the  Statue  of  Liberty.  We  arrived  at  Halifax 
on  Saturday  afternoon;  it  was  snowing  and  very  cold.  We  stayed  over  Sunday,  and  left  Monday 
afternoon  at  1.30.   It  was  here  we  picked  up  the  rest  of  the  convoy,  10  boats  in  all. 

"Steaming  out  to  sea  was  a  beautiful  sight,  all  the  boats  in  line  and  the  boys  cheering  to  one 
another.  The  harbour  at  Halifax  was  very  well  protected  with  mines — only  a  narrow  passage  left 
open.  The  boats  kept  close  together,  the  first  few  days  out.  On  the  fifth  day  we  ran  into  a  severe 
storm  which  lasted  for  three  days.  The  boys  got  seasick,  all  our  dishes  were  broken,  so  we  had 
to  bring  our  mess  kits  to  the  front.  During  the  storm,  seven  of  the  boats  left  us.  Being  capable 
of  making  more  speed,  they  went  on  ahead.  After  the  storm  calmed  down  a  little,  we  found  that 
the  Carpathia  had  shipped  quite  a  lot  of  water  and  the  pumps  were  working  hard  bailing  her  out. 
She  was  an  old  boat  and  had  the  reputation  of  being  the  first  to  the  assistance  of  the  Titanic, 
which  foundered  off  the  banks  of  Newfoundland. 

"We  were  kept  busy  on  board.  Life  boat  drill  twice  a  day,  inspection  daily  and  we  wore  life 
preservers  at  all  times.  The  instructions  on  board  to  abandon  ship,  three  long  blasts  and  two 
short  ones.  One  afternoon  a  wave  hit  the  boat  on  the  port  side,  causing  her  to  give  a  sudden  lurch. 
At  the  same  time  the  horn  blew  two  blasts  and  nobody  waited  for  the  third.  (Of  course  there 
wasn't  a  third.)  There  was  a  mad  scramble  for  the  upper  decks.  Some  of  the  fellows  were  shaving 
and  ran  with  the  lather  on  their  faces.  Others  forgot  their  life  belts  and  it  looked  as  though  we 
were  ready  for  our  salt  water  plunge,  when  we  got  orders  to  return  to  our  quarters.  It  was  a  false 
alarm.  The  rats  on  board,  were  quite  at  home  and  tried  hard  to  make  the  acquaintance  of  the 
boys  while  sleeping.   It  wasn't  anything  unusual  to  be  run  over  by  a  barrage  of  rats. 

"Our  tenth  day  out  and  no  encounter  with  the  subs.  It  was  too  rough  for  them  to  operate. 
Our  quarters  in  the  boat  were  located  on  the  lower  deck.  The  bunks  were  laid  out  in  blocks  of 
thirty,  fifteen  lower  and  fifteen  upper.  At  the  corners  of  each  block  the  boys  put  up  street 
signs,  and  we  had  on  board  the  Carpathia  some  of  the  familiar  streets  of  Buffalo.  The  orders 
were  very  strict  concerning  smoking  after  dark,  or  throwing  any  refuse  overboard.  A  light  at 
night  can  be  seen  for  quite  a  distance  at  sea,  and  it  would  enable  the  Boche  subs  to  locate  us 
easily;  the  refuse  thrown  overboard  would  also  enable  them  to  follow  up  our  trail. 

"Guards  had  orders  to  shoot  any  man  showing  a  light  after  dark.  We  had  a  few  concerts, 
held  in  the  mess  room.  On  the  seventeenth  day  we  sighted  land  and  steamed  up  the  river  Mersey 
to  Liverpool.  We  anchored  in  the  harbor  over  night,  and  docked  next  morning  at  nine  o'clock. 
The  first  greeting  on  landing  was  a  severe  hail-storm.   It  was  terribly  cold. 

"We  stood  around  all  day  on  the  dock.  At  six  o'clock  we  boarded  a  train  and  pulled  into 
Winchester  at  12.30  A.  M.  It  was  pouring  rain  and  we  had  to  march  for  four  miles,  mostly  up- 
hill, to  a  rest  camp.  We  stood  in  the  rain  and  mud  with  our  full  packs  for  fully  two  hours  before 
a  shack  was  assigned  to  us.  These  shacks  had  concrete  floors,  with  accommodations  for  fifty 
men.  The  bunks  were  three  planks  laid  on  the  floor  with  a  straw  mattress. 

"We  remained  in  Winchester  for  five  days,  had  some  long  hikes  through  the  English  country, 
and  were  taken  through  the  wonderful  Cathedral  in  the  little  town.  Leaving  here  after  our  rest, 
we  arrived  at  Southampton,  boarding  a  boat  which  had  on  it  about  two  hundred  horses  occupy- 
ing the  best  apartment.  Our  quarters  were  in  the  hold  underneath  the  horses.  We  had  no  bunks, 
but  slept  in  the  hay  which  had  been  provided  for  the  first-class  passengers — the  horses. 

"The  crossing  of  the  Channel  at  that  time  was  done  at  night  on  account  of  the  sub  warfare. 
So  we  left  Southampton  after  dark.  About  midnight  some  Boche  planes  were  flying  over  the 
Channel  to  make  a  raid  somewhere  in  England.  All  the  searchlights  were  turned  on  them  from 
the  forts  and  the  boats  guarding  the  waters  between  France  and  England.  Their  anti-aircraft 
guns  also  put  up  a  wonderful  barrage.  While  this  was  taking  place  our  destroyers,  two  of  which 
we  had  guarding  us  while  crossing,  made  an  awful  noise  blowing  their  sirens  and  making  circles 


132 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 


Vittel 


Hospital  No. 


around  our  boat.  I  inquired  what  the  trouble  was,  and  found  out  that  a  sub  was  in  the  vicinity. 
The  boat  returned  to  Southampton  and  we  made  the  trip  in  safety  the  following  night. 

"We  landed  in  Ha\Te  in  the  early  morning.  It  was  snowing,  and  our  first  glimpse  of  France 
didn't  look  very  promising.  While  landing  we  were  cheered  by  crowds  of  French  old  men  and 
women.  We  marched  to  a  British  "replacement  camp,  on  the  outskirts  of  the  city,  where  we 
remained  for  two  days.  The  sleeping  quarters  here  were  very  simple;  we  slept  on  a  sheet  of 
lattice  wire,  rolled  up  in  our  blankets. 

"On  the  third  day  at  three  o'clock  we  marched  through  a  heavy  snow  storm  in  the  dark  to 
the  railroad  station.  The  cars  we  traveled  in  were  third  class,  the  next  thing  over  there  to  a 
box-car,  and  with  about  the  same  amount  of  comfort.  The  express  trains  are  just  as  fast  as  a 
street  car  in  the  U.  S.  After  ti-aveling  almost  four  days  we  finally  reached  our  destination,  a 
beautiful  watering  place  called  Vittel  on  the  Vosges  Mountains,  in  the  Lorraine  Sector. 

"We  were  tired  and  hungry  and  a  good  many  had  colds.  Afterward  we  had  a  good  hot  supper 
served  us  by  Unit  36  of  Detroit,  who  were  also  located  in  Vittel  and  arrived  there  a  month  ahead 
of  us.  Our  barracks  were  in  a  beautiful  building  called  the  Casino,  formerly  used  as  a  gambling 
house.  On  the  walls  were  some  splendid  paintings.  It  had  a  theater  which  was  taken  over  by 
the  Red  Cross  for  the  purpose  of  entertaining  patients  and  personnel  of  the  hospital  center.  We 
enjoyed  some  good  vaudeville  shows  and  splendid  moving  pictures,  both  French  and  American. 
This  casino  resembled  Monte  Carlo  on  a  small  scale.  It  is  also  known  as  the  place  where  the 
King  of  Portugal  met  Gaby  Deslys  the  famous  French  actress,  which  romance  led  to  the  loss  of 
his  throne. 

"For  a  small  town  Vittel  had  some  beautiful  and  modern  hotels,  which  were  all  taken  over  by 
the  U.  S.  Government  to  be  used  as  hospitals.  Unit  23  of  Buffalo  had  seven  and  Unit  36  of  Detroit 
the  same  number. 

"We  had  quite  a  time  learning  enough  of  the  French  language  to  make  known  our  wants  to 
the  townspeople,  but  we  finally  got  along  very  well.  When  we  left  Buffalo  our  outfit  was  supposed 
to  be  a  500  bed  hospital,  but  after  a  few  months  in  Vittel,  we  had  a  capacity  of  over  3,000.   We 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War  133 

had  two  surgical  hospitals  with  a  capacity  of  twelve  hundred  patients,  two  medical  hospitals  with 
a  capacity  of  fifteen  hundred  patients;  one  contagious  hospital,  capacity  three  hundred;  one  officers' 
hospital,  capacity  two  hundred  fifty,  and  one  nurses'  hospital,  capacity  of  one  hundred  fifty.  The 
hotels  occupied  by  Unit  23,  were  as  follows:  The  Continental,  Terminus,  Angle-Terre,  Nouvel, 
La  Providence,  Lorraine,  and  Joan  d'Arc.  The  Lorraine  was  the  officers'  hospital  and  the  Joan 
d'Arc  the  nurses'  hospital.  In  fitting  up  these  hotels  as  hospitals  they  found  an  enormous  task. 
They  were  not  used  since  the  outbreak  of  the  war  and  some  were  in  very  bad  condition.  The 
plumbing  was  in  bad  way ;  the  rooms  were  dirty  and  dusty,  and  had  to  be  scrubbed  from  ceiling 
to  floor.  The  electric  wiring  and  lighting  fixtures  needed  a  lot  of  repairing.  It  took  almost  three 
months  to  get  the  building  in  a  habitable  condition.  Our  beds,  bedding,  and  other  hospital  materi- 
als, didn't  begin  to  arrive  in  Vittel  until  February,  although  it  left  Buffalo  two  months  ahead  of 
us.  It  came  rather  fast  when  once  started,  at  the  rate  of  six,  eight  and  ten  cars  a  day.  We  worked 
hard  and  long,  unloading  cars  and  sorting  the  materials  for  the  different  hospitals.  The  boys  did 
it  with  a  smile.  We  went  over  to  do  our  bit  and  not  to  kick  about  hard  work  and  long  hours. 
We  knew  that  the  people  back  home  would  feel  proud  of  Unit  23,  when  they  found  out  that  it 
was  the  best  organized  and  equipped  outfit  in  France.  We  had  splendid  doctors  and  nurses,  and 
the  enlisted  men  never  had  any  ill  feeling  toward  each  other.  Their  willingness  brought  them 
praise  even  from  their  own  officers.  At  last  our  hospital  was  in  running  order  and  our  first  patients 
came  in  during  March.  At  that  time  we  took  care  of  all  Allied  soldiers.  We  had  French,  English, 
Italian  and  men  from  the  colonies,  all  at  one  time. 

"  Later  when  the  U.  S.  troops  were  coming  over  more  rapidly  and  the  First  and  Second  American 
Divisions  were  moving  up  to  the  Lorraine  Front,  the  commandant  of  the  hospital  centre  received 
orders  to  evacuate  all  Allied  soldiers  but  Americans,  and  thereafter  to  care  for  Americans  only. 
We  soon  had  a  gi'eat  many  of  our  boys  as  patients  but  nowhere  over-crowded.  They  got  the 
best  medical  attention  and  plenty  of  good  food ;  in  fact,  the  very  comforts  of  home.  Every  ward 
had  a  talking  machine  and  plenty  of  records,  and  it  made  the  boys  feel  good  to  listen  to  the  jazz 
music,  other  lively  pieces  and  the  patriotic  selections  of  their  home  land. 

"We  didn't  get  over  crowded  until  the  St.  Mihiel  drive  started,  then  we  had  to  use  every  bit 
of  space  to  be  found.  The  hallways  were  fitted  up  with  cots  and  the  capacity  of  each  hospital 
was  far  exceeded.  The  operating  rooms  were  busy  day  and  night,  ambulance  and  Red  Cross 
trains  were  coming  in  at  all  hours.  The  suffering  of  wounded  men  was  intense  but  they  seemed 
to  think  nothing  of  their  wounds,  smoked  cigarettes  and  "  kidded  "  one  another  over  their  injuries; 
at  the  same  time,  many  of  those  men  had  arms  or  legs  shot  to  pieces.  As  fast  as  patients  could 
possibly  be  moved  they  were  sent  to  base  hospitals  farther  back. 

"  Our  center  being  the  nearest  to  the  Lorraine  Front,  was  made  an  evacuation  hospital  during 
the  St.  Mihiel  drive.  The  Red  Cross  did  wonderful  work  among  the  wounded  boys.  They  visited 
the  hospitals  every  day,  gave  them  everything  they  needed,  and  entertained  them  in  every  way. 

"We  didn't  see  much  of  the  real  action,  but  most  of  us  were  up  at  the  front  for  some  time. 
The  wonderful  and  most  powerful  barrage  in  the  history  of  the  world,  put  up  by  the  Americans 
before  their  drive  at  St.  Mihiel,  could  be  heard  distinctly  fifty  miles  back.  Places  not  very  far 
from  us  were  bombed  by  the  Boche  airmen.  Mirecourt,  ten  miles;  Erinal,  twenty  miles,  and 
Neuf-chateau  thirty  miles,  were  bombed  several  times.  They  flew  over  our  center  very  often, 
but  never  did  any  damage. 

"Our  loss  of  patients  was  very  small,  due  to  the  excellent  treatment  given  them  by  our  skilled 
doctors  and  nurses.  It  was  sad  when  we  lost  some  of  our  own  unit.  The  first  one  we  lost  was 
our  beloved  adjutant,  Capt.  Bun-oughs.  The  boys  missed  him  very  much.  Whenever  they  got 
into  any  trouble,  a  little  trip  to  the  adjutant's  office,  and  everything  was  easy  for  them.  We 
used  to  call  him" Dad."  The  same  week  that  we  lost  Capt.  Burroughs,  we  lost  one  nurse — Miss 
Fallon — two  enlisted  men,  Cook  Ranny  and  private  Tubbs,  and  later  another  enlisted  man, 
Private  Streight  of  Lancaster,  N.  Y. 

"Base  Hospital  23  handled  close  to  L5,000  patients  during  the  period  of  the  war." 


134 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 


Women  at  Work  on  the  Farm—Buffalo  Girls  Picking  Peas  on  an  Erie  County  Farm 

Shoveling  Refuse  from  a  Freight  Car  at  East  Buffalo 

At  the  End  of  a  Perfect  Day 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War  135 


CHAPTER  XL 
WHEATLESS    DAYS    I.N    BUFFALO    HOTELS 

AS  the  big  German  drive  of  March,  1918,  forced  back  the  French  soldiers  nearer  and  nearer 

ZX  to  Paris,  and  Prince  Rupprecht's  army  battered  its  way  over  Haig's  forces  to  Ypres  and 
-^  ■*"  mounted  the  vantage  points  of  Kemmel  Hill,  America  tightened  its  win-the-war  policy. 
Difficult  days  were  those  for  the  epicure  and  the  erstwhile  traveling  salesman.  We  had  no  travel- 
ing salesmen  then.  They  disappeared  in  a  night.  Nobody  had  anything  to  sell.  Factories  were 
making  trucks  or  tanks  or  explosives  or  shells  or  parts  of  aeroplanes.  And  no  salesmen  were 
needed  for  the  necessities  of  life.   The  market  was  short  of  these. 

Traveling  men  may  not  be  the  premier  eaters  of  the  land,  but  they  have  been  frequently  pictured 
as  such.  Whether  it  was  traveling  men  or  professional  men  or  bankers  or  merchants  who  dined 
sumptuously  before  1918,  they  found  the  food  restrictions  growing  distressingly  exacting  before 
the  winter  of  1918  was  out  of  the  way.  Heatless  Mondays  were  followed  by  meatless  Tuesdays 
and  wheatless  Wednesdays.  No  cereals  for  breakfast !  No  wheat  rolls!  No  wheat  bread !  Home 
cooking  was  under  the  Government  ban  so  that  the  fastidious  eater  could  turn  nowhere  for  relief. 
Pie  crust  sans  wheat  flour  was  like  the  proverbial  play  of  Hamlet  minus  Hamlet.  One  taste  was 
enough.  The  sugar  bowls  disappeared  from  the  tables.  Sometimes  sugar  would  be  served  in 
miniature  paper  bags.  Sometimes  waiters  or  waitresses  could  be  importuned  to  put  a  spoonful 
of  sugar  into  one's  tea  or  coffee  before  serving  it,  and  frequently  patrons  would  wait  in  vain  for 
sugar.  Sometimes  it  happened  that  restaurants  were  entirely  without  sugar.  Frostings  no  longer 
adorned  the  cakes;  sherbets  and  ices  were  gone  until  the  dawn  of  a  brighter  day.  Substitutes 
for  flour  undermined  the  flavor  of  all  pastries,  and  the  ingredients  which  were  now  injected  into 
the  substructure  of  a  strawberry  shortcake  left  even  that  heretofore  popular  dish  a  poor  forsaken 
thing. 

The  man  who  lunched  at  the  larger  hotels — and  the  same  rules  obtained  elsewhere — found  on 
his  menu  card  a  reminder*  of  the  food  price  he  was  expected  to  pay;  not  for  food  but  in  food 
for  war. 

*THE    GENERAL    PLAN 

For  conservation  no  bread  and  butter  shall  be  served  unless  the  guest  requests  it,  and  when  bread  and  butter  is  served,  it  must  not  be  put  upon 
the  table  until  after  the  first  course  of  the  meal  is  served.  . 

The  service  of  bread  should  conform  to  the  rules  of  the  Baking  Regulations,  which  require  that  no  bread  with  less  than  20  per  cent  of  substi- 
tutes in  it  be  served,  that  not  more  than  two  (2)  ounces  of  Victory  Bread  or  rolls  (bread  containing  20  per  cent  of  wheat  flour  substitute  or  40  per 
cent  of  rye  flour),  or  if  no  Victory  Bread  is  served,  not  more  than  four  (4)  ounces  of  other  breads,  such  as  corn  bread,  Boston  brown  bread,  mufRns, 
etc.,  be  served  to  one  person  at  any  one  meal,  except  sandwiches,  or  bread  served  at  boarding  camps,  or  rye  bread  which  contains  at  least  50  per 
cent  of  rye  flour. 

Rolls  should  weigh  not  more  than  one  (1)  ounce  each.  All  bakery  products  must  be  made  in  accordance  with  the  rules  and  regulations  of  the 
Baking  Division.   This  applies  to  all  bakery  products  served,  whether  made  on  the  premises  or  purchased  from  bakers. 

Toast  must  not  be  served  as  garniture  or  under  meat. 

Standardize  your  butter  service  and  limit  it  to  one-half  ounce. 

Cereals— Serve  all  cereals  sparingly,  as  they  are  greatly  needed  both  for  the  Armies  of  the  Allies  and  are  ideal  foods  to  store  and  transport. 

Meats— Portions  of  meat  should  be  cut  to  the  best  advantage,  and  as  small  as  practicable  to  meet  the  requirements  of  patrons,  and  no  more 
than  one  portion  of  any  kind  of  Meat  or  Poultry  should  be  served  at  any  one  meal.  If  patrons  desire  it,  one  mutton  chop,  one  lamb  chop  or  one 
pork  chop  should  be  served  to  an  order,  and  reduced  portions  of  ham  and  bacon  should  be  served. 

Bacon  must  not  be  used  as  a  garniture. 

Fats — Serve  as  few  fried  dishes  as  possible,  as  it  is  necessary  to  conserve  all  fats,  both  animal  and  vegetable. 

Trim  and  save  all  coarse  fats  from  meat  before  cooking.    Munition  and  soap  manufacturers  need  waste  fats. 

Sugar — Serve  no  sugar  unless  requested;  if  requested,  not  more  tham  one  teaspoonful  or  its  equivalent  to  any  one  person  at  a  meal.  One  small 
lump  is  the  service  for  demi-tasse.   The  use  of  the  sugar  bowl  on  the  table  must  be  discontinued. 

Serve  no  candies  after  meals. 

Eliminate  icing  made  with  cane  or  beet  sugar  from  all  cakes. 

Use  honey,  maple  sugar,  corn  sugar  and  syrups  as  sweeteners. 

Fresh  Vegetables  and  Fruits — Serve  fresh  vegetables  and  fruits  whenever  possible.   Attractive  preparation  will  popularize  their  use. 

Feature  vegetable  dinners,  and  fruit  and  vegetable  salads. 

Minimize  the  use  of  canned  fruits  and  vegetables — save  tin  and  labor. 

Coffee — In  order  to  relieve  ships  transporting  coffee  to  this  country,  so  that  we  may  use  them  to  transport  our  troops  and  supplies  abroad,  we 
ask  the  hotels  and  restaurants  to  economize  in  the  use  of  coffee  by  every  possible  care. 

Cheese — A  shortage  of  Cheddar,  commonly  called  American  cheese,  made  apparent  by  the  tremendous  demand  of  our  Army  and  the  Allies, 
makes  it  necessary  for  us  to  ask  public  eating  places  to  avoid  the  service  of  this  particular  kind  of  cheese  wherever  possible. 

The  service  of  cheese  with  salads  and  the  use  of  cheese  with  cooked  dishes,  such  as  macaroni,  Welsh  rarebits,  etc.,  should  be  avoided. 

Ice — Serve  ice  sparingly.  Practice  rigid  economy  in  its  use.  Ammonia,  which  is  used  in  making  artificial  ice,  is  greatly  needed  in  the  manufac- 
ture of  munitions. 

The  Food  Administration  believes  the  fourth  meal  to  be  unnecessary  and  unpatriotic.  Where  suppers  are  served  all  meats  should  be  eliminated 
and  such  dishes  should  be  substituted  as  sea  foods,  game  in  season,  egg  dishes  and  such  by-products  of  meat  as  are  desirable. 

The  Food  Administration  believes  elaborate  lunches  and  banquets  are  unpatriotic  and  should  not  be  served.  Lunches  and  banquets  are  recog- 
nized as  being  necessary  for  social  enjoyment  of  the  people,  but  at  such  gatherings  a  simple  meal  should  be  served,  such  as  would  be  eaten  in  the 
home.  No  waste  or  extravagant  use  "of  food  should  be  allowed  in  this  critical  time.  The  hour  for  such  functions  should  be  so  regulated  that 
the  repast  will  take  the  place  of  one  of  the  regular  meals. 

(Continued  on  page  136) 


136 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 


The  August  1,  1918,  menu  card  offered  by  Manager  Ireland  of  the  Lafayette  Hotel  would 
scarcely  be  recognized  in  the  same  hotel  a  year  later.  Enlarged  signs  were  displayed  attractively 
about  the  Lafayette  dining  room.  They  seemed  distressingly  diversified  and  numerous.  Waiters 
were  cold  and  cheerless,  and  spoken  language  was  more  unintelligible  to  them  than  ordinarily. 
Those  who  felt  that  Mr.  Ireland  was  too  conscientiously  devoted  to  the  conservation  of  food 
found  an  identical  condition  in  the  dining  department  of  H.  Montgomery  Gerrans'  Iroquois 
Hotel,  where  both  Mr.  Gerrans  and  Mr.  Green  spent  laborious  hours  with  those  who  did  not 
understand  the  value  of  the  change  which  had  come  over  the  elaborately  dressed  tables. 

A  portion  of  an  Iroquois  breakfast  menu  of  the  first  Tuesday  in  April,  1918,  read: 

CEREALS  (With  Cream) 

Cream  of  Wheat  25c  Oatmeal  25c  Crushed  Wheat  25c 

Triscuit  25c  Corn  Flakes  20c  Grape-Nuts  25c  Mapl-Flakes  20c 

Hominy  25e  Fried  Hominy  or  Corn  Mush  25c  Force  25c 

Shredded  Wheat  Biscuit  (ind.)  25c  Puffed  Wheat  or  Rice  25c 

And  the  following  day,  the  same  section  read: 


CEREALS  (With  Cream) 


.\s  requested  by  the  U.  S.  Food  Administration,  we  shall  not  serve  any  wheat  cereals 
nor  wheat  in  any  form  until  further  notice 


Corn  Flakes  20c 


Grape  Nuts  25c 


Mapl-Flakes  20c 


Fried  Corn  Mush  25c 


Puffed  Rice  25c 


Mr.  Gerrans'  meat  menu  for  a  Monday  breakfast  follows: 


Broiled  Mutton  Chop  65c 

Small  Sirloin  Steak  $L45 

Sirloin  Steak,  Creole  $2.50 
Tenderloin  Steak  $2.00 

Hamburger  or  Salisbury  Steak  80c 
Broiled  Veal  Kidney  70c 
Lamb  Kidneys,  Broiled  60c 

Broiled  Sweetbread  on  Toast  90c 
Broiled  Pork  Tenderloin  80c 

Broiled  Honeycomb  Tripe  60c 
Chicken  Livers  en  Brochette  65c 
Spring  Chicken  (half)  $L15 


Lamb  Chops,  Broiled  80c 

Sirloin  Steak  $2.00 

Extra  Sirloin  $3.00 

Small  Tenderloin  $LO0 

Ham  or  Bacon  60c 

Beechnut  Bacon  70c 

Sautees  au  Madere  70c 

en  Brochette  90c 

Broiled  Fresh  Pig's  Feet  60c 


Breakfast  Steak  $1.00 
With  mushrooms  $2.90 
Pork  Chop  75c 

Veal  Cutlet  75c 
Calf's   Liver,  Saute  with  Bacon  70c 
Fried  Salt  Pork  60c 
Corned  Beef  Hash  with  Poached  Egg  65c 
Broiled  Virginia  Ham  75c 
Chipped  Beef  in  Cream  60c 


Broiled  Royal  Squab  $1.25 

Squab  Chicken,  Broiled  $1.75 
Chicken  Hash  with  Green  Peppers  85c 


Reduce  the  use  of  china,  linen  and  silver  in  order  to  effect  a  saving  in  labor.  Serve  food  whenever  possible  in  the  plate  or  dish  from  which  it  is 
to  be  eaten.  Plate  service  should  be  established  wherever  possible:  that  is,  the  meat  and  vegetables  comprising  the  main  part  of  the  meal  should 
be  placed  on  one  plate  instead  of  served  in  several  side  dishes.  Service  plates  should  be  eliminated.  Place  only  the  amount  of  silverware  on  the 
table  that  is  actually  to  be  used  for  the  meal. 

All  so-called  general  bills-of-fare  used  in  hotels  and  public  eating  places  should  be  abandoned.  The  great  variety  of  dishes  that  are  usually  listed 
on  a  general  bill-of-fare  necessitates  carrying  in  the  ice-bo.xes  large  quantities  of  meats  and  other  produce,  and  spoilage  and  waste  are  liable  to 
follow.  A  simple  bill-of-fare  should  be  arranged — one  for  breakfast,  one  for  luncheon  and  one  for  dinner  or  supper,  all  witli  a  limited  number  of 
dishes,  and  changed  from  day  to  day  to  give  variety.  A  standard  form  of  menu  card  is  recommended,  maximum  size  about  6"  x  10".  This  should 
be  printed  on  paper  or  cardboard  of  as  light  a  quality  as  practicable.  The  simplifying  of  menu  cards  alone  would  save  thousands  of  tons  of  paper 
annually. 

The  encouragement  of  hors  d'oeuvres,  of  vegetables,  salads,  fruits,  sea  foods,  and  the  use  of  made-over  dishes  and  of  animal  by-products,  such 
as  Ox-tails,  Tongues,  Calves'  Heads,  Livers,  Kidneys,  Tripe,  Sweetbreads,  Brains  and  Feet  will  save  greatly  in  all  staples  and  permit  the  effective 
use  of  many  available  foods. 

Table  d'hote  meals,  as  prepared  and  served  here  in  .\merica,  often  result  in  waste  and  should  be  discouraged  in  larger  hotels  and  restaurants 
wherever  conditions  permit.  In  circumstances  requiring  table  d'hote  meals,  the  bill-of-fare  should  be  limited  to  few  courses  and  a  small  variety, 
such  as  is  served  on  the  continent  of  Europe,  and  should  be  very  carefully  supervised.  The  American  Plan  hotel  or  restaurant  should  require  its 
guests  to  choose  specifically,  in  writing,  from  the  items  offered,  as  in  the  European  l*Ian,  so  as  to  avoid  waste. 

The  cafeteria  system  is  recommended  for  employees  wherever  possible,  as  it  facilitates  service  and  eliminates  waste. 

Use  local  and  seasonal  supplies.  Do  not  require  abnormal  use  of  the  railways  and  steamships  to  transport  products  from  far  afield,  now  that 
we  need  all  cars  and  ships  for  war  purposes. 

All  waste  food  should  be  saved  to  feed  animals  or  for  reduction,  to  obtain  the  fats.   No  food  should  be  burned. 

The  fundamental  principle  of  the  regulations  of  hotels  and  restaurants  depends  upon  the  saving  of  waste  food  and  the  using  of  left-overs  to 
the  best  advantage.  Waste  in  the  kitchen  could  be  curtailed  considerably  by  not  having  a  large  amount  of  food  prepared  for  expected  guests  who 
may  not  come.  It  is  better  that  the  American  people  wait  a  few  minutes  for  their  food  than  that  an  unnecessary  amount  of  food  be  cooked,  in 
anticipation  of  a_  larger  number  of  guests  than  will  actually  be  served.  The  suggestion  is  made  that  all  menu  cards  be  printed  in  plain  English, 
actually  descriptive  of  the  food,  so  that  the  patron  may  readily  determine  what  he  is  ordering. 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War  137 

But  on  the  following  day: 

Panfish,  Fried  or  Broiled  50c  Smoked  Salmon  50c  Ocean  Bass  70c  Bluefish  70c 

Shad  Roe  65c  Filet  of  Sole  60c  Yellow  Pike  60c  Fried  Smelt,  Tartare  60c 

Whitefish  65c  Cod  Fish  60c  Salmon  Steak  75c  Fresh  Mackerel  60c 

Halibut  Steak  65c  Yarmouth  Bloater  50c  Broiled  Salt  Mackerel  60c 

Kippered  Herring  50c  Picked-Up  Codfish  in  Cream  50c  Codfish  Cake  40c 

Broiled  or  Steamed  Finnan  Haddie  55c  Chicken  Livers  en  Brochette  65c 

Broiled  Royal  Squab  $1.25  Spring  Chicken  (Half)  $1.15 

Squab  Chicken,  Broiled  $1.75  Chicken  Hash  with  Green  Peppers  85c 

Each  passing  day  added  something  new  to  the  Iroquois  menu  card — but  it  was  usually  a  new 
restriction.  On  March  29,  1918,  this  inscription  appeared  at  the  head  of  the  menu:  "Our  Lunch 
Rolls  to-day  are  made  of  One-Half  Graham,  One-Quarter  Rye  and  One-Quarter  Barley  Flour." 
Apparently  Mr.  Gerrans  found  his  patrons  disappointed  in  the  way  he  made  his  March  rolls, 
for  on  April  1st,  the  menu  read:  "Our  Lunch  Rolls  to-day  are  made  of  three-tenths  each,  Corn 
Meal,  Corn  Flour,  Barley  Flour  and  one-tenth  Potato  Flour. "  That  was  enough!  No  explanatory 
roll  notes  appeared  after  that.  Possibly  Iroquois  people  took  their  potatoes  in  "French  Fried" 
form  rather  than  in  the  form  of  rolls  thereafter.  Though  the  menu  cards  lacked  many  of  the 
dishes  previously  served  they  contained  some  very  commendable  things.  This,  for  example: 
"The  More  Liberty  Bonds  You  Buy,  The  Nearer  Peace  Will  Be."  And  this:  "Remember  That 
Every  Dollar  You  Have  is  of  Draft  Age."  And  then,  for  fear  some  enthusiastic  diner  might 
feel  the  reference  was  to  things  eatable  rather  than  to  liberty  bonds,  this  admonition  appeared: 
"Money  cannot  buy  wheat  to-day."  and  after  the  word  "wheat  "some  thoughtful,  but  altruistic, 
individual  inserted  the  words  "nor  waiters". 

At  the  Statler  Hotel,  as  at  all  the  Buffalo  hotels  and  restaurants,  a  very  faithful  and  pains- 
taking effort  was  made  for  the  conservation  of  food.  While  the  restrictions  were  a  matter  of 
constant  jesting,  through  it  all  there  ran  a  spirit  of  patriotic  resolve  to  abide  fully  and  conscien- 
tiously with  every  Government  requirement.  In  the  center  of  Mr.  Statler's  menu,  probably 
inserted  by  Manager  Hinkley  or  Associate  Manager  Daniels,  appeared  this  trite  suggestion 

Are  You  Overlooking  Fish? 
If  you've  gotten  the  habit  of  consulting  the  menu  from  "Entrees"  down,  look  higher  to-day. 
Some  of  the  very  best  things  on  the  bill  are  listed  under  "Fish."    Suggestion:   Fried  Sole— sweet, 
and  brown,  and  tender — with  a  bit  of  salad  that  sharpens  your  taste  for  the  delicate  flavor  of  this 
"daintiest  of  the  fishes."   All  fish  is  boned  in  the  kitchen. 

"Conserve  Beef — Wheat — Sugar — It's  the  war — Let's  help. 

In  after  years  it  may  be  interesting  to  glance  over  the  menu  cards  of  the  war  days. 


138  Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 


CHAPTER  XLI 
WITH    DON    MARTIN    IN    LONDON 

MOST  American  soldiers  longed  to  see  London  and  Paris.  The  overseas  trips  were  illuminated 
with  a  discussion  of  the  wonderful  things  of  the  old  world.  They  filled  the  weary 
days  as  the  convoyed  transports  slowly  plowed  through  the  mined  and  submarine-infested 
ocean.  The  American  correspondents  were  hurried  into  Europe  ahead  of  the  American  troops. 
It  was  an  able,  witty,  jovial  crew  of  writers  who  took  passage  for  England  at  about  the  time  of 
the  Pope's  peace  proposal  in  the  late  days  of  1917.  On  the  passenger  list  of  correspondents  at 
that  time  appeared  the  name  of  Don  Martin,  a  former  Buffalo  reporter,  then  political  writer  of 
the  New  York  Herald.  Martin  had  worked  on  the  Buffalo  Express  for  many  years  and  was  widely 
known  throughout  the  city.  His  residence  was  at  Silver  Creek,  a  few  miles  from  Buffalo,  where 
his  mother,  brother  and  sisters  and  his  motherless  daughter  made  their  home.  Martin's  wife  had 
died  shortly  after  her  child  was  born,  and  his  love  was  centered  in  his  daughter.  He  wrote  many 
letters  to  her  during  his  days  in  Europe,  and  frequently  he  sent  letters  to  his  sister  Alta,  a  sten- 
ographer employed  in  the  law  office  of  John  L.  Romer.  An  accomplished  journalist,  it  was 
not  unnatural  that  he  should  be  an  entertaining  letter  wi'iter.  He  saw  London  and  Paris  as 
the  soldier  boys  saw  those  cities,  and  with  them.  He  tramped  the  streets  with  the  first  American 
troops. 

Writing  from  the  Savoy  Hotel,  London,  on  Sunday  night  of  January  6,  1918,  to  his  sister  he 
gave  this  brief,  but  enveloping  view  of  England's  wonderful  city  during  the  war  period : 

"Alta: 

"It  seems  almost  foolish  to  write  because  letters  are  so  slow  in  getting  through  the  censor.  I  understand  it  takes 
three  weeks  for  a  letter  to  get  to  New  York.  I  wrote  a  very  long  letter  to  Dorothy  about  the  trip  over  and  it  was 
of  course  intended  for  you  all. 

"London  is  a  dismal  place.  Streets  are  pitch  dark  at  night  on  account  of  the  constantly  expected  air  raids.  It  is 
almost  hopeless  to  go  anywhere  except  in  a  taxicab.  There  has  been  no  raid  since  I  arrived  but  there  probably  will 
be  soon.  I  am  quite  safe  here  in  the  Savoy  where  I  shall  probably  remain  for  a  while,  and  my  wanderings  during 
the  day  are  so  restricted  that  I  can  easily  find  a  safe  spot  if  a  raid  warning  is  given. 

"To-day  at  breakfast  I  met  Dan  Reid  who  is  here  after  a  visit  to  France  for  the  Food  Commission.  With  him  is 
Roscoe  Mitchell  of  Buffalo  whom  I  know;  a  Mr.  Lincoln  of  Jamestown  whom  I  also  know  and  Everett  Colby  of 
New  Jersey  with  whom  I  am  acquainted.    I  shall  probably  have  dinner  with  them  to-morrow. 

"London  is  a  wonderful  city,  I  have  been  around  it  pretty  well;  have  seen  some  of  the  big  army  and  admiralty 
men  and  expect  soon  to  see  Lloyd  George.  I  have  written  very  little  yet.  I  want  to  get  a  line  on  things  first.  This 
much  I  have  learned:  Germany  is  not  yet  licked  but  will  be.  The  Allies  cannot  finish  the  job  till  the  United  States 
gets  a  good  army  over  in  France.  There  are  all  kinds  of  peace  reports  but  England  is  determined  to  keep  at  it  until, 
with  America's  aid,  Germany  is  defeated.  England  is  putting  up  with  all  kinds  of  discomforts.  Food  is  none  too 
plentiful.  There  is  no  fruit  except  at  prohibitive  prices;  matches  are  precious  and  meat  is  getting  scarce.  And  on 
top  of  that  London  gropes  around  in  complete  darkness  from  4.00  P.M.  until  8.00  A.M.  and  business  is  very  seriously 
interfered  with. 

"I  shall  probably  stay  here  for  some  time  but  Hkely  will  go  over  to  France  for  a  brief  stay  when  the  hardest  part 
of  the  winter  is  over.  I  can't  exactly  say  I  like  it.  No  American  does.  But  of  course  it  is  experience.  No  one  can 
ever  regret  knowing  London. 

"I  haven't  heard  anything  from  the  United  States  yet  and  probably  won't  for  a  while.  I  feel  a  little  bit  homesick, 
I  dare  say  on  account  of  Dorothy,  but  that  will  wear  off.  I  know  she  is  all  right.  I  have  a  couple  of  pictures  of 
her  on  my  dresser  and  after  a  while  I  will  get  a  letter.  I  hope  she  had  a  good  Christmas.  That  candy — and  nuts — 
you  sent  came  in  very  well.  I  nibbled  away  at  them  until  the  other  night.  Good  candy  can't  be  had  here— sugar 
is  too  precious. 

"This  is  a  rather  expensive  hotel  but  is  the  rendezvous  for  everyone  of  importance.  It  is  about  like  the  Waldorf 
in  New  York  though  not  so  big.  I  have  a  large  room,  splendidly  furnished,  with  a  private  bath,  and  steam  heat. 
It  is  the  only  hotel  in  the  city  with  steam  heat.  Everything  in  London  is  heated  with  fireplaces  which  make  a  tem- 
perature of  about  55,  and  London  during  January,  February  and  March  is  cold  and  damp. 

"One  is  pretty  close  to  war  here.  Fully  half  the  persons  one  meets  on  the  street,  in  restaurants,  or  in  the  hotel 
lobbies  are  soldiers  in  uniform.    The  women  all  smoke.    They  sit  about  the  lobbies  of  the  hotels  smoking  cigarettes 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 


139 


Captain  Devereaux  Milburn  (left),  son  of  John  G.  Milbuii.,  aud  Captain  C.  F.  Holmes, 
Aides-de-Camp  to  Major-General  McRae — 78th  Division 

photograph  was  taken  at  Chatel  Chehery 

the  same  as  men.    Frequently,  I  have  seen  women  at  lunch  with  children  three  or  four  years  old,  smoking  the  same 
as  men.    To  me  it  is  very  disgusting. 

"The  streets  of  London  look  pretty  much  like  those  of  any  American  city,  only  here  nine  out  of  ten  buildings  are 
five  stories  in  height,  and  the  tenth  is  two,  three  or  maybe  six  or  seven  stories.  Then  there  are  huge  city  and  govern- 
ment buildings  everywhere,  many  several  hundred  years  old. 

"On  my  way  down  Fleet  Street,  I  pass  a  hotel  with  a  sign  reading  'Pulis  Hotel,  Founded  1518'.  Two  doors  from 
our  office  is  a  lane  leading  to  the  Cheshire  Tavern  of  which  you  have  of  course  heard.  It  sets  back  about  200  ft. 
from  Fleet  Street  and  looks  precisely  as  it  did  in  Dr.  Johnson's  time.  I  had  dinner  there  last  night— a  beefsteak 
and  kidney  pie  for  2  shillings  6  pence — 62  )^  cents.  Tourists  and  sightseers  keep  it  up.  It  is  a  small  place  with  saw- 
dust on  the  floor.  A  little  further  up  the  alley  is  the  old  house  where  Samuel  Johnson  lived.    It  has  not  been  changed. 

"So,  while  London  is  dreary  there  are  many  things  to  brighten  up  one's  existence.  I  expect  to  go  through  West- 
minster Abbey  and  some  other  historical  places.  Everything  is  now  over-shadowed  by  the  war  and  it  is  by  long 
odds  the  most  overwhelming  war  England  has  ever  had.  It  is  trying  her  resources  to  their  utmost  but,  whatever 
one's  life-long  opinion  of  her  may  be,  he  must  admire  her  pluck,  her  forbearance  and  her  determination. 

"With  love, 

Don." 


140  Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 


CHAPTER  XLII 
LIEUT.    HAROLD    B.    WERTZ     FIRST    DIVISION,    U.  S.  A. 

THE  departure  from  Buffalo  of  the  national  guardsmen  and  the  first  draft  contingents  for 
training  camps  aroused  an  intense  military  spirit.  It  was  not  uncommon  to  see  school  boys 
drilling  in  school  yards  and  playgrounds.  Home  Defense  companies,  and  Police  Reserves 
were  to  be  found  on  the  smooth-paved  streets  nightly,  religiously  applying  themselves  to  the 
"hay-foot,"  "straw-foot"  e.xercises.  Down  Main  Street  at  frequent  intervals  straggling  con- 
tingents, each  boy  with  a  little  bundle  of  clothes  tucked  under  his  arm,  tramped  along  in  the 
general  direction  of  the  railroad  stations.  Frequently,  the  contingent  was  preceded  by  a  fife  and 
drum  corps,  or  a  band,  and  the  members  of  the  draft  board  in  automobiles.  Very  often  the 
entire  procession,  musicians  included,  would  be  conveyed  to  the  station  in  autos.  Relatives 
and  friends  accompanied  the  boys  and  few,  if  any,  departed  without  some  sort  of  a  farewell 
ceremony.  City  officials  invariably  led  the  boys  to  the  train  and  there  extended  a  hearty  God- 
speed as  they  pulled  out  for  the  training  camps. 

Through  the  Fall  of  1917  numerous  contingents,  large  and  small,  left  Buffalo,  and  those  de- 
partures continued  through  the  Winter  and  Spring  and  Summer  of  1918.  The  1917  contingents 
remained  in  the  training  camps  much  longer  than  those  who  were  called  early  in  1918;  in  fact, 
the  German  drive  which  began  in  March,  following  the  capitulation  of  Russia,  was  conducted 
with  such  severity  and  success  that  some  of  the  men  who  were  sent  from  Buffalo  in  February 
and  March  were  hurried  to  France  within  a  month  after  their  departure  from  home. 

During  the  preceding  winter,  however,  the  boys  who  had  gone  to  the  camps  in  September  and 
November  drifted  back  on  furlough.  Instead  of  the  slouching  boys  who  tramped  down  Main 
Street  with  their  extra  clothing  in  a  paper-wrapt  bundle,  militaiy  training  had  transformed  them 
into  neat,  erect,  snappy  young  men,  splendid  pictures  of  physical  development.  The  training 
camp  had  imprinted  its  reconstructive  mark. 

The  old  74th  Infantry  regiment;  the  3d  Artillery  and  Troop  I,  spent  the  winter  of  1917-1918 
in  camp  at  Spartanburg,  S.  C.  It  was  a  long,  bitter  winter  in  South  Carolina  as  it  was  elsewhere, 
and  these  men  suffered  severely  from  cold  at  that  camp.  They  drilled  in  the  wind  and  snow 
with  the  thermometer  just  above  the  zero  mark,  day  after  day,  and  grew  weary  of  waiting.  Spring 
came  and  they  were  still  in  camp. 

A  number  of  Buffalo  men  attached  to  the  old  National  Guard  regiments  had  taken  a  try  for 
commissions  on  their  return  from  the  border.  They  entered  the  officers'  training  camp  at  Madison 
Barracks.   Some  won  commissions  and  were  assigned  to  militai'y  units  then  in  training  here. 

Harold  B.  Wertz,  a  sergeant  in  the  old  74th  Infantry  on  the  Border,  received  a  commission  as 
a  first  lieutenant,  and  was  assigned  to  the  18th  Infantry,  First  Division,  of  the  regular  army. 
The  First  Division  may  have  contained  regular  army  men  who  made  their  homes,  at  one  time, 
in  Buffalo,  but  it  appears  that  Lieutenant  Wertz  among  the  civilian  population  who  entered 
the  military  service  was  first  to  go  overseas  with  a  sure-enough  American  division.  His  military 
career  was  a  remarkably  interesting  one,  as  later  developments  will  show. 

The  First  Division  claims  the  honor  of  firing  the  first  rifle  shot  and  sending  the  first  shell  into 
the  German  lines,  and  also  the  honor  of  the  first  casualty  suffered  by  an  American  formation, 
as  well  as  of  the  first  capture  of  prisoners  and  material. 

On  January  15,  1918,  the  division  entered  the  Ansauville  sector,  twenty  kilometers  northwest 
of  Toul,  relieving  the  famous  1st  Moroccan  Division.  It  remained  under  the  tactical  command 
of  a  French  infantry  division  until  January  30th,  when  it  took  over  things  "on  its  own,"  and  so 
continued  until  relieved  on  April  3.  During  this  period  of  front  line  duty  its  captures  increased 
signally  compared  with  its  training  debut,  totalling  thirty  prisoners,  one  light  machine  gun  and 
four  flame  throwers. 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War  141 


CHAPTER  XLIII 

SMOKE    AMMUNITION    FROM    THE    BUFFALO    NEWS 

THE  Evening  News  Smokes  for  Soldiers  Fund  was  begun  in  April,  1917,  a  few  days  after  the 
United  States  entered  the  war.  It  was  created  for  a  two-fold  purpose,  that  of  supplying  the 
soldier  with  such  comfort  and  solace  as  tobacco  gives  and  that  of  keeping  up  a  link  of  interest 
between  the  home  folks  and  the  men  who  would  go  away  to  fight  for  them. 

The  Smokes  for  Soldiers  plan  was  widely  promulgated  by  leading  newspapers  throughout  the 
country.  In  Buffalo  it  met  with  the  ready  approval  of  the  public  and  was  so  liberally  contributed 
to  that  it  came  to  be  one  of  the  half  a  dozen  largest  funds  in  the  United  States.  Up  to  November 
21,  1918,  the  sum  of  $39,970.68  was  collected  in  Buffalo  alone. 

Of  course,  the  Smokes  Fund  was  popular  with  the  soldiers.  Post  cards  and  letters  were  received 
by  the  hundreds  after  each  shipment  of  tobacco,  expressing,  many  times  in  naive  and  humorous 
terms,  the  appreciation  of  the  men  in  the  service.  Officers  in  various  branches  of  the  service  ex- 
tended their  indorsement  to  the  fund  and  sent  letters  of  thanks.  Among  these  were  Colonel 
Cornelius  Vanderbilt  of  the  102d  Engineers,  Colonel  Arthur  Kemp,  who  headed  the  74th  Infantry 
from  Buffalo,  and  Lieutenant  Colonel  John  W.  Rowland  of  the  106th  Field  Artillery. 

The  work  of  raising  money  for  the  fund  was  greatly  lightened  by  the  voluntary  assistance  given 
by  individuals  and  organizations  in  the  city.  The  first  flag  collection  was  made  in  August,  1917, 
during  the  convention  of  the  Eagles.  In  the  convention  parade,  a  Stars  and  Stripes  of  great  size 
was  carried  and  quite  spontaneously  spectators  tossed  coins  into  it,  shouting  "Give  it  to  the 
Smokes  Fund."  When  the  collection  was  counted  it  was  found  that  .$907.01  had  been  contributed 
and  it  was  decided  to  turn  it  over  to  the  News  Smokes  Fund  as  most  of  the  givers  had  requested. 
This  was  an  idea  that  met  great  favor,  and  in  the  many  parades  held  in  the  city  during  the  re- 
mainder of  the  war  there  was  scarcely  one  that  did  not  have  a  flag  collection  for  the  Smokes 
Fund.   The  theaters  and  factories  gave  special  support  to  the  fund. 

Campaigns  were  conducted  from  time  to  time.  In  December,  1917,  a  Smokeless  Day  plan  was 
carried  out.  The  idea  was  to  have  smokers  abstain  for  24  hours  and  contribute  what  they  would 
have  spent  for  themselves  to  the  fund.  This  met  with  success  and  the  sum  of  $3922 .  09  was  turned 
in,  with  which  Christmas  packages  were  purchased  for  the  Buffalo  and  Western  New  York  boys 
who  were  with  the  27th  Division  in  camp  at  Spartanburg,  S.  C. 

This  committee  of  Buffalo  business  men  was  in  charge  of  the  Smokeless  Day  arrangements: 
George  W.  Smith,  Chairman;  William  F.  Schwartz,  vice  chairman;  Peter  F.  Petersen,  Richard 
C.  Laux,  James  J.  Cuff,  John  Maloney,  Joseph  G.  Zeitler,  Dr.  E.  G.  Bodenbender,  Dai  H.  Lewis 
and  Arthur  W.  Kreinheder. 

In  February,  1918,  a  week's  city-wide  intensive  campaign  was  conducted.  It  took  in  factories, 
offices,  stores  and  shops  throughout  the  city.  A  pony  contest  to  interest  Evening  Neivs  carriers 
in  the  campaign  was  also  carried  on.  The  two  crusades  again  resulted  in  a  generous  contribu- 
tion. The  Committee  in  charge  was  as  follows: 

William  F.  Schwartz,  chairman;  Orson  E.  Yeager,  Harry  Thorpe  \'ars,  James  B.  Wall,  H.  N. 
Ness,  Jeremiah  J.  O'Leary,  George  J.  Meyers,  Elmore  C.  Green,  William  E.  Evans,  .Jeremiah 
J.  Donovan,  Samuel  H.  Witnier,  Peter  F.  Petersen,  Joseph  G.  Zeitler,  and  .Jacob  F.  Mueller. 

George  A.  Cowan,  Frederick  J.  Petersen,  Edward  Harris,  Cjtus  L.  Barber,  A.  W.  Kirton, 
Warren  Worthington,  George  B.  Tyler,  John  A.  Holmes,  Frank  B.  Powell,  Frank  W.  Robinson, 
John  C.  Bradley,  .James  H.  Dyett,  Charles  L.  Helmer,  H.  L.  Heitzman,  Charles  L.  Keller,  D.  J. 
Carson,  C.  S.  Alt,  C.  A.  Criqui,  E.  C.  Neal,  Frederick  F.  Klinck,  Carl  A.  Lautz,  William  H. 
Crosby,  J.  J.  Lockwood,  L.  W.  Wheaton,  Thomas  G.  Lawley,  Christian  Trapp,  George  T.  Cumpson 
E.  J.  Duggan,  Joseph  C.  Bergmann,  William  F.  Forrest,  H.  I.  Sackett,  H.  J.  Girvin,  B.  J.  Mc- 
Connell,  A.  B.  Wright,  Charles  Schoenhut  and  Gustave  C.  Miller. 


142 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 


They  became  the  Heroes  of  the  Meuse-Argonne  Offensive — Typical  Haul  of  the  Draft  Net 


Boys  Who  Had  Never  Felt  a  Trigger  Leaving  for  Camp  to  be  Whipped  Into  a  Victorious  Army 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War  143 

In  September,  1918,  a  two-day  campaign  was  conducted  by  a  committee  which  was  headed  by 
Mr§.  Allan  D.  Husted,  and  Frank  Oppenheimer.  This  brought  in  the  sum  of  $6,116.00.  In  connec- 
tion with  the  campaign  a  rally  was  held  at  Lafayette  Square  on  the  afternoon  of  the  first  day. 
Henry  C.  Price  acted  as  chairman  of  the  rally.  An  old  hearse  drawn  by  a  couple  of  mules  and 
bearing  a  big  placard  inviting  everybody  to  come  and  drive  a  nail  in  the  Kaiser's  coffin  pulled 
up  to  the  platform  on  the  square  and  a  black  rough  box  was  unloaded.  Donors  of  $1  or  more  to 
the  fund  were  invited  to  come  to  the  front  and  drive  a  nail.  This  took  the  crowd's  fancy  and  for 
more  than  23^  hours  men,  women  and  children  made  contributions  and  drove  nails  in  the  coffin. 
Up  to  the  first  of  December,  1918,  the  Smokes  for  Soldiers  Fund  had  bought  and  distributed 
these  supplies: 

Cigarettes 3,868,160 

Smoking  tobacco 1.58,980  packages 

I  Chewing  tobacco 11,504  packages 

%.  ■     Pipes 2,052 

';^7     Chocolate 1,928  packages 

■ferGum        17,210  packages 

I,  Matches      18,144  boxes 

The  Smokes  Fund  was  managed  by  George  W.  Therrien,  assisted  by  Otto  M.  Walter,  both  of 
the  Evening  Neivs  circulation  department.  All  clerical  work,  publicity  and  advertising  space  was 
donated  by  the  Evening  News,  as  its  part  in  the  enterprise. 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War  145 


CHAPTER  XLIV 
AND  THE  NAVY  TOOK  THEM  OVER 

THE  Navy  took  them  over  and  the  Navy  brought  them  back! 
Uncle  Sam's  sailors  guarded  the  course  and  convoyed  the  transports  across  the  Atlantic, 
landing  the  American  soldiers  safely  on  foreign  soil.  The  Navy  also  patrolled  the  coast, 
planted  mines  and  co-operated  with  the  Allied  High  Command  in  the  work  of  nullifying  the 
German  submarine  operations.  Many  hundreds  of  Buffalo  boys  went  into  the  Navy  service,  and, 
while  their  records  will  not  be  adorned  with  citations  for  bravery  or  heroic  deeds  in  battle,  the 
Navy  will  loom  large  in  the  credit  given  America's  fighting  men  because  of  the  exacting  service 
they  rendered.  Most  of  the  Buffalo  boys  who  enlisted  in  the  Navy  were  sent  to  the  Naval  Train- 
ing Station  at  Great  Lakes,  111.  The  story  of  Navy  life  told  by  Buffalo  boys  furnishes  an  interest- 
ing chapter  in  the  operations  of  the  American  Navy. 

George  Daly,  popular  amateur  ball  player,  one  of  the  first  to  enlist  in  the  Navy  after  the  dec- 
laration of  war  was  assigned  to  the  U.  S.  S.  Mt.  Vernon,  and  was  aboard  that  ship  when  she 
was  torpedoed  by  a  German  submarine.  The  "Mt.  Vernon"  was  formerly  the  North  German 
Lloyd  liner,  "  Kronprinzessin  Cecile  "  and  referring  to  the  experiences  of  the  Buffalo  men  aboard 
that  ship  on  her  ill-fated  trip,  Daly  said : 

"One  week  prior  to  the  outbreak  of  the  European  War,  the  North  German  Lloyd  liner,  Kron- 
prinzessin Cecile,  steamed  out  of  New  York  Harbor  with  $10,000,000  in  gold  aboard,  bound  for 
England.  Arriving  off  the  coast  of  the  British  Isles,  her  wireless  picked  up  the  broadcast  message 
that  war  had  been  declared  between  Germany  and  England.  Immediately  she  was  headed  back 
toward  America,  and  under  full  steam  she  eluded  the  British  navy,  and  five  days  later  was  safely 
interned  in  Bar  Harbor,  Me.  Two  months  later  American  warships  escorted  her  to  Boston,  where 
she  was  taken  over  by  the  Department  of  Justice  on  account  of  a  libel  against  her  for  failure  to 
deliver  the  $10,000,000.  There  she  remained  as  a  floating  palace  of  the  German  captain  and  crew 
until  February  3,  1917,  when  the  United  States  Government,  because  of  the  strained  relations 
existing  with  Germany,  ordered  all  interned  German  ships  manned  by  Americans,  and  all  German 
seamen  interned  on  shore.  This  order  was  carried  out  six  hours  later,  when  a  United  States  Marshal 
boarded  the  Kronprinzessin  Cecile ;  but  the  Germans  had  received  secret  information  of  the  order 
and,  acting  under  orders  of  their  Government,  they  had  already  wrecked  the  machineiy  of  the 
ship  to  such  an  extent  that  their  captain,  Captain  Pollock,  declared  that  the  ship  could  not  possibly 
be  used  by  any  one  for  any  length  of  time.  He  informed  the  American  engineers  that  it  would  be 
impossible  for  them  to  put  the  ship  into  running  order,  so  effectively  had  he  carried  out  the  orders 
of  his  superiors.  Two  months  later  war  was  declared  with  Germany,  and  on  May  5th  the  Kron- 
prinzessin Cecile  was  taken  over  by  the  United  States  Government.  After  two  months  of  thorough 
repairing  of  machinery,  and  complete  conversion  into  a  transport,  the  "Mount  Vernon"  was 
put  into  commission  on  July  28th  by  the  Nav-y  Department. 

"Since  her  conversion  into  a  transport  she  has  numbered  among  her  passengers  Secretary  of 
War  Baker;  Assistant  Secretary  of  the  Treasury  Crosby;  President  of  the  Inter- Ally  War  Council 
on  Purchase  and  Finance,  Colonel  E.  M.  House;  Admiral  Benson,  General  Bell,  General  Bliss, 
and  many  others  of  equal  fame.  On  occasion  she  has  made  her  round  trip  in  two  weeks,  and  been 
on  her  way  across  again  within  three  days  after  docking. 

"  Perhaps  no  ship  in  the  service  has  been  worked  harder,  and  certainly  no  ship  more  willingly 
that  the  Mount  Vernon.  Of  the  many  thousands  of  soldiers  committed  to  her  care  on  each  trip 
she  never  lost  one  by  accident,  and  not  over  an  average  of  one  for  each  trip  by  disease.  Her 
physical  equipment  consists  generally  of  all  the  appliances  and  conveniences  of  a  modern  city. 
Her  twelve  decks  furnish  ample  space  for  power  plants,  refrigerators,  stores,  repair  shops,  blowers, 
ventilators,  elevators,  libraries,  telephones,  wireless,  steam  and  electric  heaters,  hospital,  church. 


146 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 


^Ki"       '-'^-''-t 

-~-^'  ■  '^ 

;.  '  ■     .;■,• 

^^^^ 

'^^1 

iii^Ss^ii 

fefe-                             ■           '■ 

^^?i^ 

Members  of  the  Old  74th  in  Trench  and  Bayonet  Drill  at  Camp  Wadsworth 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 


147 


school,  safety  appliances  for  all  on  board,  and  the  most  effective  battle  equipment.  Three  of  our 
largest  mogul  locomotives,  each  pulling  its  capacity  train  load  of  coal,  could  not  furnish  the 
thousands  of  tons  of  coal  which  go  into  the  "Mount  Vernon's"  bunkers  for  one  round  trip  to 
Europe.  Although  over  seven  hundred  feet  long,  and  having  a  displacement  of  thirty  thousand 
tons,  her  powerful  engines  generate  forty-five  thousand  horse  power,  and  drive  her  through  the 
water  at  a  speed  of  twenty-five  miles  per  hour.  Her  water-tight  integrity  has  stood  the  test  of 
the  most  powerful  torpedo,  and  her  officers  and  crew  have  stood  the  test  of  the  recent  crisis  for  a 
yet  more  glorious  future. 

"We  sailed  from  Brest  on  the  4th  day  of  September,  1918,  homeward  bound,  and  with  us  was 
the  U.  S.  S.  Agamemnon,  being  convoyed  by  six  U.  S.  destroyers.  We  had  on  board  300  wounded 
soldiers,  57  of  them  being  "stretcher  cases";  also  with  us  U.  S.  Senators  Gore  of  Oklahoma  and 
Lewis  of  Illinois. 

"The morning  of  September  5th  was  bright  and  sunny,  and  the  sea  very  calm,  and  we  were 
making  about  18  knots  per  hour.  The  Agamemnon  was  traveling  on  our  starboard  side,  at  quite 
some  distance  ahead  of  us,  with  the  six  destroyers  encircled  about  us.  The  starboard  gun  crew 
(No.  5)  had  the  4 .  00  to  8 .  GO  o'clock  watch  that  morning,  and  the  number  six  gun  crew,  to  which 
I  was  attached,  was  waiting  at  ease  for  the  moment  of  8 .  00  o'clock  to  arrive  to  relieve  the  number 
5  crew. 

"Suddenly  at  about  ten  minutes  of  eight  our  No.  5  gunner  sighted  the  periscope  of  a  submarine, 
which  appeared  off  our  starboard  side,  between  us  and  the  Agamemnon,  at  a  distance  of  about 
500  yards.  He  immediately  fired,  but  the  periscope  did  not  remain  visible  for  more  than  seven 
seconds.  At  sound  of  the  gun  we  hastily  put  on  our  life  preservers  and  started  for  our  stations. 
We  hadn't  reached  them  befoi-e  a  terrific  explosion  occurred — the  torpedo  had  reached  its  mark, 
striking  us  fairly  amidships,  just  beneath  the  boiler  rooms.  Our  great  ship  was  fairly  lifted  out 
of  the  water,  then  rolled  and  tossed  and  leaped  again  several  times,  trying  as  it  seemed  to  'break 


i^._^_.^ 


Members  of  108th  Infantry  Building  a  Trench  at  Camp  Wadswuith 


148 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 


^^  J 


The  106th  Field  Artillery  (Old  65th)  at  Gun  Practice  on  the  South  Carolina  Range 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 


149 


Final  Inspection  of  108th  at  Camp  Wadsworth,  May,  1918,  on  Eve  of  Overseas  Trip 

her  back'  at  each  jump.  Finally  with  great  shivering  and  quaking  she  righted  herself,  settling 
some  14  feet  at  the  stern  and  then  listing  quite  badly.  At  the  first  shock  and  in  the  rolling  that 
followed  the  men  were  thrown  about  the  decks,  some  of  them  being  injured  quite  severely,  and 
I,  myself,  was  thrown  some  twenty  feet  to  the  deck  and  hurled  about.  The  men  finally  reached 
their  stations  and  the  guns  directed  salvos  at  the  spot  where  the  submarine  periscope  had  appeared. 
By  that  time  the  compartment  doors  between  the  bulkheads  had  been  closed  to  prevent  further 
shipping  of  water;  and  the  destroyers  were  racing  here  and  there  dropping  depth  bombs.  But 
there  was  no  evidence  that  they  had  destroyed  or  disabled  the  submersible. 

"After  things  had  quieted  down  somewhat,  it  was  found  that  thirty-six  of  our  firemen  had  been 
killed  outright,  and  four  so  badly  injured  that  they  died  a  few  days  later  at  Bi'est.  The  ship  lost 
more  than  eight  hundred  tons  of  coal,  had  all  her  upper  decks  and  her  keel  split,  and  nearly  all 
movable  fixtures  and  appurtenances  were  overturned,  broken  or  twisted  out  of  shape.  Of  course, 
our  ships  and  convoy  returned  to  Brest  and  we  made  port  under  our  own  steam  in  about  16  hours, 
arriving  there  at  2.10  A.  M.  on  the  following  morning." 

Forty  Buffalo  boys  were  aboard  the  "Mt.  Vernon"  when  she  was  torpedoed,  and  hundreds 
of  other  Buffalo  and  Erie  county  lads  were  on  other  transports  engaged  in  the  same  sort  of 
work.  Their  experiences  did  not  differ  materially,  except  that  the  submarines  did  not  succeed 
in  disabling  many  of  our  transports. 


150  Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 


CHAPTER  XLV 
ABOARD    AN    AMERICAN    TRANSPORT 

THE  Government  had  very  few  stevedores  in  the  ways  when  the  troops  were  going  over  and 
Buffalo  sailors,  in  addition  to  sailing  the  ships,  loaded  the  boats  and  unloaded  them  at 
Brest  and  St.  Nazaire. 
When  the  troops  were  moved  up  to  the  port  of  embarkation  it  was  the  Government's  policy 
to  hold  them  there  for  a  period  of  about  ten  days,  during  which  time  every  man  had  a  thorough 
physical  examination.  The  boys  were  not  permitted  to  communicate  with  their  relatives  or 
friends,  although  some  devised  means  of  slipping  news  to  the  outside  world.  The  idea  of  secrecy 
was  to  prevent  information  as  to  the  time  of  departure  from  falhng  into  the  hands  of  the  enemy. 
As  the  boys  went  aboard  the  ship  they  received  a  card  bearing  an  inscription  of  which  the  follow- 
ing is  typical : 

R.  M.  S.  "CARPATHIA" 

Keep  This  Card 

Your  Sleeping  Quarters  are  in  Section  No.  3 

Berth  No.  139 

You  Eat  at  Mess  No.  18 

First  Sitting 

In  connection  with  this  mess  card  they  were  given  a  set  of  instructions  for  conduct  aboard  the 
ship.  These  instructions  were  identical  in  each  case.  The  following  is  a  copy  of  the  instructions 
issued  to  the  members  of  Base  Hospital  No.  23. 

U.  S.  S.  "MADAWASKA" 
Instructions  For  Troops 

1 .  Every  square  foot  of  space  on  the  ship  is  utilized.   This  necessitates  using,  when  not  on  duty,  only  the  quarters 
and  deck  space  assigned  you  as  follows:   After  well  deck,  B  deck  galleries  and  C  deck  abaft  officers'  quarters. 

2 .  Use  ladders,  stairways  and  passageways  assigned  you  to  and  from  the  compartments  in  which  you  sleep. 

3 .  Visiting  in  quarters  assigned  Navy  Crew  is  forbidden. 

4 .  Members  of  Navy  Crew  are  forbidden  to  visit  troop  quarters. 

5 .  Use  garbage  cans  provided  for  all  waste  material. 

6.  Throw  nothing  overboard. 

7 .  Do  not  smoke  or  show  the  smallest  light  on  the  open  decks  from  sunset  to  sunrise.    The  glow  of  a  cigarette  may 
enable  the  enemy  to  torpedo  us. 

8 .  Smoking  will  not  be  permitted  between  sunset  and  sunrise  except  in  officers'  quarters. 

9 .  No  enlisted  man  will  be  allowed  to  have  matches  in  his  possession.  Smoking  lamps  will  be  provided. 

10.  As  much  fresh  water  will  be  provided  you  as  the  ship  can  furnish. 

11 .  The  alarm  gongs  when  sounded  mean  abandon  ship  or  abandon  ship  drill.  Fall  in  at  your  station  and  await 
orders.  In  case  it  should  become  necessary  to  abandon  ship,  do  not  become  panic  stricken  and  crowd  ladders  and 
boats.  Follow  the  proceedings  as  quietly  as  you  would  for  abandon-ship  drill.  Instructions  will  come  from  the 
ship's  officers  to  your  own  officers  when  it  is  time  to  take  to  the  boats  or  life  rafts.  Ships  often  float  for  hours 
after  being  torpedoed. 

12 .  Do  not  under  any  circumstances  open  any  air  ports,  water-tight  doors  or  hatches.  They  will  be  opened  when 
necessary  by  the  Navy  Crew. 

13.  If  you  should  fall  overboard  it  will  more  than  likely  be  impossible  to  stop  and  pick  you  up. 

14 .  In  the  danger  zone  all  men  of  the  crew  and  troops  not  on  duty  shall  be  considered  lookouts.  Report  anything 
suspicious  to  the  nearest  lookout  station. 

15.  A  life  preserver  will  be  found  in  each  berth.  These  are  in  the  form  of  pillows  and  may  be  used  for  that  purpose 
also.  When  you  leave  the  ship,  make  sure  that  your  life  preserver  is  left  in  your  berth  as  you  found  it.  If  you 
lose  your  life  preserver  it  may  mean  that  you  will  have  to  go  without  one  for  the  rest  of  the  trip. 

16.  While  on  board  this  ship  you  will  receive  the  Navy  ration  of  food.  There  is  a  plentiful  ration  for  each  man, 
and  if  you  will  co-operate  with  the  ship's  people  in  the  troop  messing  system  there  can  be  no  trouble  about  any 
of  you  going  short  of  food. 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 


151 


An  American  Transport  with  Harljor  Escort 


17.  Meals  will  be  issued  on  the  cafeteria  system,  from  fifteen  serving  stations,  and  troops  will  use  their  own  field 
mess  gear.  When  "Mess  Call"  sounds,  troops  will  fall  in  in  the  spaces  designated  by  their  company  officers, 
with  their  mess  gear  in  hand.  You  will  then  file  past  your  own  serving  station  and  receive  your  ration. 
The  printed  squares  on  this  card  are  your  mess  tickets  for  the  meals  you  are  entitled  to  receive  while  on  board 
this  vessel.  This  card  will  be  on  a  short  loop  of  cord  and  will  be  suspended  around  the  neck.  When  approaching 
the  serving  station  for  your  ration,  have  this  card  hung  outside  your  clothing,  so  that  it  may  be  taken  and  punched 
by  the  non-commissioned  officer  in  charge.  Second  helpings  may  be  had  in  almost  anything  except  dessert.  Do  not 
take  more  than  you  really  need.  Wastefulness  on  your  part  means  that  the  quantity  of  food  must  be  cut  down  later. 
A  space  has  been  provided  for  washing  your  mess  gear.   Make  use  of  it  after  each  meal. 

On  account  of  crowded  conditions  and  insufficient  ventilation,  it  is  important  that  you  spend  most  of  your  time 
on  the  open  decks.   Always  take  your  blankets  with  you  when  you  go  on  the  open  decks. 
Standee  bunks  must  be  folded  up  neatly  at  all  hours  of  the  day  while  the  lights  are  on. 
Do  not  spit  on  the  deck.   It  is  a  filthy,  unsanitary  habit  which  will  not  be  tolerated. 

C.  McCauley,  Lieut.  Comd'r,  U.  S.  N. 

Executice  Officer. 

Attached  to  the  foregoing  was  a  card  identifying  the  days  of  the  week.  At  each  meal  the  card 
was  punched. 

Those  who  landed  at  Brest  received  their  meals  at  a  common  kitchen  cared  for  by  the  camp 
personnel,  but  most  of  the  Buffalo  men  arriving  at  St.  Nazaire  found  no  such  arrangement  and 
their  first  duty  on  disembarking  was  to  set  up  their  company  kitchens  and  make  a  requisition 
for  supplies.  They  furnished  their  own  rations  immediately  after  entering  the  camp.  The  men  were 
billeted  in  French  barracks  which  had  been  erected  at  that  port.  Some,  of  course  remained  in  these 
embarkation  camps  longer  than  others,  but  most  of  the  troops  were  out  of  there  in  a  week  or  so. 


18 


19 
20 

21 
22 


152  Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 


CHAPTER  XLVI 
77th    division    WITHIN    THUNDER    OF    GUNS 

BUFFALO  drafted  men  from  Camps  Dix  and  Upton  had  made  brief  trips  home  during  the 
months  of  November  and  December.  A  football  game  at  Thanksgiving  time  between  the 
Camp  Dix  team  composed  of  brilliant  college  players,  and  the  All-Buffalo  team  brought  a 
delegation  of  possibly  500  drafted  men  to  Buffalo.  The  game  was  played  at  Olympic  Park,  and 
was  won  by  Camp  Dix,  primarily  through  the  team  work  of  the  soldiers,  but  especially  by  the 
individual  efforts  of  Lieut.  Mount  Pleasant,  the  Carhsle  Indian  star  who  played  in  the  back  field 
for  the  soldier  visitors. 

Again,  at  Christmas  time,  many  of  the  drafted  men  were  home  on  ten-day  furloughs,  but  on 
that  occasion  they  were  home  to  say  good-by  before  their  departure  overseas.  The  77th  Divi- 
sion, made  up  of  drafted  men  from  New  York  State,  more  than  1000  of  them  from  Buffalo  and  Erie 
County,  was  the  first  of  the  draft  divisions  to  go  overseas.   It  was  followed  by  the  78th  Division. 

The  first  selective  service  men  to  go  into  the  77th  Division  arrived  at  Camp  Upton  in  the  early 
part  of  September,  1917.  At  the  same  time  the  advance  guard  of  the  78th  Division  arrived  at 
Camp  Dix.  Buffalo's  first  draft  contingent  went  into  the  78th  Division,  at  Camp  Dix,  while  the 
New  York  City  men  went  to  Camp  Upton.  In  the  forty  per  cent  quota  of  drafted  men  which 
left  Buffalo  in  the  Fall  a  portion  went  to  Upton  and  the  balance  to  Dix.  They  formed  a  hetero- 
geneous assortment  of  unlicked  civilians,  and  included  boys  of  every  race,  creed  and  class.  Boys 
from  the  docks  mingled  with  boys  from  Delaware  Avenue  and  vigorous  youngsters  from  the  far 
East  Side;  Sunday  school  teachers  and  prize-fighters  and  boys  from  the  farms  became  bunkies. 
It  was  a  typical  haul  of  the  draft  law  dragnet,  and  it  missed  no  element  of  the  white  race  in  Buffalo 
or  the  towns. 

Among  the  units  comprised  in  the  77th  Division  was  the  302d  Engineers.  When  the  Division 
was  being  made  ready  for  overseas  service  in  the  latter  part  of  February  a  special  call  was  made 
for  men  to  fill  up  the  engineer  regiment.  Buffalo  furnished  men  from  Exemption  Districts  No.  8, 
No.  9  and  No.  15.  Neither  the  local  boards  receiving  the  call  nor  the  drafted  men  themselves 
knew  the  particular  purpose  of  that  special  call.  The  men  were  inducted  into  the  United  States 
militaiy  sei-vice  on  February  25th,  and  the  following  day  were  marched  to  the  station  behind 
bands  and  waving  colors,  proud  but  sad-hearted  relatives  and  friends. 

The  302nd  Regiment  of  Engineers  was  organized  at  Camp  Upton  upon  the  airival  of  those 
men.  A  month  later  the  regiment  moved  out  for  overseas  service.  The  advance  guard  of  the  regi- 
ment left  Camp  Upton  early  Good  Friday  morning,  March  29,  1918,  embarking  on  the  Cunard 
S.  S.  "Carmania"  in  New  York  harbor  sailing  the  same  evening  for  Halifax.  They  arrived  at 
Halifax  on  Easter  Sunday  morning.  There  a  convoy  was  in  progress  of  organization  for  some 
of  the  units  of  the  77th  Division,  and  the  "Carmania"  with  three  other  liners  and  an  escorting 
British  warship,  proceeded  to  Liverpool. 

The  convoys  of  the  77th  Division  collected  in  Halifax.  They  began  sailing  from  New  York  on 
March  27th  directly  after  the  German  drive  began.  The  sailings  continued  until  April  1st.  In 
the  main  convoy  which  left  Halifax  were  nine  ships  led  by  an  American  cruiser.  The  first  of  the 
division  (Engineers)  landed  in  Liverpool  on  April  12th  and  the  final  convoy  arrived  on  April  19th. 

The  voyage  of  the  Engineers,  like  that  of  the  other  units  of  the  Division,  was  uneventful,  except 
for  a  submarine  attack  on  the  morning  of  April  11th.  The  torpedo  narrowly  missed  the  Carmania, 
but  damaged  the  stern  of  the  escorting  warship.  Liverpool  was  reached  during  the  night  of  April 
12-13th.  The  77th  Division  was  the  first  National  Army  Division  to  arrive  in  France,  and  the 
302nd  Engineers  were  the  first  regiment  of  the  Division  to  cross  the  ocean.  From  Liverpool  they 
were  hurried  to  Dover,  and  the  following  day  crossed  the  Channel  to  Calais.  It  was  the  first 
American  regiment  to  land  at  Calais  for  training  with  the  British. 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War  153 

The  Engineers,  the  first  to  move,  left  Calais  on  April  16th  before  the  entire  Division  had  arrived. 
They  left  via  the  box  car  route  for  Audruicq  and  marched  to  Ruminghem  in  the  Pas-de-Calais 
area,  where  they  had  their  first  experience  in  billets.  The  furious  bombardments  incident  to  the 
big  German  drive  against  Kemmel  Hill  and  Ypres  could  be  plainly  heard  by  the  77th  men  at 
that  training  area,  and  rumors  were  thick  that  the  Division  would  soon  be  in  it.  They  expected 
to  be  thrown  in  as  victims  to  check  the  German  rush  for  the  Channel  Ports  and  immediately 
began  training  under  the  tutelage  of  the  39th  British  Division. 

Lieutenant  Karl  Wilhelm,  of  Buffalo,  in  relating  subsequently  some  of  the  experiences  of  the 
Division  in  that  training  camp  said  most  of  the  excitement  was  made  up  of  rumors.  "We  saw  no 
front  line  fighting  there  as  a  unit,"  he  said,  "On  two  or  three  occasions  we  occupied  reserve 
trenches  behind  the  British  lines  and  were  under  spasmodic  shell  fire  which  amounted  to  very 
little.  While  we  were  in  the  billets  numerous  aeroplane  raids  took  place.  Their  main  objective 
was  a  Canadian  aerodrome  about  one  and  one-half  miles  from  us  and  our  casualties  were  very 
few." 

They  were  billeted  in  a  rest  camp,  so-called,  at  that  port.  There  they  had  their  first  sight  of 
war,  for  they  viewed  on  all  sides  the  ruined  buildings  bombed  by  Boche  aviators  during  the  days 
that  had  gone  before. 

They  prepared  for  business  by  turning  in  their  Springfield  rifles  and  drawing  British  Enfields. 
Here,  too,  they  parted  with  their  immense  barrack  bags,  the  contents  of  which  they  had  so  care- 
fully and  discriminatingly  acquired.  Two  outfits  for  each  man  were  in  each  bag.  They  bade  good- 
by  to  the  bags  forever.  In  their  place,  they  received  gas  masks  and  steel  helmets.  From  Calais 
the  Division,  minus  the  Engineers  who  had  gone  on  ahead,  was  taken  to  the  Department  of  Pas 
de  Calais,  travelling  in  box  cars,  which  on  the  previous  day  had  been  used  for  the  transportation 
of  horses — 40  hommes  or  8  cheveaux. 

Walter  F.  Kenline,  a  private  in  the  302nd  Engineers,  in  charge  of  the  records  at  Regimental 
headquarters,  recorded  the  procedure  of  the  Engineers  from  that  point.  He  states  that  on  Decora- 
tion Day,  May  30,  rather  suddenly  the  regiment  was  ordered  to  move.  That  was  the  same  day 
the  Regulars  over  at  Chaumont-en-Vixen  were  ordered  to  Meaux  to  stop  the  rush  on  Paris.  The 
National  Army  men  up  in  the  Mt.  Kemmel  neighborhood,  however,  were  ordered  out  on  a  long, 
tiring  march,  well  made,  which  took  them  to  the  vicinity  of  Locquinghem  and  Belle,  a  new  Amer- 
ican training  area,  which  the  Engineers  proceeded  to  put  in  order.  On  June  7th,  they  moved 
again,  this  time  by  train,  to  a  railhead  near  St.  Pol  back  of  the  Arras  front.  The  regiment  then 
entrained  again  to  leave  the  British  for  the  so-called  American  sector.  A  three  day  ride,  begun 
June  10th,  took  them  to  Thaon-les-Vosges.  On  June  17th,  Regimental  Headquarters,  Head- 
quarters Company  and  Company  F  marched  to  Baccarat  relieving  similar  elements  of  the  117th 
Engineers  (Rainbow  Division).   The  remainder  of  the  Division  followed  three  days  later. 


154  Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 


CHAPTER  XLVII 
SEEING    PARIS    WITH    DON    MARTIN 

DON  Martin  spent  January  and  February  in  and  about  London  where  he  learned  London  men 
and  London  ways.  He  was  schooling  himself  for  intelligent  work  among  the  Allied  forces. 
It  is  necessary  to  see  a  country  and  to  know  its  people  to  write  clearly  of  their  activities. 
Early  in  March  Martin  crossed  the  Channel  to  France.  American  soldiers  and  sailors  were  to 
be  seen  at  that  time  in  Paris  and  the  Channel  ports. 

As  American  officers  and  members  of  the  regular  army  were  making  preparations  to  leave  for 
the  front,  Martin  was  visiting  the  points  of  interest  in  the  great  Parisian  city  for  which  the  German 
troops  were  headed  and  to  save  which  it  then  seemed  was  to  be  the  first  American  task  on  French 
soil.  Martin's  description  of  that  point  of  American  interest  was  given  in  letters  to  his  daughter: 

"Paris,  March  11,  1918. 
Hotel  Crillon. 
"Dorothy: 

"I  brought  my  typewriter  along  with  me  and  so  you  are  liable  to  get  another  long,  long  letter.  It  may  be  full 
of  mistakes  because  the  machine  is  half  locked  up  and  the  table  on  which  it  stands  is  so  high  that  it  is  very  awk- 
ward for  me. 

"However  I  decided  to  tell  you  about  my  first  visit  to  Paris  and  the  trip  from  London  here.  I  have  been  in  Paris 
less  than  24  hours  but  I  have  already  seen  enough  to  understand  why  it  is  called  the  most  beautiful  city  in  the  world. 
Whenever  I  have  been  in  other  cities — say  Chicago,  Philadelphia  or  London,  I  have  wondered  why  people  there 
didn't  move  to  New  York;  I  don't  have  the  disposition  to  ask  people  here  such  a  question.  The  city  is  just  dotted 
with  beautiful  buildings  each  of  which  is  of  historical  interest.  I  walked  around  two  or  three  hours  this  afternoon 
with  the  manager  of  the  Paris  office  of  the  Herald  and  he  was  able  to  point  out  many  of  the  chief  places.  We  saw 
Notre  Dame,  the  Hotel  de  Ville,  the  Chamber  of  Deputies,  the  Magdalene  Church  or  Cathedral,  and  walked  all 
through  the  famous  Latin  Quarter.  I  sat  on  the  piazza  of  the  Grand  Hotel  in  the  Rue  de  Capucines  and  drank  a 
glass  of  lemonade,  and  walked  through  the  Rue  de  la  Paix,  the  street  which  has  all  the  jewelry  shops.  I  never  saw 
anything  like  the  displays.  There  has  been  a  heavy  fog  all  day  so  I  have  seen  the  city  at  a  disadvantage  but  to- 
morrow probably  the  sun  will  be  shining  and  I  will  walk  around  some  more. 

"I  started  in  by  having  the  best  breakfast  I  have  had  since  I  left  New  York.  Here  the  restaurants  serve  you  as 
if  they  were  glad  to  do  it.  In  London  the  managers  and  waiters  serve  you  because,  apparently,  they  have  to  do  it. 
There  is  about  the  same  difference  between  London  and  Paris  as  there  is  between  a  burdock  and  a  lily  of  the  valley. 
The  waiters  in  this  hotel  saw  that  I  was  an  American  at  once.  They  can  always  tell  it  and  they  are  glad  when  they 
get  one  to  wait  on.  I  told  mine  I  wanted  breakfast — although  it  was  lunch  time — and  he  suggested  an  orange,  filet 
of  sole,  fried  potatoes  and  chocolate.  It  was  all  fine.  There  is  no  sugar  to  be  had  here  now.  There  is  no  milk  served 
after  9  in  the  morning.  The  orange  was  good  and  the  chocolate  was  sweetened  in  some  way  so  it  all  tasted  very 
good.    But  the  cost  is  very  high.    My  bill  this  morning  was  $2.75. 

"For  dinner  I  went  with  Mr.  Price,  the  Paris  manager,  to  the  famous  Prunier  restaurant.  Mr.  Bennett  occa- 
sionally goes  there  when  he  is  in  Paris.  We  telephoned  to  reserve  a  table.  One  has  to  do  this  because  the  applicants 
for  tables  are  so  numerous.  We  had  Portuguese  oysters,  roast  beef  and  potatoes,  braised  endive  and  a  fancy  choco- 
late pudding.  The  bill  here  for  two  was  about  25  francs,  or  slightly  more  than  $6.  Everything  is  high  everywhere 
in  Paris  because  of  the  scarcity  of  everything. 

"After  dinner  Mr.  Price  went  to  the  office  and  I  came  to  my  room  where  I  am  now.  There  is  nothing  to  do  in 
the  evening  in  Paris.  The  theaters  are  open  but  I  don't  care  to  go  to  a  show  I  can't  understand.  The  restaurants 
all  close  at  nine  o'clock  and  the  houses  and  the  streets  are  all  dark.  The  Germans  have  been  bombing  Paris  lately 
and  people  are  keeping  the  city  as  dark  as  possible.  I  shall  sit  in  my  room  till  about  half  past  ten  when  I  shall  get 
into  the  subway — right  near  the  hotel — and  go  to  the  Herald  office  at  No.  38  Rue  du  Louvre  for  a  half  hour  or  so. 

"This  hotel,  I  find,  is  the  very  best  hotel  in  Paris.  Mr.  Baker,  Secretary  of  War,  is  staying  here  now.  General 
Pershing  stayed  here  and  all  the  diplomats  from  most  of  the  important  countries  stay  here.  It  overlooks  the  Tuil- 
eries  and  is  a  magnificent  building.  Mr.  Bennett  believes  in  doing  things  up  right.  I  shan't  know  what  my  program 
will  be  until  I  hear  from  him.  I  wired  him  last  night — he  stays  in  Beaulieu  on  the  Mediterranean — that  I  was  here 
and  now  I  shall  sit  around  or  go  sightseeing  till  he  tells  me  what  he  has  in  mind.  I  rather  expect  that  in  a  few 
days  I  shall  be  on  my  way  to  the  American  front. 

"Paris  is  filled  with  American  soldiers.  I  must  have  seen  a  thousand  to-day.  I  met  two  or  three — yes  four  or 
five — men  I  knew  in  the  United  States. 

"There  was  no  sea  at  all  on  the  trip  across  the  -Channel  so  I  was  not  sick.    I  enjoyed  the  day  in  Havre.    That  is 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 


155 


a  very  picturesque  old  city,  with  the  principal  business  street  facing  the  harbor  and  sailing  ships  moored  just  across 
the  street  from  the  stores.  In  a  big  park  nearby  there  were  about  50  women  selling  flowers.  The  French  are  great 
for  flowers.  I  ate  in  a  big  restaurant — Tortoni's,  which  seats  about  1,000  persons,  and  walked  all  over  the  principal 
parts  of  the  city  before  leaving  at  five  in  the  afternoon.  The  train  on  which  I  traveled  from  Havre  stopped  just 
once  between  Havre  and  Paris  and  that  was  at  Rouen. 


An  American  Correspondent  in  the  Argonne 

Watching  a  skirmish  near  Grand  Pre 

"Before  I  leave  here  Dorothy  I  shall  write  you  another  letter  but  it  very  likely  will  not  be  a  long  one.     You  will 
show  this  letter  to  Mother  and  the  rest  of  the  folks  and  they  will  know  all  about  my  trip  up  to  date. 

With  Love,  Dad." 

Circumstances  of  that  night  caused  Don  to  write  a  letter  to  his  daughter  on  the  following  day: 


"Dorothy: 


Paris,  March  12,  1918. 
Hotel  Crillon. 


"I  guess  your  Dad  is  a  hoodoo.  Wherever  he  goes  there  seems  to  be  an  air  raid.  Last  night  when  I  finished  the 
letter  to  you  I  started  down  to  post  it  and  the  maid  was  talking  like  a  streak  and  waving  her  hands.  I  thought  she 
was  having  a  fit  of  some  new  kind.  But  I  discovered  it  was  merely  her  French  way  of  telling  me  that  there  was  an 
air  raid  going  on.  They  are  not  used  to  them  in  Paris  as  they  are  in  London,  and  moreover  the  people  here  are  very, 
very  excitable,  especially  on  air  raid  nights.  I  had  heard  the  "  alert "  signal  given  but  didn't  know  what  it  was.  In  Lon- 
don it  is  called  "Take  Cover".  Here  a  siren  blows.  It  is  about  like  the  whistle  on  the  Eureka  shop.  It  is  attached 
to  a  steam  engine  which  rushes  about  the  streets.  It  was  a  dark  night,  but  a  few  stars  were  shining  and  a  raid  was 
hardly  looked  for.  However  it  came  and  was  a  very  fierce  one — by  far  the  worst  Paris  has  known.  The  figures  of 
persons  killed  have  not  been  given  out  but  it  is  said  the  fatalities  were  quite  numerous.  I  heard  bombs  strike  in  this 
vicinity.  I  went  down  in  the  lobby  and  stayed  there  from  a  quarter  to  ten  to  a  quarter  to  one  o'clock.  A  lot  of 
most  distinguished  Frenchmen  were  sitting  about  and  a  good  many  prominent  Americans  too.  I  found  a  man  from 
Trenton  and  another  from  Iowa  whom  I  knew.  The  lobby  was  darkened  and  the  lights  in  all  the  rooms  were  shut 
off.  During  a  lull  in  the  raid  I  and  two  other  men  started  across  to  Palace  de  la  Concorde  to  see  where  a  bomb  was 
supposed  to  have  fallen  but  it  was  so  dark  we  lost  our  way  and  returned.  This  hotel  is  right  in  the  heart  of  the 
very  exclusive  section  of  Paris.  It  is  close  to  the  Tuileries  Gardens,  the  Champs  Elysees  and  a  lot  of  other  famous 
and  beautiful  spots.     Paris  is  rather  excited  to-day  over  last  night's  performance  and  right  now  people  are  rather 


156  Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 

expecting  another  raid  to-night.  These  raids  are  getting  to  be  terrible  things.  People  are  getting  very  sick  of  them 
and  I  guess  when  the  war  is  all  over  and  everyone  understands  everything  that  has  happened  the  world  will  know 
why  people  grew  tired  of  them.  The  Germans  have  no  consideration  for  women,  or  children,  hospitals,  churches  or 
anything  else.    They  will  have  to  pay  dearly  for  their  barbarism  some  day. 

"I  have  spent  a  good  part  of  the  day  making  arrangements  to  go  to  the  front.  Mr.  Bennett  wired  me  to  make 
arrangements  to  go  about  France  with  Mr.  Baker,  Secretary  of  War,  who  is  here,  but  it  was  too  late  to  make  the 
arrangements.  Only  the  three  news  associations  were  allowed  to  send  men.  I  got  a  telegram  from  Mr.  Bennett  to 
see  his  lawyer  here  and  to  have  him  make  arrangements  for  me  to  go  to  the  front.  I  shall  probably  get  a  pass  for  a 
month  to  start  with.  Mr.  Bennett  wants  me  to  go  to  the  front,  look  it  over  and  tell  what  I  think  ought  to  be  done.  I 
imagine  he  is  trying  to  make  up  his  mind  whether  he  wants  to  spend  all  the  money  it  will  cost  to  keep  me  at  the 
front  right  along.  You  see  automobile  hire  costs  about  $100  or  $150  a  week  alone  and  there  are  other  very  large 
items.  However,  unless  an  air  bomb  gets  me,  I  shall  probably  be  going  far  over  in  France  within  three  or  four  days 
— maybe  sooner — and  you  will  get  a  letter  from  me  where  the  glare  of  the  bombardments  may  be  seen.  It  is  not 
so  terribly  far  away.  The  nearest  point  in  the  battle  line  is  only  60  miles  from  Paris,  but  where  I  shall  go  is  con- 
siderably farther  than  that. 

"Yesterday  I  believe  I  told  you  that  Paris  is  far  more  beautiful  than  all  the  other  cities.  To-night  I  can  empha- 
size that.  Take  the  Rue  Rivoli  for  instance,  Dorothy.  That  runs  along  the  Tuileries  Gardens  for  almost  a  mile. 
The  buildings  are  all  six  stories  high,  are  all  the  same,  and  all  have  marble  colonnades  in  front  of  them.  There  are 
no  high  buildings.  This  hotel,  for  instance,  looks  like  a  ruin  on  the  very  outside  but  it  is  beautiful  just  the  same 
and  inside  it  is  as  fine  as  anything  in  New  York.  I  sent  you  a  post  card  giving  a  picture  of  it.  I  took  an  open  taxi 
this  afternoon,  it  being  warm  and  sunny,  and  drove  all  through  the  Champs  Elysees  and  the  Avenue  Bois  du  Bou- 
logne.   They  are  magnificent.    Everything  seems  to  have  been  built  and  laid  out  with  the  aim  of  pleasing  the  eye. 

"For  dinner  I  went  to  a  place  called  the  Chatham  Grill  and  had  a  splendid  dinner — porterhouse  steak,  fine  fried 
potatoes,  endive  salad  and  a  lot  of  fruit  all  mixed  up.  The  cooks  here  certainly  know  how  to  get  up  things  nicely. 
There  is  no  sugar  or  butter  but  the  French  are  so  clever  one  doesn't  miss  them.  I  have  been  over  pretty  much  of 
the  city  and  can  get  around  all  right  without  a  guide.  I  wish  I  could  speak  French.  Most  of  the  waiters  speak 
Enghsh  and  every  hotel  has  a  clerk  who  can  speak  English.  The  chief  clerk  here  to-day  appeared  with  an  officer's 
uniform.    He  had  been  on  sick  leave  for  five  months  and  to-morrow  starts  again  for  the  front. 

"The  people  are  tired  of  war  just  the  same.  I  don't  blame  them.  One  sees  plenty  of  one  legged  men,  and  women 
in  mourning,  in  Paris. 

"I  must  stop  writing  such  long  letters  to  you  or  you  will  have  to  stay  out  of  school  to  read  them.  I  wish  I  could 
get  a  letter  or  two  myself  but  it  will  be  a  long  time  before  I  receive  one,  I  suppose. 

"Here's  a  hug  and  a  kiss.  Dad." 

Don  Martin  spent  the  next  few  months  in  army  camps  and  the  cities  of  Northern  France 
which  the  Germans  had  not  yet  occupied.  He  visited  Brest,  St.  Nazaire,  Bordeaux  and  then 
the  more  quiet  sectors  of  the  battlefront.  Gradually  he  grew  intimate  with  the  entire  war  program 
and  rapidly  advanced  to  a  position  among  the  foremost  war  correspondents  in  Europe.  His 
articles  in  the  Herald  were  reproduced  in  the  Buffalo  Enquirer  and  were  extremely  interesting, 
picturing  as  they  did  the  fields  into  which  the  American  boys  of  the  regular  army  and  the  vast 
draft  and  national  guard  forces  then  rapidly  assembling  would  soon  be  plunged. 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War  157 


CHAPTER  XLVIII 
GERMANY'S    MARCH    DRIVE    CRUSHES    BRITISH    DEFENSE 

A  MERICAN  soldiers  had  reached  France  in  June,  1917.  The  regulars  and  the  marines,  making 
Za  up  the  First  and  Second  Army  Divisions:  The  42nd  Division,  (Rainbow  Division)  con- 
■*-  -*-  taining  the  165th  N.  Y.  Infantry  in  which  William  J.  Donovan,  formerly  captain  of  Buffalo's 
Troop  I,  was  a  major;  41st  (Sunset)  Division  and  the  26th,  a  New  England  National  Guard  di\i- 
sion,  to  which  Col.  Pooley  was  later  attached,  trained  through  the  Fall  and  Winter  behind  the 
lines  in  France,  gaining  a  knowledge  of  the  newer  warfare  from  the  war  itself.  The  First  Division 
went  into  the  front  line  in  the  Vosges  in  October,  1917,  but  the  Engineers  of  the  26th  Division 
were  the  first  to  take  part  in  action,  being  engaged  with  the  British  at  Cambrai. 

On  March  1st,  General  Pershing  had  four  trained  divisions  ready  to  meet  any  demands  of  battle, 
and  more  rapidly  approaching  that  point  of  training.  It  was  then  contemplated  that  an  American 
sector  would  be  formed  on  the  front  and  that  the  United  States  contingent  would  formally  enter  the 
front  line  under  its  own  flag,  commanded  by  its  own  officers  and  manned  by  its  own  men,  supplied 
by  its  own  trains  and  cared  for  in  its  own  hospital — an  American  sector  in  every  way.  The  realiza- 
tion of  that  condition  was  the  ambition  of  the  American  fighting  men  in  France.  The  four  divi- 
sions then  ready  were  made  up  principally  of  regulars  and  marines,  numbering  among  the  latter 
many  Buffalo  men,  who  a  few  months  before  had  been  at  work  in  some  office,  railroad  yard  or 
factory. 

On  March  21st  Germany  began  her  Spring  drive,  a  move  which  was  anticipated  by  the  French 
and  English  commanders.  They  had  failed  to  anticipate  its  severity,  however,  and  the  German 
forces,  materially  strengthened  because  of  the  impotency  of  Russia,  swept  through  the  territory 
they  had  abandoned  the  previous  year  and  extended  their  lines  at  will  in  Picardy  against  the 
British  forces. 

While  the  Germans  failed  to  break  the  British  line,  the  British  retreat  was  almost  a  rout.  In 
the  face  of  that  offensive,  the  idea  of  an  American  sector  was  abandoned  and  an  agreement  was 
quickly  reached  to  unite  the  Allied  forces  under  a  single  command.  General  Foch  was  chosen 
Commander-in-Chief  of  the  Allied  armies.  General  Pershing  placed  himself  and  the  American 
troops  at  the  disposal  of  General  Foch  on  March  28th.* 

The  first  German  blow  had  been  struck  at  the  English  near  La  Fere  and  was  carried  through 
Picardy  to  Cantigny  and  Montdidier.  Another  wedge  was  driven  into  the  French  between  Soissons 
and  Rheims  on  May  27th.  Up  in  Belgium,  Mt.  Kemmel  had  been  captured,  and  the  Channel 
Ports  threatened.  The  attack  between  Soissons  and  Rheims  was  a  drive  at  Paris,  and  by  May 
30th,  the  French  were  offering  no  serious  hindrance  to  the  progress  of  the  German  mihtary  machine 
though  fighting  valiantly  every  inch  of  the  way.  On  June  1st  the  Paris  drive  had  reached  Chateau 
Thierry,  but  the  main  blow  was  to  be  delivered  east  of  Rheims. 

March  and  April  had  been  thus  taken  up  by  the  Germans  in  a  terrific  assault  on  the  British, 
while  May  saw  the  French  lines  steadily  pushed  back.  General  Haig,  in  command  of  the  British, 
had  advised  his  men  that  they  were  fighting  "with  your  backs  to  the  wall";  and  the  French  on 
the  Marne  were  shouting  again  the  1916  battle  cry  of  Verdun  "They  shall  not  pass." 

Buffalo  draft  boards,  with  the  other  draft  boards  of  the  country,  were  turning  out  men  for  the 
camps  at  that  time  as  rapidly  as  the  Selective  Service  machinery  would  work.  These  embryo 
soldiers  were  hurried  across  the  ocean  just  as  quickly  as  ships  could  be  obtained  to  carry  them 
across.    The  call  from  the  Allies  was  for  men — more  men — and  more  men.    Drafted  men  were 


*0n  March  28,  I  placed  at  the  disposal  of  Marshal  Foch.  who  had  been  agreed  upon  as  Commander-in-Chief  of  the  Allied  Armies,  all  of  our 
forces  to  be  used  as  he  might  decide.  At  his  request  the  first  division  was  transferred  from  the  Toul  sector  to  a  position  in  reserve  at  Chaumont  en 
Vexin.  As  German  superiority  in  numbers  required  prompt  action,  an  agreement  was  reached  at  the  Abbeville  conference  of  the  Allied  premiers 
andlcommanders  and  myself  on  May  2  by  which  British  shipping  was  to  transport  10  American  divisions  to  the  British  Army  area,  where  they 
were  to  be  trained  and  equipped,  and  additional  British  shipping  was  to  be  provided  for  as  many  divisions  as  possible  for  use  elsewhere. 

(From  General  Pershing's  report  to  Secretary  of  War.   Nov.  20,  1918.) 


158  Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 

swarming  into  Europe.  The  National  Guard  regiments,  likewise,  were  hurried  overseas.  The  big 
troop  movement  from  the  United  States  warranted  General  Pershing  in  a  freer  use  of  the  older 
division.  While  the  new  arrivals  would  need  some  preliminary  training,  the  fact  that  reserves 
were  at  hand  gave  the  High  Command  an  opportunity  to  throw  a  greater  number  of  American 
divisions  into  the  front  lines. 

The  call  from  overseas  had  been  met  by  America.  Not  only  were  men  being  supplied,  but  the 
shipyards  were  turning  out  more  ships.  The  industries  were  turning  out  more  supplies.  The 
Liberty  Loan  and  Red  Cross  drives  were  multiplying  our  money  millions  for  war  use. 

The  27th  Division  carrying  the  old  74th,  some  of  them  in  the  108th  Infantry,  some  in  the  55th 
Pioneers,  some  in  the  102nd  Engineers  and  others  in  the  102d  Ammunition  Train;  the  old  65th, 
now  the  106th  Field  Artillery,  and  old  Troop  I,  now  the  102d  Trench  Mortar  Battery,  left  Spartan- 
burg, N.  C,  with  the  June  troop  movement  for  service  on  the  British  front. 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 


159 


CHAPTER    XLIX 
LIGHTLESS,    HEATLESS,    GASLESS    DAYS 

RETURNING  again  to  affairs  at  home;  on  the  6th  day  of  May,  1918,  Elliott  C.  McDougal 
resigned  and  was  succeeded  as  United  States  Fuel  Administrator  for  Erie  County  by  Howard 
A.  Forman. 

Mr.  Forman  brought  to  the  Fuel  Administration,  in  addition  to  a  long  successful  business 
career,  an  expert  knowledge  of  natural  gas  obtained  from  many  years'  practical  experience  in 
the  business.  This  knowledge  was  of  great  value,  as  the  natural  gas  problem  was  an  integral  part 
of  Buffalo's  domestic  fuel  problem.  After  D.  W.  Cooke  succeeded  Mr.  Wiggin  as  State  Adminis- 
trator, he  invited  Mr.  Forman  to  attend  the  weekly  meetings  of  the  Executive  Committee  and 
thereafter  all  natural  gas  questions  were  referred  to  him. 

Mr.  Forman  appointed  T.  W.  Hendrick  his  deputy,  retained  Miss  Kelley  as  office  manager, 
and  moved  the  offices  from  the  Prudential  Building  to  the  gi-ound  floor  of  the  Liberty  Building, 
more  commodious  quarters  being  necessary  to  accommodate  the  public  and  to  provide  for  the 
increase  in  business.  The  work  of  the  entire  county  was  administered  directly  from  this  office, 
with  the  exception  of  the  help  given  by  Local  Deputy  C.  W.  Ellis  of  Lackawanna  and  A.  M. 
Eberhard  of  Tonawanda. 

The  Administration  at  Washington  issued  an  order  on  January  17th,  1918,  calling  for  the 
stoppage  of  work  by  all  industries  except  those  absolutely  essential  to  the  war.  This  was  one  of 
the  most  drastic  orders  issued  in  connection  with  the  military  program  and  was  necessary  because 
of  the  enormously  increased  demand  for  fuel  for  war  making  purposes,  combined  with  the  severest 
winter  beyond  the  recollection  of  the  present  generation.    Blizzard  after  blizzard  blocked  the 


Mess  Time  at  One  of  The  American  Training  Camps 


160 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 


A  Winter  Draft  Contingent 


railways  and  hindered  all  forms  of  outdoor  activities.  There  were  four  hundred  eighty  ships 
loaded  with  supplies  for  our  armies  and  allies  waiting  to  be  bunkered.  Industries  essential  to  the 
war  were  at  the  point  of  closing  and  the  railroad  lines  were  becoming  more  and  more  congested. 
The  order  closed  all  industries  for  five  days,  and  on  each  succeeding  Monday  for  three  Mondays. 
It  accomplished  its  purpose;  within  three  weeks,  four  hundred  eighty  ships  were  on  their  way  to 
Europe  and  there  was  no  further  delay  in  ships  going  to  France  on  account  of  coal  from  that  day. 
It  was  not  thought  wise  to  tell  the  country  generally  of  the  military  i-easons  for  this  order  and 
while  there  was  some  grumbling,  Buffalo  accepted  the  order  and  obeyed  it  loyally. 

The  bituminous  situation  gradually  bettered  itself,  but  the  problem  was  not  entirely  solved 
until  the  following  October.  All  through  the  summer  it  was  necessary  for  Mr.  Forman  to  divert 
coal  from  one  factory  to  another,  to  place  embargoes  on  certain  factories  that  had  a  supply  on 
hand  in  order  that  all  might  be  kept  going.  This  entailed  a  great  deal  of  work,  but  in  the  end 
successfully  solved  the  problem,  so  that  after  October  soft  coal  became  plentiful  and  there  was 
enough  for  all.  By  the  first  of  February  soft  coal  was  so  plentiful  that  the  Administration  at 
Washington  issued  an  order  removing  all  restrictions  as  to  price,  deliveries,  etc.,  as  of  that  date. 

Buffalo's  anthracite  situation  is  a  peculiar  one  for  several  reasons.  First,  because  Buffalo, 
situated  a  short  distance  on  the  main  line  from  the  anthracite  fields,  must  wait  for  her  coal  until 
New  England,  the  lake  shipments,  Canada  and  the  long  hauls  generally  are  taken  care  of.  There 
are  usually  good  shipments  in  April  and  May  but  consumers  who  were  not  supplied  then  had  to 
wait  for  all  or  part  of  their  coal.  After  the  experience  of  the  winter  before  most  people  were  not 
in  the  mood  to  wait.  In  the  spring  Washington  issued  an  order  allowing  domestic  consumers  two- 
thirds  of  their  requirements.  It  became  necessary  later  on  to  limit  the  amount  so  that  domestic 
consumers  could  have  but  four  tons  each,  and  to  prohibit  any  deliveries  to  churches,  apartment 
houses,  hotels,  theaters,  saloons,  etc.,  and  to  prohibit  deliveries  to  people  who  had  previously 
burned  gas  and  were  equipped  to  burn  gas.    In  this  way  all  consumers  were  provided  with  some 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War  161 

coal  by  the  time  when  cold  weather  usually  begins.  The  anthracite  situation  became  most  critical 
during  the  month  of  November.  Buffalo  had  had  some  early  cold  weather  and  a  great  many  people 
were  sick  or  convalescent  from  influenza.  Most  of  the  domestic  sizes  of  anthracite  were  going  up  the 
Lakes.  Buffalo  was  receiving  only  a  meager  amount  and  very  little  of  this  was  suitable  for  domestic 
use.  For  a  period  of  about  thirty  days  it  became  necessary  to  prohibit  dealers  making  any  deliv- 
eries except  on  an  order  of  the  Administration  showing  that  it  was  for  emergency  purposes  and  then 
the  amount  delivered  was  limited  to  one  ton.  Before  issuing  an  emergency  order  a  doctor's  certifi- 
cate or  some  strong  reason  must  be  furnished  the  Administration.  It  is  estimated  that  during  No- 
vember there  were  continually  in  the  fuel  office  from  fifty  to  one  hundred  people  and  that  three  hun- 
dred or  f oui-  hundred  emergency  orders  were  issued  daily.  As  the  weather  continued  mild  all  through 
the  winter  the  restrictions  were  gradually  removed  and  everyone  in  the  end  had  all  the  coal  required. 

For  a  great  many  years  a  good  many  people  have  depended  on  natural  gas  for  heat.  The  gas 
has  been  gradually  failing  and  it  became  apparent  that  some  substitute  must  be  made. 

Again,  the  large  increase  in  Buffalo's  population,  due  primarily  to  the  influx  of  workers  who 
came  here  to  work  in  the  war  factories,  helped  along  the  fuel  shortage. 

New  York  State's  anthracite  allotment  was  increased  twelve  per  cent  over  the  amount  re- 
ceived two  years  before.  Due  to  the  reasons  above  enumerated,  Mr.  Forman  succeeded  in 
obtaining  a  twenty-four  per  cent  increase  in  Buffalo's  allotment.  For  a  severe  winter  this  would 
not  have  been  sufficient  to  take  care  of  everyone,  so  supphes  of  coke  were  shipped  in  and,  in 
addition,  wherever  it  was  possible  small  sizes  of  anthracite  were  mixed  with  the  larger  sizes. 

As  previously  stated,  "lightless  nights"  were  inaugurated  November  15,  1917.  On  April  22, 1918, 
this  order  was  temporarily  suspended.  A  new  order,  effective  July  24,  stipulated  that  the  use  of 
light  produced  by  coal,  gas,  oil  or  other  fuel  for  illuminating  or  displaying  advertisements,  an- 
nouncements or  signs,  or  for  the  external  ornamentation  of  any  building  would  be  discontinued 
entirely  on  Monday,  Tuesday,  Wednesday  and  Thursday  of  each  week.  This  order  was  immedi- 
ately put  into  effect  in  Buffalo  and,  with  one  or  two  exceptions,  was  loyally  carried  out  by  the 
merchants  and  citizens  generally.  The  police  force  under  Chief  Girvin  gave  valuable  aid  and  by 
the  end  of  the  first  week  of  its  trial  Buffalo  was  absolutely  dark.  This  continued  until  November 
11,  when  a  change  was  made  allowing  the  illumination  of  store  windows  during  business  hours. 
On  November  20,  due  to  the  fact  that  the  bituminous  coal  problem  had  been  solved,  an  order 
was  issued  entirely  discontinuing  "lightless  nights." 

On  August  27,  1918,  as  a  war  emergency  measure,  a  request  was  issued  to  the  people  that  the 
use  of  all  motor  propelled  vehicles,  with  certain  limited  exceptions,  be  discontinued  on  Sundays 
until  further  notice.  This  was  found  necessary  because  the  stocks  of  gasoline,  particularly  on  the 
Atlantic  Seaboard,  had  been  depleted  to  such  an  extent  as  to  require  immediate  action  to  protect 
the  supply  in  France.  The  response  to  this  request  in  Buffalo  was  instantaneous,  the  compliance 
almost  unanimous.  Best  estimates  show  Sunday'  motoring  in  Buffalo  to  have  decreased  ninety- 
eight  to  ninety-nine  per  cent.  "Gasless  Sundays"  continued  until  October  20,  when  it  was  esti- 
mated that  a  saving  had  been  effected  of  at  least  one  million  barrels  of  gasoline,  from  which  it 
was  known  that  more  than  five  hundred  thousand  barrels,  or  ten  shiploads,  had  been  sent  over- 
seas.  In  carrying  out  this  request  the  police  force  again  gave  valuable  assistance. 

It  was  known  at  Washington  from  the  very  start  that  the  solution  of  the  world  war  problem 
would  depend  on  the  solution  of  America's  fuel  problem.  Fuel,  the  driving  force  of  the  war,  must 
be  available  in  quantities  sufficient  to  insure  victory.  Without  fuel  the  vast  and  intricate  machinery 
of  war  industries  would  stop.  The  production  of  coal  in  every  other  belligerent  nation  had  de- 
creased from  twenty-five  to  fifty  per  cent  over  the  production  of  pre-war  days.  In  1916  America 
had  produced  a  little  more  than  five  hundred  million  tons  of  soft  coal.  From  April  1,  1918,  to 
April  1,  1919,  it  was  estimated  that  we  must  produce  seven  hundred  thirty-five  million  tons,  of 
which  six  hundred  thirty-five  million  tons  must  come  from  the  bituminous  fields,  notwithstanding 
the  fact  that  thousands  of  miners  from  these  districts  had  joined  the  colors.  The  fact  that  the 
soft  coal  problem  was  solved  by  October,  1918,  shows  the  work  accomplished. 


162 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 


New  74th  Regiment 


During  January  and  February  mild  weather  continued  until  the  anthracite  requirements  were 
all  taken  care  of  and  anthracite  also  became  plentiful.  Washington  therefore  issued  its  final  order 
decreeing  that  all  restrictions  as  to  delivery,  price,  etc.,  of  anthracite  were  removed  as  of  March  1. 
The  Buffalo  office  was  closed  as  of  that  date  and  its  records  shipped  to  Washington.  Its  work 
was  completed  and  there  was  no  legal  problem,  or  unfinished  business  of  any  kind  left  over. 

In  closing  it  is  only  just  to  state  that  the  willing  co-operation,  help  and  advice  given  the  Ad- 
ministration by  the  coal  dealers  of  Buffalo  materially  assisted  in  the  success  the  Administration 
attained.  This  willing  co-operation  could  not  have  been  purchased  at  any  price  nor  enforced  by 
Federal  laws  that  might  have  been  passed,  but  was  a  part  of  the  contribution  of  patriotic  citizens 
to  the  winning  of  the  war. 


I'.UFFALo's  Part  in  the  World  War  163 


CHAPTER  L 
BUFFALO    WOMEN    FACE    THE    HUN 

WHEN  Congress  and  the  American  people  fully  awoke  to  the  fact  that  war  was  here  with  all  its 
exactions  and  sacrifices,  not  the  last  to  realize  the  needs  of  the  hour,  and  among  the  first 
to  respond  to  the  call  for  service,  were  the  women  of  Buffalo  and  Erie  County.  Organiza- 
tions sprang  up  over  night  for  relief  work ;  the  production  of  sweaters,  helmets,  socks  and  gloves 
were  among  the  early  fruits  of  the  patriotic  effort  of  Buffalo  women.  Funds  began  to  grow  for 
the  Belgian,  French  and  Syrian  sufferers  under  the  impetus  of  women.  Church  and  fraternal 
societies  formed  war  working  organizations  from  among  their  women  auxiliaries,  until  every 
locality  had  an  enthusiastic  force  of  women  workers  doing  their  share  toward  winning  the  war. 

To  increase  the  efficiency  of  that  work,  the  Motor  Corp  girls  came  into  the  field,  a  new  move- 
ment, something  in  advance,  an  agency  through  which  the  various  locality  movements  could  be 
brought  into  immediate  and  effective  touch,  one  with  the  other,  and  finally  all,  with  a  great 
central  agency — the  Red  Cross. 

As  men  were  called  away  from  their  diverse  and  several  occupations,  girls  stepped  forward  to 
take  their  places.  Many  cities  employed  women  conductors  on  the  street  cars.  The  elevators  in 
the  office-buildings  and  hotels  were  soon  operated  by  women.  Women  for  a  time  served,  in  Buffalo, 
at  the  task  of  collecting  ashes  and  garbage,  wheeling  the  refuse  from  back  yards  to  the  curb  from 
which  point  men  loaded  it  on  the  wagons.  On  the  farms  women  workers  rapidly  stepped  into  the 
places  theretofore  filled  by  men,  and  the  farm  work  of  the  country  while  supervised  by  men  was 
largely  performed  by  women.  It  was  a  substantial  and  a  difficult  work  women  accomplished  in 
the  production  of  food  and  clothing  and  supplies.  Wherever  commerce  or  industry  showed  the 
need  they  kept  the  wheels  in  motion,  and  they  played  no  small  part  in  the  affairs  of  the  country 
during  the  period  of  the  war. 

When  the  American  troops  went  overseas  the  need  for  American  hospitals  and  American  nurses 
was  apparent,  and  these  the  Red  Cross  sought  to  supply.  The  girls  who  left  Buffalo  and  the 
surrounding  towns  to  serve  as  Red  Cross  and  Army  nurses  rendered  a  faithful  and  valorous 
service  as  the  record  of  the  Red  Cross,  embodied  in  another  chapter,  so  clearly  and  concisely 
shows. 

But  canteens,  also,  had  to  be  established.  The  fighting  man  must  not  be  entirely  cut  off  from 
the  comforts  he  found  at  home;  he  was  not  to  be  left  to  his  own  resources.  In  his  days  of  hard- 
ship and  struggle  and  strife  he  was  to  find  that  the  American  girls  would  cross  the  ocean  with 
him  and  stand  by  his  side  wherever  duty  might  call  them.  On  his  way  to  the  fighting  line,  he 
was  encouraged  by  a  handshake,  a  cup  of  chocolate,  a  smile,  a  cigarette,  and  a  Godspeed  from 
an  American  girl  who,  too,  had  dared  the  Hun,  and  who  was  prepared  to  make  whatever  sacrifice 
need  be  made  in  order  that  all  the  world  might  be  safe  for  Democracy.  On  his  way  back  from 
the  field  of  battle,  wounded,  the  canteen  workers  were  there  to  lessen  his  pain  by  little  acts  of 
kindness  and  consolation  which  only  a  woman  can  give. 

Buffalo  girls  were  not  slow  to  go  overseas  in  that  work.  Among  the  first  to  leave  were  Miss 
Alice  Lord  O'Brian  and  Miss  Anna  P.  Rochester  for  the  American  Red  Cross,  the  last  named 
serving  later  with  the  Smith  College  Red  Cross  Unit;  Miss  Margaret  F.  Rochester,  Y.  M.  C.  A. 
Canteen  Directrice  and  Miss  Doris  Kellogg  who  went  over  with  a  motor  repair  organization 
but  was  transferred  first  to  Mrs.  Vanderbilt's  hospital  in  Paris,  and  later  to  canteen  work  for 
the  Red  Cross.  Other  Buffalo  women  who  gave  their  services  to  the  Government  overseas  under 
the  auspices  of  the  American  Red  Cross  were:  Mary  Bissell,  Helen  Boechat,  Emily  Coit,  Sue 
Churchill,  Orpha  Gerrans,  Mary  F.  Houghton,  Lillian  Mugler,  Clara  Michael,  Edwine  Michael, 
Margaret  Morrison,  Dorothy  Palmer,  Mrs.  Herman  Seelbach,  Dorothea  Park  Lewis,  Katherine 
Park  Lewis,   Mai-jory   F.   Sawyer,   Xenia  Slopey,   Mrs.   Elizabeth   Slopey,   Mildred   Windsor, 


164 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 


Buffalo  Motor  Corps  Girls  at  Drill  and  on  Parade 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War  165 


Mrs.  John  Knox  Freeman,  Dr.  Regina  Flood  Keyes  and  Mrs.  George  W.  Davenport.  Mrs. 
Freeman  was  later  decorated  by  the  Serbian  Government. 

Helen  Crosby  and  Bessie  Vine  went  overseas  under  the  auspices  of  other  organizations  but 
were  transferred  to  the  Red  Cross  after  their  arrival  in  Europe. 

For  the  most  part,  the  girls  who  went  into  foreign  canteen  work  were  young  women  of  wealth 
and  social  position.  In  addition,  they  had  a  great  deal  of  what  we  are  in  the  habit  of  calling 
good  old  American  grit.  No  namby-pamby  girl  would  attempt  it;  a  girl  lacking  in  means  could 
scarcely  afford  the  venture.  Buffalo  produced  its  quota  of  courageous  American  girls  who  were 
willing  to  give  up  the  comforts  of  home  and  loved  ones  and  face  all  the  hardships  and  dangers 
which  field  work  of  that  sort  necessarily  produced. 

During  her  period  of  service  in  France,  Miss  O'Brian  trained  85  girls  in  canteen  work,  and  for 
her  services  throughout  the  period  of  the  war  was  decorated  by  the  French  Government.  She 
had  left  Buffalo  early  in  September,  1917,  and  sailed  from  New  York  on  the  "Espagne"  on  the 
17th,  arriving  at  Bordeaux  on  the  26th  day  of  September.  After  about  a  month  in  Paris,  she 
went  with  five  other  girls,  to  open  a  canteen  at  St.  Germain-des-Fosses.  That  canteen  was  for- 
mally opened  on  the  11th  day  of  November,  1917,  just  a  year  prior  to  the  armistice,  and  was 
the  third  French  canteen  to  be  opened  by  the  American  Red  Cross.  It  was  situated  at  a  large 
railroad  junction  in  the  central  part  of  France,  and,  while  in  its  earlier  days  it  fed  not  more  than 
two  or  three  hundred  soldiers  a  day,  it  gradually  grew  until  the  canteen  was  feeding  upward  of 
2,500  soldiers  daily.  Miss  O'Brian  worked  at  that  canteen  for  the  greater  part  of  her  time  in 
France,  leaving  on  September  12th,  the  date  of  the  St.  Mihiel  offensive,  answering  a  call  for  vol- 
unteer hospital  workers  at  the  front.  While  detailed  with  an  evacuation  hospital  unit  near  Nancy 
she  was  thrown  from  a  truck  and  sustained  a  broken  arm  which  necessitated  her  return  to  Paris 
for  medical  attention.  The  rest  of  her  time  was  spent  in  the  conduct  of  Red  Cross  hotels  in  and 
near  Paris.    She  left  there  on  March  23d,  1919,  for  England,  whence  she  sailed  for  home. 

Anna  P.  Rochester  was  another  Buffalo  girl  who  went  to  France  with  the  first  unit  of  laywomen 
to  be  sent  across  by  the  American  Red  Cross.   She  left  here  in  September,  1917. 

Miss  Rochester  had  a  vast  amount  of  experience  in  Red  Cross  work  prior  to  her  departure. 
Beginning  in  March,  1916,  and  until  June  of  the  same  year,  she  was  an  assistant  director  in  the 
planning  of  work  and  preparation  of  material  for  volunteer  workers  who  were  making  surgical 
dressings  at  the  Buffalo  Chapter  of  the  Red  Cross  work  rooms  in  Main  Street.  From  June  until 
October,  1916,  she  was  engaged  in  the  arduous  task  of  organizing  the  Red  Cross  work  rooms  at 
Lee,  Mass.,  remaining  there  until  the  new  quarters  were  in  efficient  operation. 

Miss  Rochester  returned  to  Buffalo  in  October  of  1916  and  became  Assistant  Director  of  Vol- 
unteer Workers  for  Buffalo  Chapter  A.  R.  C.  and  took  charge  of  the  packing  department  where 
all  the  surgical  dressings,  patients'  clothing  and  hospital  linen  for  the  use  of  Base  Hospital  23  was 
packed  for  shipment.  The  work  rooms  were  situated  first  in  Chippewa  Street  and  later  in 
Delaware  Avenue. 

Along  with  other  Buffalo  girls,  she  had  been  thus  especially  active  in  the  Red  Cross  work  of 
preparation  on  this  side  of  the  ocean  and  when  she  arrived  in  France  in  October,  1917,  she  was 
numbered  among  the  best  equipped  girls  in  overseas  service  and  was  assigned  to  work  in  the 
Railroad  Station  Canteen  at  St.  Germain-des-Fosses  which  was  open  day  and  night  feeding 
French  troops  ("La  Cantine  des  Deux  Drapeaux"). 

In  March,  1918,  Miss  Rochester  was  made  Co-Directrice  of  the  Red  Cross  Rest  Station,  being 
a  canteen,  dormitory  and  infirmary  at  Nantes  on  the  line  of  communication  for  American  troops. 
At  that  station  she,  with  other  girls,  fried  thousands  of  dozens  of  eggs  and  made  hundreds  of  gal- 
lons of  coffee  for  the  soldiers  as  they  passed  back  and  forth  from  the  front  lines. 

In  July  Miss  Rochester  was  attached  to  the  Smith  College  Unit  and  did  emergency  relief  work 
among  the  American  troops.  They  established  a  canteen  at  Beauvois,  back  of  the  Soissons  front, 
and  made  it  a  club  for  English  speaking  soldiers.  The  College  Unit  was  also  organized  into  a 
Visiting  Group,  which  visited  every  American  and  Britisher  in  the  ten  big  French  hospitals  located 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War  167 

at  Beauvois.  These  trips  were  made  every  day  with  a  view  of  encouraging  the  boys  and  rendering 
such  assistance  as  they  could  in  the  way  of  communicating  with  relatives  and  obtaining  any  little 
necessity  of  which  the  boys  stood  in  want.  During  the  month  of  August  they  were  moved  up  to 
Chateau  Thierry  and  there  fed  and  administered  to  all  the  wounded  brought  in  from  the  surround- 
ing territory  to  be  evacuated  by  train.  They  did  considerable  emergency  work,  also,  up  near  the 
hnes  at  Coincy. 

While  stationed  at  Chateau  Thierry  Miss  Rochester  made  four  trips  down  the  Marne  to  Paris 
with  boat  loads  of  wounded  soldiers,  very  many  of  them  coming  at  that  time  from  the  77th  Di\'i- 
sion,  and  among  them  Carl  Johndahl,  Buffalo  soldier  who  was  severely  wounded  on  the  Vesle. 
In  fact,  most  of  the  men  that  Miss  Rochester  took  down  on  boats  to  Paris  were  members  of  the 
77th  Division  who  were  injured  in  the  fighting  at  Bazoches  and  Fismes  on  the  Vesle.  Many 
wounded  men  of  the  28th  Division,  the  Pennsylvania  National  Guard  men,  were  also  carried  down 
on  those  boats. 

During  the  month  of  September  and  up  until  the  Armistice  was  signed  in  November,  the 
Smith  College  Unit,  of  which  Miss  Rochester  was  one  of  the  most  active  members,  was  located 
behind  the  Meuse-Argonne  Drive  and  there  they  did  exceptionally  good  work.  With  one  other 
girl.  Miss  Rochester  established  canteens  for  the  wounded  at  five  evacuation  hospitals  located 
at  Froidos,  Fleury,  Les  Islettes  and  Varennes.  She  was  at  the  last  named  camp  when  the  Armistice 
was  signed.  These  girls  lived  in  tents  from  August  through  November;  in  fact,  until  they  were 
returned  to  the  hospital  work  in  Paris,  preparatory  to  their  return  to  America. 

Miss  Rochester's  aunt,  Margaret  F.  Rochester,  went  abroad  as  a  Y.  M.  C.  A.  Secretary  and 
became  Directrice  of  a  Y.  M.  C.  A.  Canteen  for  convalescent  soldiers  at  Neuilly-sur-Seine. 

Miss  Margaret  Rochester  sailed  for  France,  June  11th,  1918,  and  shortly  after  her  arrival  in 
Paris  opened  the  canteen  at  Neuilly-sur-Seine,  and  thousands  of  men  were  received  there.  For- 
tunately, it  was  possible  to  secure  quarters  in  a  building  opposite  the  large  American  hospital 
known  as  Ambulance  No.  1,  so  the  cripples,  on  their  first  walks,  could  get  over  to  Miss  Rochester's 
canteen  and  enjoy  the  easy  chairs,  books,  papers,  magazines,  writing  materials,  games,  canteen 
supplies,  piano,  victrola  and  other  things  provided  for  their  comfort. 

Here  also  they  enjoyed  Sunday  evening  services,  and  frequently  musical  and  dramatic  enter- 
tainments given  during  the  week.  Miss  Rochester  remained  here  until  May,  1919,  when  the 
hospital  having  been  closed,  there  was  no  further  need  for  this  canteen.  She  was  then  made 
Directrice  of  a  Y.  M.  C.  A.  hut  at  the  American  Military  Prison  installed  in  the  Prison  de  la 
Petite  Roquette  in  Paris.  There  a  large  room  in  the  barracks  she  converted  into  a  recreation 
room  for  the  soldier  guards  and  trusty  prisoners,  who  were  very  appreciative  of  that  home-like 
spot  in  the  midst  of  their  grim  surroundings.  That  canteen  of  which  she  was  in  charge  at  the 
time  this  publication  went  to  press,  was  well  equipped  with  library,  games,  piano,  etc.  Entertain- 
ments for  the  men  still  held  there  were  frequently  given. 

The  work  of  the  Buffalo  canteen  girls  overseas  constitutes  a  most  interesting  chapter  in  the 
history  of  Buffalo  and  Buffalonians  during  the  period  of  the  war.  The  nature  of  that  work  is 
graphically  told  in  the  letters  which  Doris  Kellogg  penned  to  her  mother,  Mrs.  Spencer  Kellogg, 
and  to  other  members  of  her  family  from  the  various  canteens  and  hospitals  in  France  where 
she  served. 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War  169 


CHAPTER   LI 
AMERICAN    ALLIED    EXPOSITION    AND    BAZAAR 

IN  1914,  the  Prince  of  Wales  Patriotic  Refief  Fund,  of  which  Edward  J.  Kingston  was  President, 
had  for  its  object  the  collection  of  funds  for  the  relief  of  English  soldiers  engaged  in  the  war. 
In  January,  1917,  Frank  L.  Talbot,  who  was  one  of  the  managers  of  the  Detroit  Bazaar,  was 
asked  to  come  to  Buffalo  relative  to  holding  a  similar  bazaar  in  Buffalo.  In  February,  1917,  a 
contract  was  made  between  Mr.  Talbot  and  the  members  of  the  above  organization,  and,  to  avoid 
personal  liability,  on  March  14,  1917,  a  corporation  was  formed  known  as  the  Allied  Relief  Com- 
mittee, Inc.  The  incorporators  thereof  were:  Henry  G.  Anderson,  Edward  K.  Kingston,  William 
Atkinson,  Frank  Keller,  Frank  H.  Callan,  and  Alfred  L.  Karrison.  After  said  corporation  was 
formed,  the  individual  men  who  had  made  the  contract  with  said  Frank  L.  Talbot  assigned  said 
contract  to  said  Allied  Relief  Committee,  Inc.,  and  all  the  money  of  said  bazaar  was  handled 
under  that  corporation. 

Norman  A.  MacDonald  of  the  Citizens  Commercial  Trust  Co.  was  made  Treasurer,  and  all 
moneys  were  deposited  to  the  credit  of  said  Allied  Relief  Committee,  Inc.,  in  the  Citizens  Commer- 
cial Trust  Co.  The  entrance  of  the  United  States  in  the  World  War  influenced  the  original  pro- 
moters of  the  bazaar  to  unite  the  peoples  of  various  nationalities  in  Buffalo  to  participate  in  the 
Bazaar.  An  Executive  Committee  was  formed  and  consisted  of  three  members  of  each  nationality, 
with  power  to  select  the  various  committees.  The  title  of  the  Bazaar  selected  was"The  American 
AlHed  Exposition  and  Bazaar."  A.  A.  Landon,  President  of  the  Chamber  of  Commerce,  was  elected 
President,  Roy  Crandall,  Director  of  Publicity,  Maxwell  M.  Nowak,  Chairman  Executive  Com- 
mittee, and  Mrs.  Kenry  Altman  unanimously  appointed  General  Chairman,  Women's  Advisory 
Board.  The  Bazaar  was  most  artistic  and  a  financial  success,  with  booths  representing  the  follow- 
ing peoples:  American,  English,  Scotch,  Welch,  French,  Canadian,  Armenians,  Roumanians,  Poles, 
Syrians,  Isle  of  Man,  Slovak,  Belgians,  Italians,  and,  two  weeks  before  the  Bazaar  opened,  the 
Orpheus  and  the  Irish  joined  the  Exposition.  In  addition,  there  was  a  Blue  Cross  and  Red  Star 
booth  and  the  British  Imperial  forces  in  India  under  the  charge  of  Ruston  Rustomjec.  The 
Red  Cross  and  Orpheus  handed  over  their  funds  to  the  General  Committee.  In  the  short 
space  allotted  this  chapter,  it  would  be  impossible  to  enumerate  all  of  the  interesting  incidents 
and  characteristics  of  the  beautiful  picture  presented  which  greeted  the  eye  on  entering  the 
Broadway  Auditorium.  The  vast  ceiling  represented  an  American  flag  carried  out  in  Red,  White 
and  Blue  electric  lights.  The  perfect  exhibit  of  trenches  and  the  Canadian  War  Exhibit  were  of 
an  educational  nature  and  the  consensus  of  opinion  was  that  the  Bazaar  did  much  to  bring  the 
people  of  this  city  to  a  realization  of  the  fact  that  only  through  unity  could  the  great  task  for 
victory  be  accomplished. 

Polish  night  held  in  the  large  pavilion  was  a  historic  day  for  the  Poles  in  Buffalo,  because  it 
was  the  first  occasion  that  linked  them  with  other  nationalities  united  in  all  projects  of  the  war  pro- 
gram. Some  6,000  Poles,  including  Polish  soldiers,  presented  their  national  colors  and  American 
flags,  to  the  accompaniment  of  the  solemn  Polish  national  air,  to  the  officers  and  invited  guests 
on  the  platform.  Speeches  were  made  by  Maxwell  Nowak,  A.  A.  Landon,  Mrs.  Kenry  Altman,  and 
Rev.  Anthony  Majewski. 

Italian  night  brought  together  thirty-two  Italian  societies,  and  it  was  said  that  5,800  Itahans 
were  present. 

Great  disappointment  was  felt  that  Ex-President  Roosevelt  could  not  open  the  Bazaar. 

English  night  had  as  its  honor  guests  ex-Ambassador  Gerard  and  Mr.  James  Bech,  and  the 
Chaplain  of  the  Royal  Guards. 

French  afternoon  was  made  very  successful  by  the  presence  of  Yvette  Guilbert.  In  apprecia- 
tion of  her  gratuitous  services,  the  French  Committee  gave  her  $1,500  for  the  support  of  150 


170  Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 

little  French  children  Madame  Guilbert  was  personally  caring  for  in  France.   The  "Welsh  Doll," 
representing  Premier  Lloyd  George's  daughter,  proved  a  great  attraction  and  the  $3,000  sent 
by  this  booth  to  the  Lloyd  George  American  Fund  was  acknowledged  in  the  following  letter: 

"This  Committee  can  confidently  state  that  the  money  sent  to  our  Prime  Minister  has  been  of  great  and  contin- 
uous value  in  assisting  the  Welsh  people  in  meeting  the  difficulties  caused  by  the  war.  Has  brought  relief  and 
restored  happiness  and  comfort  to  hundreds  of  homes  throughout  the  length  and  breadth  of  Wales." 

Too  much  praise  cannot  be  given  to  the  promoters  of  the  Irish  Booth  for  their  successful 
efforts  in  raising  and  working  for  the  second  largest  amount  realized  at  the  Fair.  At  enthusi- 
astic meetings  presided  over  by  Judge  Kenefick  at  the  Genesee  Hotel,  inaugurated  their  cam- 
paign. 

The  Soldiers'  Comfort  Booth  supplied  many  soldiers  and  sailors  with  comforts  and  the  war 
exhibit  loaned  by  the  Canadian  Government  was  sent  in  charge  of  Captain  Short,  a  Canadian 
soldier  who  had  lost  both  legs  in  the  early  days  of  the  war. 

May  24th,  Canadian  Special  Day,  had  for  its  principal  speaker  Hon.  R.  B  Bennett  of  Calgary. 

The  American  and  all  other  booths  were  equally  attractive  and  the  proceeds  realized  therefrom, 
$160,000,  attested  to  the  weeks  of  hard  work  preceding  the  Bazaar  and  the  faithful  service  of  the 
men  and  women  throughout  the  ten  days  of  the  exposition. 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 


171 


CHAPTER    LII 
SECOND    RED    CROSS    DRIVE 

THE  second  Red  Cross  War  Fund  drive  took  place  May  18  to  May  27,  1918.  The  quota  for 
Buffalo  was  $1,500,000  and  the  result  was  so  successful  that  this  quota  was  over  subscribed 
several  days  before  the  end  of  the  time  allotted. 
Preparations  for  this  drive,  under  leadership  of  Robert  W.  Pomeroy,  were  commenced  several 
weeks  before  the  actual  day  of  opening.  Splendid  publicity  was  given  by  the  newspapers  and 
the  work  of  carrying  on  this  big  undertaking  was  organized  down  to  the  minutest  detail.  Mr. 
Pomeroy  had  as  his  associates  representative  men  and  women  of  the  city  of  Buffalo  whose 
energy,  perseverance  and  tact  made  the  great  success  of  this  drive.  The  vice-presidents  were: 
Nisbet  Grammer,  Morris  Tremaine  and  Henry  P.  Werner.  Members  of  the  Advisory  Committee 
were: 

J.  W.  CovvpER,  Chairman  J.  C.  Dann  E.  B.  Holmes 

E.  J.  BARCALO  J.  H.  McNULTY  P.  J.  KUHN 

Richard  L.  Ball  J.  F.  Schoellkopf,  Jr.  H.  F.  Russell 

C.  L.  Couch  R.  H.  Thompson  J.  N.  Mandeville 

WOMEN'S   COMMITTEE 
Mrs.  R.  H.  Thompson,  Chairman 


Team  Captain 

NO.  1 — Mrs.  F.  B.  Baird 

NO.  2 — Mrs.  L.  E.  Bartlett 

NO.  3 — Mrs.  E.  H.  Butler 

NO.  4 — Mrs.  S.  M.  Clement 

NO.  5 — Mrs.  .Jacob  Dold 

NO.  6 — Mrs.  A.  J.  Elias 

NO.  7 — Mrs.  H.  A.  Forman 


Team  Captain  Team 

No.    8— Mrs.  C.  L.  Gurney  No.  14 — Mrs. 

No.    9— Mrs.  Clark  L.  Ingham  No.  15 — Mrs. 

No.  10— Mrs.  John  Larkin,  Jr.  No.  16 — Mrs. 

No.  11— Mrs.  W.  A.  Morgan  No.  17 — Mrs. 

No.  12— Mrs.  F.  S.  McGraw  No.  18— Mrs. 

No.  13 — Mrs.  Wm.  P.  Northrup  No.  19 — Mrs. 


Captain 

Theo.  W.  Pomeroy 
H.  T.  Ramsdell 

F.  S.  SiDWAY 

Arnold  Watson 
C.  R.  Wyckoff 
Harry  Yates 


A  Living  Red  Cross  of  Buffalo  School  Girls 


172 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 


J.  W.  COWPER 

F.  B.  Baird 

Team  Captain 

No.  1 — Perry  E.  Wurst 

No.  2 — W.  H.  Kennedy 

No.  3 — Wm.  Lansill 

No.  4 — Dr.  Chas.  R.  Borzilleri 

No.  5 — Chas.  R.  Robinson 

No.  6 — James  L.  Crane 

No.     7 — C.  L.  GURNEY 

No.    8— John  W.  Schoen 
No.    9 — Dudley  M.  Irwin 
No.  10 — Philip  J.  Wickser 
No.  11— F.  W.  FiSKE,  Jr. 
No.  12 — Wm.  a.  Douglas 
No.  13— R.  L.  Wood 
No.  14 — Dr.  C.  H.  Andrews 
No.  15 — Wm.  R.  Huntley 


majors 

C.  H.  McCullough 
F.  C.  Kantrowitz 

Team  Captain 

No.  16 — Max  Lubelski 
No.  17 — Dr.  E.  L.  Volgenau 
No.  18 — J.  E.  Mueller 
No.  19 — John  K.  Walker 
No.  20— H.  T.  Burns 
No.  21 — Dr.  Earl  P.  Lothrop 
No.  22— P.  G.  Lapey 
No.  23 — R.  J.  Seidenberg 
No.  24 — Roland  Crangle 
No.  25— J.  F.  Murray 
No.  26 — John  T.  Leader 
No.  27 — I.  M.  Mosher 
No.  28 — Ansley  Sawy'ER 
No.  29— P.  S.  Millspaugh 


W.  H.  Andrews 
Frank  Winch 

Team  Captain 

No.  30 — Henry  May 

No.  31— J.  W.  Van  Allen 

No.  32 — John  J.  Poland 

No.  33— Robt.  K.  Root 

No.  34— S.  J.  Tucker 

No.  35 — C.  W.  Underwood 

No.  36— E.  F.  A.  Kurtz 

No.  37 — Martin  L.  Kratz 

No.  38— W.  H.  Gratwick 

No.  39— W.  H.  Joyce 

No.  40— Frank  W.  Tracy 

No.  41— D.  J.  Sweeney 

No.  42— Geo.  E.  Smith 

No.  43 — H.  Ernest  Montgomery 


ERIE  county- 
Major, 


Branch 
Akron     ,    . 
Alden 
Amherst 
Angola   .... 
Arcade   .... 
Athol  Springs 
Blasdell 
Boston 

Bowmansville 
Chaffee 
Clarence 
Clarence  Center 
Colden   . 
Collins   . 
Collins  Center 
Cowlesville    , 
Crittenden 
Depew    . 
Derby     . 
East  Amherst 
East  Aurora 
Eden 
Elma  . 
Farnham 
Gowanda 
Grand  Island     . 
Griffins  Mills 
Hamburg 
Holland      .    . 


Captam 

Victor  Boyd 

J.  L.  Miller 

Arthur  Suor 

Rev.  Father  Keavin 

J.  S.  Smith 

G.  Rupert  Lesch 

George  W.  Jack 

Henry  W.  Baker 

Bert  Longmate 

C.  W.  Hillman 

Mrs.  a.  O.  Hahl 

Ansley  Zurbrick 

Rev.  William  T.  Dunstan 

G.  P.  Harris 

Rev.  Chas.  Carpenter 

George  W^illard 

R.  I.  Dickinson 

Elwin  B.  Rowley 

Stuart  R.  Mann 

George  Muegel 

Fay  H.  Ball 

Mrs.  John  C.  Hubbell 

Elon  Clark 

Thomas  G.  Walker 

William  Krebs 

Anna  De  Glopper 

W.  H.  Smith 

Frederick  Eaton 

Fred  H.  Ellsworth 


OUTSIDE    OF   BUFFALO 
Edna  Stainton 

Branch  Captain 

Iroquois Mrs.  J.  Emory  Fischer 

Java Frank  Walker 

Java  Center  .  Rev.  E.  J.  McCaffrey 

Java  Village Miss  Mary  Sheehe 

Kenmore E.  E.  Niday 

Lackawanna      Dr.  E.  M.  Tracy 

Lancaster C.  K.  Porter 

Lawtons CD.  TiCE 

Marilla Mrs.  Fremont  Brown 


Millgrove 
North  Collins 
North  Evans 
Orchard  Park 
Porterville 
Sardinia  .  . 
Sloan  .    . 

South  Wales 
Springville 
Strykersville 
Tonawanda 
Town  Line 
Versailles 
Wales     ,    .    . 
Wales  Center 
West  Falls     , 
West  Seneca 
Williamsville 
Williston 


Otto  H.  Wende 

David  Nelson 

W.  J.  Critoph 

T.  E.  Morgan 

Mrs.  C.  C.  Adams 

Cory  Casey 

Mrs.  John  Carr 

George  Oelheiser 

Harry  S.  Gray 

H.  O.  Johnson 

Le  Grand  De  Graff 

Charles  F.  King 

Mrs.  Nellie  R.  Johnson 

P.  G.  Havens 

Dr.  Wooster 

Dr.  p.  a.  McCrae 

Mrs.  M.  W.  Pleister 

G.  L.  Helfter 

Miss  My^ers 


On  Thursday,  May  16th,  a  get-together  dinner  of  the  committees  was  held  at  the  Lafayette 
Hotel.  General  Chairman  Robert  W.  Pomeroy  presided,  and  the  speakers  were  L.  P.  Shumway 
of  Washington,  D.  C,  Lieutenant  Bruce  H.  Richardson  of  Winnipeg,  Canada,  and  Major  D.  M. 
Mathieson.  The  dinner  was  most  successful  and  the  speakers  were  enthusiastically  received  and 
many  large  subscriptions  were  taken  in  that  evening.  Chairman  Pomeroy  announced  the  fol- 
lowing heads  of  special  committees: 

Publicity,  Finley  H.  Greene;  Speakers,  Edward  H.  Letchworth;  Lighting  and  Cards,  James  N.  Mandeville; 
Transportation,  Dai  H.  Lewis,  and  Mrs.  Harry  A.  Spaulding;    Women's  Committee,  Mrs.  Richard  H.  Thompson; 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War  173 

House  to  House  Canvass,  William  G.  Moncrieff;  Industrial,  H.  P.  Parrock:  Schools  and  City  Employees,  Frank  B. 
Baird;  Special  Subscriptions,  Harry  T.  Ramsdell;  Booths,  Proctor  Carr;  Supplies,  John  H.  Beckley;  Dinners  and 
Luncheons,  Richard  L.  Ball;  Parades,  Gen.  Samuel  M.  Welch  and  Seymour  P.  White;  Features,  A.  B.  Wright,  and 
Accounting,  Clifford  Hubbell. 

On  Friday  evening.  May  17th,  a  mass  meeting  was  held  at  the  Elmwood  Music  Hall.  Presiding 
at  this  meeting  was  Supreme  Court  Justice  Herbert  P.  Bissell.  A  stirring  speech  was  made  by 
Norman  Somerville  of  Toronto,  one  of  the  most  eloquent  orators  in  the  Dominion  of  Canada. 
During  the  week  a  Flying  Squadron,  under  the  direction  of  Dai  H.  Lewis,  Secretary  of  the  Auto- 
mobile Club,  conducted  an  automobile  canvass  in  the  country  towns  in  Erie  County.  Many 
well-known  men  took  part  in  this  out-of-town  drive.  Justice  Bissell,  who  took  a  most  effective 
part  in  this  work,  died  early  in  the  year  1919. 

On  Saturday,  May  18th,  a  great  demonstration  and  parade  was  held  to  give  the  drive  a  splendid 
start.  General  Samuel  M.  Welch  was  Grand  Marshal  of  the  Parade  and  the  following  organi- 
zations took  part: 

Grand  Marshal  and  his  aides;  U.  S.  A.  Sanitary  troops,  Lieutenant  Colonel  Thomas  D.  Woodson;  Polish  Legion, 
in  command  of  Lieutenant  Albryct;  British  and  Canadian  recruiting  detachment,  Lieutenant  W.  Mayne  Lynton; 
Fourth  Brigade,  State  Guard,  Brigadier  General  Louis  L.  Babcock;  Home  Defense  Corps,  Colonel  H.  I.  Sackett; 
G.  A.  R.  Veterans;  Spanish  War  Veterans;  Buffalo  Chapter  American  Red  Cross;  Mothers  of  Men  in  service; 
National  League  for  Women's  Service;  Buffalo  Community  Chorus;  Boy  Scouts;  Women's  Benefit  Association  of 
the  Maccabees;  The  Equestrian  Club;  Detail  from  the  Buffalo  Fire  Department;  Polish  Union  of  America  and 
Pohsh  Falcons;  Italian  societies;  Children  from  public,  parochial,  private  and  high  schools;  Newsboys;  High 
School  Cadet  Corps. 

In  the  morning  at  Lafayette  Square  the  Red  Cross  flag  was  raised  to  fly  throughout  the  cam- 
paign, the  exercises  being  under  the  direction  of  A.  B.  Wright.  Mayor  George  S.  Buck  spoke  pre- 
senting the  flag  to  the  Campaign  Committee  and  General  Chairman  Robert  W.  Pomeroy  made 
the  speech  of  acceptance. 

Probably  no  demonstration  ever  moved  Buffalo  more  than  the  marching  of  the  twenty  thousand 
men,  women  and  children  in  this  wonderful  Red  Cross  parade  of  May  18,  1918.  There  were  many 
special  features  in  the  parade,  notably  a  living  Red  Cross  composed  of  six  hundred  girls;  this 
was  probably  the  most  beautiful  and  striking  feature  of  the  parade.  The  girls  in  the  center  form- 
ing the  cross  were  dressed  in  red  and  those  surrounding  them  as  a  square  were  in  white,  making 
a  truly  marvelous  effect.  A  representation  of  Joan  of  Arc,  numerous  floats  representing  the 
salient  features  of  the  Red  Cross  work,  were  followed  by  the  most  impressive  thing  of  the  whole 
pageant,  the  marching  of  the  mothers  of  the  boys  who  were  then  in  service.  To  see  these  splendid 
women  taken  from  every  class  of  the  city  marching  with  set  determined  faces,  most  of  them  carry- 
ing flags  with  one  star,  but  many  having  two,  three  and  some  as  many  as  five  stars,  and  one,  Mrs. 
Herman  Doascher,  with  six  stars,  in  the  flag  they  so  proudly  bore,  was  probably  the  most  deeply 
impressive  feature  of  this  mighty  host. 

The  next  most  stirring  unit  in  the  parade  were  the  hundreds  of  women  dressed  in  the  simple 
Red  Cross  costume.  These  women  represented  the  actual  workers  in  Buffalo  who  had  been  giv- 
ing their  time  and  labor  to  produce  Buffalo's  quota  of  bandages,  surgical  dressings  and  other 
necessary  Red  Cross  requirements. 

The  first  real  day  of  the  drive  was  Monday  May  21st,  and  nearly  a  quarter  of  a  million 
was  raised  on  that  day.  This  was  a  splendid  get-away,  and  from  day  to  day,  with  deter- 
mination that  the  million  and  a  half  dollars  would  be  more  than  subscribed,  the  workers 
with  unceasing  labor  and  effort  gained,  until  May  23d,  the  million  mark  was  in  sight 
and  was  passed  the  next  day  and  a  total  of  $1,179,000  was  reached.  On  May  26th,  a  new 
goal  of  $2,-500,000  was  put  forth  and  at  the  end  of  the  drive  it  was  found  that  this  amount 
was  practically  achieved. 

The  most  satisfactory  feature  of  this  drive  was  the  fact  that  the  money  was  contributed  by 
people  of  all  classes.  When  it  is  considered  that  a  large  percentage  came  from  the  indus- 
trial plants  that  were  organized  under  the  direction  of  H.  P.  Parrock,  it  will  be  readily  seen 


174  Buffalo  s  Part  in  the  World  War 

that  this  Red  Cross  drive  appealed  to  the  working  man  as  well  as  to  the  business  man  and 
capitalist. 

During  the  week  of  the  drive,  daily  luncheons  were  held  at  the  Ellicott  Club  and  great  enthusi- 
asm was  manifest.  Nothing  ever  stirred  Buffalo  so  deeply  as  this  drive  for  although  the  Liberty 
Loans  were  all  over  subscribed,  the  money  given  was  for  purchasing  U.  S.  Government  Bonds, 
while  the  money  given  here  was  contributed  to  the  Greatest  Mother  in  the  World. 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War  175 


CHAPTER   LIII 
"CAN    THEY    GET    TO    CALAIS?" 

DORIS  Kellogg,  canteen  worker,  left  Buffalo  in  March,  1918,  and  sailed  for  France  late  that 
month  aboard  the  "Rochambeau."  She  was  accompanied  by  two  or  three  American  girls 
from  other  cities.  Her  days  in  Paris  waiting  for  a  canteen  assignment  grew  dreary  as 
the  red  tape  was  unwound ;  her  original  designation  had  been  for  motor  repair  work,  but  the 
call  in  France  was  for  service  in  the  hospitals  and  canteens,  and  for  either  of  these  tasks,  the 
Buffalo  girl  tendered  her  services. 

Writing  from  Paris,  under  date  of  May  19th,  1918,  Miss  Kellogg  told  the  interesting  story  of 
her  work: 

"Still  in  Paris  but  with  a  real  job  at  last.  We  are  to  go  to  a  Red  Cross  canteen  in  the  French  War  Zone,  to  work 
with  the  French  soldiers.  I  think  I  had  better  not  mention  the  name  for  fear  of  the  censor,  but  I'll  just  say  that 
we  will  be  right  in  the  thick  of  things  and  in  one  of  the  most  beautiful  spots  of  France — forests  full  of  wild  flowers 
and  /raises  du  hois  and  a  beautiful  old  historic  chateau  to  revel  in.  We  are  only  waiting  for  our  papers  which  allow 
us  to  go  into  the  War  Zone. 

"Now  we  are  working  in  the  casualty  department,  Red  Cross  Headquarters,  4  Place  de  la  Concorde.  It  is  inter- 
esting, but  gruesome,  too.  We  file  the  inquiries  of  people  who  are  trying  to  locate  or  have  some  news  of  men  in  the 
Army.  All  day  yesterday  I  made  out  records  of  men  'Killed  in  action' —  'May  10th:  Died  of  wounds  received  in 
action' — 'May  10th:  Died  of  gas  poisoning,'  etc.  And  then  we  read  letters  from  parents  begging  for  help  in  finding 
their  boy,  and  so  on.   It  makes  one  realize  something  of  the  suffering  going  on  in  America  now. 

"This  morning  Al  and  I  went  to  high  mass  at  Notre  Dame.  It  was  a  magnificent  service  with  a  Cardinal  who 
swept  down  the  center  aisle,  attended  by  gorgeously-gowned  priests  and  choir  boys.  As  he  passed  along,  the  congre- 
gation kissed  a  wonderful  sapphire  ring  which  he  wore.  Then  there  was  special  music,  with  the  most  beautiful  boy 
soprano  I've  ever  heard.  The  organ  fairly  shook  the  walls  and  ceiling  with  its  music  which  seemed  to  pour  from 
every  inch  of  the  cathedral.  It  was  thrilling.  But  one  did  miss  the  great  stained-glass  windows,  which  have  been 
removed  for  fear  of  air  raids. 

"We  had  dinner  the  other  night  with  Mr.  Bobbett  of  St.  Paul.  He  has  taken  the  most  adorable  apartment  imagi- 
nable near  the  Faubourg  St.  Germain,  up  on  the  top  floor  of  a  beautiful  old  building  and  right  under  the  eaves.  It 
belongs  to  an  artist  and  is  furnished  with  rare  and  lovely  antiques.  After  dinner  we  had  scarcely  seated  ourselves 
in  the  library  than  a  far-off  wail  of  the  siren  was  heard.  Heavens!  another  beastly  air  raid.  It  takes  no  time  for 
the  Alert  to  resound  throughout  Paris,  and  we  rushed  to  the  windows  to  watch  the  fire  engines,  which  carry  the 
sirens,  go  by.  This  attack  proved  to  be  more  or  less  of  a  fizzle,  as  the  Gothas  couldn't  get  through  the  barrage,  so 
after  about  an  hour  the  Paris  church  bells  sounded  'Berlot' — all  clear — and  we  'beat  it'  for  home  through  the  pitch 
black  streets.    Paris  is  more  romantic  than  ever  in  these  war  times. 

"We  are  all  waiting  breathlessly  for  the  great  German  drive.  When  will  it  come,  how  far  will  they  push  on,  if  at 
all?  Can  they  get  to  Calais?  Will  they  take  Amiens?  Must  Paris,  too,  be  taken?  You  can  imagine  the  tension.  That 
is  one  of  the  things  that  impresses  me  as  being  so  diff'erent  here  from  at  home — the  tension  before  a  drive.  We  all 
get  ready  for  it,  wonder  about  it,  talk  about  it,  and  everyone  seems  to  become  grave  and  determined  and  grim.  You 
see  Paris  is  a  much  more  serious  place  than  ever  before.  All  the  frivolous  people  have  left,  nine  hundred  thousand 
of  them,  they  say,  and  those  who  have  remained  mean  business." 


"Paris,  France,  May  22,  1918. 

"It  is  very  interesting  in  the  casualty  department.  We  file  records  of  prisoners  of  war,  wounded,  killed,  etc.,  and 
the  insight  we  get  into  the  hearts  of  the  soldiers  and  their  loved  and  loving  ones  '  back  home '  is  an  experience  to 
have  had.  It  is  about  like  having  an  office  job  in  Washington,  I  imagine,  only,  of  course,  so  much  more  interesting. 
My  stars,  but  I  was  dead  tired  after  work  to-night!  It  is  so  hot  and  all,  but  the  satisfied  sense  of  having  put  in  a 
long  hard  day  of  helpful  work  is  more  than  enough  to  compensate. 

"As  I  sit  here  in  my  open  window  this  evening,  I  hear  the  familiar  buzz  of  the  'Defense  of  Paris'  aeroplanes  over 
my  head.  They  are  the  most  picturesque  objects  up  there  in  the  sky.  Sometimes  I  imagine  them  huge  birds,  but  at 
other  times  they  seem  like  great  ships  sailing  in  the  blue.  After  it  gets  dark,  we  see  the  funny,  clumsy  'Saucisse' 
balloons  which  are  sent  up  with  cables  attached  to  entrap  enemy  planes  during  the  air  raids. 

"How  fast  and  thick  our  boys  are  coming  over!  Everyone  I  see  who  has  just  arrived  brings  tales  of  ships  full  of 
Sammies  being  poured  into  France.  You  know  that  now  we  are  part  of  the  American  Army  and  subject  to  military 
law  and  orders.   Are  with  the  American  Expeditionary  Forces.   It  is  great!" 


176 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 


Buffalo  Mothers  March  in  Honor  of  Their  Boys  Who  Were  Fighting  "Over  There" 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War  177 

"Paris,  May  23. 
"Last  night  there  was  another  attempted  air  raid  on  Paris  by  the  Germans,  but  I  guess  they  didn't  get  past  the 
barrage.  However,  it  was  mighty  exciting  and  about  the  noisiest  one  we  have  had  since  I've  been  here.  Al  and  I 
were  having  a  little  supper  of  cheese  and  confiture  before  retiring,  when  we  half  heard,  half  sensed,  way  off  in  the 
distance,  the  siren.  Could  anything  be  more  irritating?  We  were  awfully  sore  and  bored.  So  we  calmly  went  on  with 
our  cheese  and  the  sirens  went  on  swelling.  All  would  have  been  very  pleasant  had  not  the  lights  suddenly  been 
turned  off  so  that  there  was  nothing  for  us  to  do  but  put  on  coats,  take  our  searchlight  and  step  over  to  the  open 
window  to  enjoy  the  'doings  and  fireworks.'  Out  boomed  the  defense  guns,  up  in  the  sky  shells  burst  like  rockets, 
and  faint  white  streaks  from  the  searchlight  swept  through  the  night.  As  our  eyes  became  accustomed  to  the  dark 
we  picked  out  two  huge  'Saucisse'  waiting  and  watching,  and  then  after  a  bit  the  purring  of  our  own  planes  way 
over  head.  It  is  really  a  wonderful  thing,  these  night  thrills.  After  a  bit  the  guns  quite  near  us  began  bursting  forth, 
and  we  thought  it  was  time  to  descend  to  the  first  floor.  But  you  know  it  is  awfully  strange,  how  calm  and  tranquil 
one  can  feel  in  the  midst  of  these  raids,  and,  finally,  you  get  so  bored,  and  what's  more,  sleepy  beyond  control — 
and  you  say  to  your  friends,  'Well,  I  have  a  feeling  that  they  won't  get  over  to-night,  and  I  for  one  am  going  to 
retire.  You  might  rather  be  killed  by  a  bomb  from  a  Gotha  than  to  die  of  a  cold  or  ennui.'  So  we  decide  to  quit 
the  cave,  stumble  back  to  our  pitch  black  rooms  and  I  rolled  into  bed.  But  Al  stands  firmly  in  the  window,  a  little 
forlornly  to  be  sure,  and  says  to  me  a  bit  peevishly: 

"  'I  don't  see  how  you  can  go  to  bed  now,  when  all  this  excitement  is  going  on,  I'm  awfully  thrilled.' 
"Well,  thrilled  or  no — just  as  I  am  dropping  off  to  sleep,  and  as  the  guns  are  booming  their  loudest,  I  vaguely 
hear  Al  fall  heavily  into  her  bed  and  no  doubt  she  is  asleep  before  she  really  touches  the  mattress." 


"Paris,  May  3L 
"We  eagerly  follow  the  German  drive,  and  everyone  thinks  and  talks  of  nothing  else.  Yesterday  'le  canon'  was 
much  in  evidence,  and  last  night  we  had  an  air  raid  which  we  watched  from  our  window.  All  this  is  very  war-like. 
But  today  we  had  a  glimpse  of  the  real  thing.  Al  and  I  went  out  to  the  American  Ambulance  at  Neuilly  to  see  Mrs. 
Vanderbilt  (W.  K.i  and  asked  her  if  she  wouldn't  give  us  some  temporary  work  out  there  until  our  papers  came.  She 
is  the  head  of  that  marvelous  hospital  as  well  as  our  canteen  boss  and  is  a  wonder.  She  took  Al  and  me  all  through 
the  building,  which  is  enormous — 1,200  beds — and  we  were  weak-kneed  at  the  suffering  of  all  those  poor  boys.  The 
hospital  is  jammed  full  with  beds  in  all  the  halls  and  corridors,  but  I  saw  the  most  pathetic  sight  of  all  on  one  stair- 
case and  landing,  where  a  crowd  of  boys  in  dirty  and  torn  khaki  were  sitting  and  lying,  just  off  the  ambulances  and 
waiting  for  the  nurses  and  doctors  to  attend  to  them.    Their  eyes  were  the  saddest  thing  to  see. 

"And  tomorrow  we  are  to  report  out  there  early  to  do  any  kind  of  work  we  are  asked  to — give  drinks  to  the  boys, 
cheer  them  up,  make  beds,  etc." 

(The  girls  followed  the  drive  by  the  increase  in  the  wounded  coming  to  the  hospitals  and  by 
the  refugees.  Each  day  found  both  wounded  and  refugees  coming  from  localities  nearer  to 
Paris — Editor.) 


178 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 


m.it 


^^.■rS--.:^^^^* 


Showing  the  Destruction  by  the  Germans  at  Peronne  in  Picardy 


College  destroyed  by  Germans 


St.  John's  Church  a  wreck 


Ruins  of  a  residential  section 


The  Palace  on  the  morning  after 


Grand  Place  after  shower  of  shells 


In  the  business  quarter 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War  179 

CHAPTER   LIV 
BUFFALO    DRAFT    MEN    OF    78th    DIVISION    IN    FRANCE 

BUFFALO  and  Erie  County  men  were  scattered  through  virtually  every  army  division  and 
eveiy  military  unit  which  left  America  for  overseas  service,  and  every  American  training 
camp  held  its  quota  of  Buffalo  men.  Buffalo's  national  guardsmen,  for  the  most  part,  were 
members  of  the  27th  Division.  The  balance  were  in  the  55th  Pioneer  Infantry  to  be  used  for 
replacement  purposes. 

All  units  of  the  Army  and  of  the  Navy,  whether  in  American  camps  or  overseas  service,  found 
plenty  to  do,  but  there  fell  to  the  National  Army  men  from  New  York  State  and  from  Buffalo 
and  Erie  County  a  terrifically  arduous  task  in  the  Argonne. 

A  comparatively  large  number  of  Buffalo  Selective  Service  men  had  gone  overseas  with  the 
77th  Division  in  April.  Another,  and  perhaps  larger,  contingent  followed  in  the  latter  part  of  May. 
This  second  detachment  was  assigned  to  the  78th  Division,  Buffalo  men  being  particularly  numer- 
ous in  the  309th  and  311th  Infantry;  the  307th,  308th,  309th  Artillery;  303d  Trench  Mortar 
Battery  and  303d  Engineers  of  that  Division. 

The  artillery,  apart  from  its  officers,  was  made  up  entirely  of  Selective  Service  men,  a  very 
large  number  of  whom  were  from  the  vicinity  of  Buffalo  and  Rochester.  They  comprised  the 
153d  Field  Artillery  Brigade,  and  were  organized  at  Camp  Dix,  along  with  the  other  units  of  the 
78th  Division.  The  infantry  organization  was  completed  during  the  winter  of  1917-1918,  but 
the  artillery  was  formed  in  a  hurry  at  the  last  minute.  The  Division  left  Camp  Dix  May  27th, 
nearly  two  months  after  the  77th  had  sailed.  The  78th  sailed  from  New  York,  aboard  the  Cedric, 
and  were  on  the  sea  at  the  time  the  Marines  stopped  the  Germans  near  Chateau  Thierry. 

Of  course,  the  artillery  recruits  had  to  have  some  training  before  they  were  sent  across.  It 
was  said  of  them  that  they  were  so  raw  when  they  reported  for  duty  that  most  of  them,  if  ordered 
to  open  the  gun  breech  would  have  removed  the  muzzle  cover. 

The  78th  Division,  followed  the  ocean-going  course  of  other  American  divisions,  and  was  as- 
signed to  a  training  camp  for  instructions  behind  the  lines.  The  situation  was  tense  when  they 
arrived,  and  the  demand  of  General  Foch  for  more  men  was  still  pressing.  The  French  and 
British,  along  their  two  great  fronts  had  taken  new  heart  as  the  news  of  the  achievement  of  the 
Marines  flashed  along  the  lines.  They  were  still  weary,  however,  after  four  years,  of  struggle  and 
hardship,  and  needed  encouragement  just  at  that  period  to  hold  them  to  their  task. 

The  artillery  of  the  78th  Division  was  sent  to  Camp  de  Meucon  to  learn  the  eccentricities  of 
the  French  Seventy-five.  Most  of  them  had  their  first  look  at  that  sort  of  a  gun  in  the  park  at 
Meucon.  Their  training  period  lasted  six  weeks,  but  they  did  not  then  join  the  rest  of  their 
Division;  instead,  they  were  sent  to  the  Toul  sector,  a  quiet  sector  for  front  line  training.  The 
Nineteenth  Division  infantry  took  its  place  in  that  sector  August  23d,  and  the  TSth's  artillery 
was  sent  into  support. 

The  Nineteenth  was  made  up  of  guardsmen  from  Oklahoma  and  Texas,  where  they  grow  strong 
and  tall,  but  neither  the  infantry  nor  the  artillery  had  been  under  fire  before  and  both  "had 
their  wind  up,"  as  the  Britishers  would  say,  on  their  first  night  in  the  line;  the  heavens  over  No 
Man's  Land  looked  like  a  Paine's  fireworks  celebration  to  the  Nineteenth  as  the  flare  from  the  veri- 
lights  took  on  a  pyrotechnic  aspect.  Resting  the  chin  strap  of  their  tin  derbies  on  the  front  line  was 
a  new  experience.  They  knew  they  had  veteran  Huns  in  front  of  them  and  green  artillerymen  be- 
hind them,  and  their  officers  say  it  was  difficult  to  state  offhand  of  which  they  stood  in  greater  fear. 

For  upward  of  two  weeks,  first  in  support  of  the  Nineteenth  Division  and  then  the  Ninetieth 
Division,  the  78th's  artillery  kept  its  post.  The  Germans  did  most  of  the  shooting,  for  the  am- 
munition of  the  Allies  was  being  moved  up  quietly  for  the  St.  Mihiel  offensive.  The  artillery's 
nose  was  kept  on  the  front  line  until  Pershing  was  ready  to  move. 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 


181 


0 


CHAPTER   LV 

IN   MRS.  VANDERBILT'S   PARIS   HOSPITAL   WITH   DORIS   KELLOGG 

N  June  1st  Miss  Kellogg  went  to  the  Vanderbilt  Hospital  in  Paris.  Her  letters  tell  the  story 
of  the  work  performed  by  American  girls  in  that  splendid  institution,  and  it  is  interestingly 
told: 

"My  first  day  in  a  hospital  has  been  an  event.  We  arrived  at  the  American  Ambulance  at  about  9  A.  M.,  and  were 
put  right  to  work.  I  spent  all  morning  making  innumerable  beds,  hundreds  which  had  just  been  evacuated  and 
were  to  be  ready  for  the  rush  of  wounded  who  are  pouring  in  every  day.  I  almost  keeled  over  when  I  assisted  at 
the  dressing  of  a  boy's  arm  which  was  too  horrible  to  describe.  I  had  to  hold  the  arm,  which  after  a  few  minutes 
became  so  heavy  that  I  felt  like  screaming,  and  every  time  I  moved  it  in  the  least,  the  poor  boy  would  screw  up 
in  agony.  The  whole  elbow  joint  was  exposed  and  gangrene  had  set  in  so  that  the  odor  was  frightful.  Poor  little  kid! 
He  is  only  nineteen.  He  was  as  plucky  as  could  be,  but  anxious,  and  asked  the  doctor  if  he  thought  he  would  be 
good  for  active  duty  again — the  doctor  said  no.    He  has  a  bad  wound  in  the  abdomen  too. 

"As  I  left  the  hospital  at  about  seven  this  evening,  I  asked  one  of  the  ambulance  drivers  if  there  were  any  more 
wounded  coming  in  to-night  and  he  said  that  they  had  just  had  word  that  there  are  two  thousand  up  at  La  Chapelle 
now.    That  means  to-morrow  many  more  new  faces. 

"As  for  the  'offensive,'  the  Germans  still  press  in  toward  Paris,  and  every  night  we  are  wakened  by  the  sirens  and 
barrage  against  the  enemy  planes.  But  I  care  not  a  whoop  for  anything  now  but  to  help  make  those  poor  Sammies 
more  comfortable. 

"You  see  Neuilly  is  used  as  the  evacuation  hospital  for  our  men  coming  from  the  Front,  and  after  they  have  been 
fixed  up  there  they  are  sent  South.   So  every  day  we  clear  out  some  and  fill  in  with  fresh  wounded." 


"Paris,  .June  3. 
' '  Our  hospital  is  like  a  great  surging  sea,  with  every  day  a  new  wave  of  wounded  boys  coming  in  and  the  ones  not 
too  ill  moving  out.   I  call  them  'The  Heroes  of  Cantigny.'   It  is  so  queer  to  go  into  the  wards  each  morning  and  see 
new  faces  looking  up  into  yours,  mostly  always  still  dirty  and  bloody. 


Members  of  Smith  College  Canteen  Unit     Miss  Rochester  of  I: 


ii'st  (it  I'rar  trio. 


182  Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 

"We  have  a  British  'Tommy'  who  is  suffering  agonies,  and  to-day  I  helped  move  him  from  his  bed  onto  the  stretcher 
to  be  taken  up  to  the  operating  room.  He  screamed  like  a  wild  thing  and  kept  looking  up  into  my  face  so  pleadingly. 
I  kept  stroking  his  forehead  and  talking  to  him,  and  then  went  with  him  through  the  corridors  and  up  in  the  lift. 
I  told  the  two  French  stretcher  bearers  that  if  they  would  be  extra  careful,  I'd  give  them  each  two  cigarettes,  and  I 
tell  you  they  simply  crawled.  And  then  when  the  kid  came  down  again  (he  is  only  a  kid,  19  years  old  yesterday) 
I  gave  him  some  sweet  chocolate.   He  ate  it  and  then  looked  up  and  said  in  his  weak  hoarse  way:   'Noice.' 

"What,'  says  I. 

"Again,  'Noice,  Noice.'  But  this  time  I  thought  he  must  be  dying  and  had  just  strength  enough  left  to  call  to 
me  'Nurse.'   So  leaning  way  down  close  to  him  I  said: 

"What  do  you  want,  son?' 

" '  Oi  say  hit's  noice.'   The  chocolate  was  nice. 

"I'm  helping  out  in  three  large  wards  as  nurse's  aide,  taking  temperatures,  pulses,  cleaning  the  rooms,  making 
beds  and  helping  feed  the  men." 

"P.ARIS,  June  4. 

"Can  it  be  true!  The  Allies  have  taken  10,000  prisoners  to-day  at  Chateau  Thierry.  It  is  too  wonderful  and  we 
hardly  know  what  to  do  to  let  off  the  exuberance  bubbling  up  inside  us.   It  came  as  such  a  surprise. 

"You  see  we  had  had  a  long  day  at  the  hospital,  and  when  we  were  putting  on  our  coats  in  the  dressing  room, 
some  white-haired  lady  proceeded  to  unburden  the  most  disheartening  tales  she  had  just  heard  from  someone  that 
we  were  evacuating  as  many  of  our  wounded  as  we  possibly  could,  that  we  were  getting  no  new  ones,  and  that  the 
Huns  were  coming  right  along  to  Paris.  Well,  we  were  too  sick.  All  those  hundreds  of  wounded  men  upstairs  and 
still  we  had  not  been  able  to  hold  the  Germans!  We  came  on  into  Paris,  and  this  was  the  first  thing  that  greeted  us: 

'"10,000  German  Prisoners  Taken  To-day  at  Chateau  Thierry!' 

"As  I  say,  we  almost  exploded,  and  to  celebrate,  six  of  us  marched  over  to  Weber's  on  Rue  Royal  to  have  a  peach 
melba  for  dessert.   Now  what  will  the  morning  paper  have  to  say,  and  what  if  it  weren't  so  after  all?" 

"Paris,  June  6. 

"Still  the  war  goes  on  and  every  day  more  wounded  pour  into  the  hospital.  Just  as  I  left  to-night  the  ambulances 
were  lined  up  waiting  to  unload  their  'blesses.'  It  is  a  horribly  pitiful  sight  to  see  the  men  when  they  first  come  in, 
dirty,  bloody,  and  so  tired  and  shaken  up  from  their  long  ride  in  ambulance  train  or  auto. 

"Behold  a  grand  transformation  after  one  night  with  us!  A  good  night's  rest,  then  the  next  morning  wounds 
dressed,  a  warm  bath  and  shave  and  dose  of  insect  powder  and  they  look  and  feel  like  princes.  It  is  the  most 
heartening  thing  in  the  world  to  see  them  brace  up  like  that." 


"Paris,  June  8. 

"What  a  day!  All  day  long,  from  8  o'clock  this  morning  till  8.30  to-night,  I've  washed,  fed  and  'aided'  the  gallant 
Marines  who  poured  into  the  hospital  like  hail  and  still  were  pouring  when  I  left.  The  corridors  were  lined  with 
wounded  on  cots  and  stretchers,  the  verandas  with  blanket-wrapped,  bandaged  boys,  the  stairways  blocked  with 
khaki-clad,  steel  helmeted  Sammies.  The  Marines  have  put  up  some  marvelous  fight!  Now  we  are  putting  up  tents 
on  the  roof  verandas  to  shelter  more  of  them.  Plucky  kids!  I  love  them  all.  The  dressings  were  terribly  trying, 
particularly  as  the  nurses  had  to  do  them  because  all  the  doctors  were  operating. 

They  are  coming  in  now  with  arms  and  legs  off.  but  don't  let  me  harrow  you  too  much,  for  after  all  the  hospital 
is  really  quite  heavenly  to  the  men — clean,  good  food  and  Beds.  And  surgical  cases  are  not  like  medical  cases,  seldom 
fevers  or  vomiting,  just  dressings  and  pain  which  grows  less  every  day.  I  took  jam  to  my  boys  to-day  and  am  going 
to  take  butter  to-morrow.  I  shall  never  be  able  to  thank  my  stars  enough  for  having  been  able  to  get  over  here  just 
when  I  did  and  for  the  way  things  have  turned  out.  If  you  could  half  realize  what  it  means  to  these  Sammies  to 
have  American  girls  here  to  comfort  and  cheer  them,  you  would  be  building  special  ships  to  send  more  and  more 
overseas.    Being  here  is  a  privilege  for  which  I  shall  never  cease  to  be  grateful. 

"And  to-day  Mrs.  Vanderbilt  broke  the  news  that  our  papers  are  here  for  Chantilly  and  we  must  leave  Monday. 
She  says  she  hates  to  have  us  go  but  the  need  for  canteen  workers  is  tremendous  and  it  seems  best  to  send  us  out. 
I  weep  to  leave  the  hospital,  but  I  know  I  shall  love  the  canteen  work  too.   To-morrow  is  our  last  day." 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War  183 

CHAPTER   LVI 
BUFFALO   MARINES   IN   BATTLE   OF   BELLEAU  WOOD 

Germany's  purpose  in  the  March  offensive,  was  to  divide  the  French  from  the  British  forces. 
-  The  May  and  June  drives  were  aimed  at  Paris  and  were  designed,  by  capture  of  the  French 
capital,  to  crush  the  French  spirit.  The  push  toward  Paris  began  on  May  27th.  Rapidly 
and  steadily,  with  gi-eat  loss  to  the  French,  the  German  line  moved  toward  the  River  Marne. 
The  American  Third  Division,  fresh  from  trench  training,  was  hurried  to  the  Marne  to  help  out 
the  French,  while  the  First  Division  remained  in  the  Montdidier  Sector.  A  number  of  drafted 
men  from  Buffalo  were  in  the  Third  Division.  Another,  Leo  Dombrowski,  a  Polish  boy  of  230 
Townsend  Street,  won  distinction  for  Buffalo  and  for  himself  by  gallant  conduct  at  that  time 
and  in  later  engagements ;  in  fact,  many  Buffalo  boys  distinguished  themselves  in  that  campaign. 
Dombrowski,  drafted  in  Buffalo  on  November  22,  1917,  went  with  others  to  Camp  Dix,  N.  J., 
and  later  to  Camp  Greene,  N.  C,  where  he  was  assigned  to  Company  H,  7th  Infantry,  U.  S. 
Regulars,  a  part  of  the  Third  Division.  The  Division  left  Camp  Merritt  for  overseas  early  in 
April,  arrived  in  Brest  on  the  16th,  and  went  immediately  into  trench  training. 

When  the  German  Marne  offensive  was  ripping  the  French  lines  wide  open,  Dombrowski  and 
his  Buffalo  "bunkies"  found  themselves  on  their  way  to  the  Marne  front  south  of  Chateau 
Thierry  to  participate  with  their  division  in  the  first  conspicuous  American  effort  in  France. 

Here  was  an  instance  of  a  youngster,  unknown  to  war,  taken  from  his  work  bench  and,  in  the 
short  space  of  six  months  placed  against  the  trained  soldiers  of  Germany  in  a  telling  battle  of 
the  greatest  war  of  all  history. 

The  motorized  machine  gun  battalion  of  the  Third  Division  reached  the  bridgehead  at  the 
Marne  on  June  1st,  opposite  Chateau  Thierry,  and  successfully  held  it  against  the  German  forces. 
It  was  the  first  check  the  enemy  experienced  in  his  Spring  push  toward  the  wonder  city  of  France. 
These  men  had  travelled  fast  to  i-each  the  Marne  bridgehead  before  the  Germans.  When  they 
got  there  the  withdrawing  French  told  them  they  would  be  compelled  to  retreat.  "Retreat  Hell," 
they  replied,  "We've  just  arrived." 

The  Second  Division — made  up  of  the  Third  Brigade,  9th  Infantry,  23d  Infantry  and  Fifth 
Machine  Gun  Battalion;  Fourth  Brigade,  Fifth  Marines,  Sixth  Marines  and  Sixth  Machine  Gun 
Battalion;  the  Second  Artillery  Brigade — 12th,  15th  and  17th  Field  Artillery  and  the  Fourth 
Machine  Gun  Battalion;  also,  the  Second  Regiment  of  Engineers  and  the  1st  Field  Signal  Battal- 
ion— was  in  a  training  area  when  the  Marne  offensive  began.  This  Division  included,  many 
Buffalo  and  Erie  County*  men,  among  them  Lester  Bergman,  18th  Co.,  5th  Regiment,  U.  S. 
Marines.  Private  Bergman  was  wounded  five  times  and  spent  five  months  in  a  hospital  in  France. 
He  won  the  Croix  de  Guerre  and  was  cited  for  the  Distinguished  Service  Cross  for  the  work  he 
did  while  on  patrol  one  night  when  his  three  companions  in  the  patrol  were  killed  and  he  managed 
to  escape  after  having  been  rather  seriously  wounded.  It  was  the  original  intention  of  the 
High  Command  to  have  the  Second  Division  take  up  a  position  with  the  First  Division  at  Mont- 
didier as  soon  as  its  training  was  complete.  Both  Divisions  were  to  be  held  in  reserve  to  check 
any  further  drive  toward  the  Channel  Ports.  The  Second  Division  had  been  training  at  Chaumont- 
en-Vixen,  but  by  orders  of  the  French  High  Command,  to  which  General  Pershing  had  turned 
over  the  American  forces,  the  Second  was  directed,  on  May  29th,  to  march  to  the  Beauvais  area 


*  Three  Buffalo  boys,  privates  in  the  Marine  Corps,  Frank  J.  Barcsylsowski,  Lester  Bergman,  and  George  M.  Ebel,  Jr.,  played  a  prominent 
part  in  the  Battle  in  Belleau  Wood  in  France  recently,  having  a  hand  in  the  capture  of  a  Maxim  gun,  23  machine  guns  and  170  Huns.  The  Maxim 
will  be  sent  to  the  United  States  and  will  find  a  permanent  place  at  Marine  Headquarters  in  Washington.  Along  with  it  will  come  two  of  the 
heavy  German  "minenwerfers"  which  will  be  presented  to  the  United  States  Military  and  Naval  Academies  at  West  Point  and  Annapolis,  respec- 
tively. On  this  occasion.  23  German  machine  guns  were  also  captured.  All  these  were  later  turned  up  on  the  front  line  by  the  Americans  and 
fired  at  the  enemy,  many  of  whom  thus  fell  victims  to  their  own  weapons.  Barcsyiiowski  and  Bergman  have  been  cited  for  bravery.  Barcsykowski 
and  three  others  took  a  Hun  machine  gun  after  wiping  out  its  crew  through  sniping.  Bergman  was  one  of  a  party  of  ten  who  captured  the  Ger- 
mans who  were  making  a  flank  attack  on  the  trench  occupied  by  the  Americans.  Both  of  these  young  men  enlisted  in  Buffalo  in  April,  1917, 
and  after  training  in  this  countr.v  went  across  the  sea  together.  Barcsykowski's  home  is  at  18  Klaus  Street,  that  of  Bergman  176  West  Delavan 
Avenue  and  Ebel  is  the  son  of  Mrs.  Margaret  Ebel,  who  lives  at  408  Bristol  Street.— From  the  New  York  Herald. 


I 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War  185 

about  one  day's  trip  north.  That  movement  was  scheduled  to  begin  at  6  o'clock  on  the  morn- 
ing of  May  31st.  Billeting  parties  had  been  sent  ahead  to  provide  quarters,  and  the  Division 
was  fully  prepared  to  move  at  the  appointed  hour. 

In  the  meantime  the  news  of  the  German  offensive  of  May  27th  was  flying  around  the  world. 
Military  forces  had  received  the  information  that  the  Germans  had  smashed  through  the  French 
line  between  Soissons  and  Rheims  and  were  advancing  rapidly  on  Paris.  The  American  First 
Division  had  broken  the  continuity  of  German  successes  by  capturing  Cantigny*  in  a  local  combat, 
but  the  German  drive  had  met  no  insuperable  obstacle. 

About  5  o'clock  on  the  evening  of  May  30th,  a  French  staff  officer  appeared  withdrawing 
orders  for  the  movement  to  Beauvais.  He  delivered  a  new  order  directing  the  infantry  to  be 
ready  at  5  o'clock  the  following  morning  to  proceed  to  the  neighborhood  of  Meaux  on  the  Chateau 
Thierry  front.  The  trip  was  one  of  about  70  miles  from  Chaumont-en- Vixen  and  was  to  be  taken 
in  motor  trucks.  The  trucks  of  the  supply  and  ammunition  trains  followed  the  infantry.  The 
other  units  were  directed  to  proceed  by  train  as  rapidly  as  transportation  could  be  provided. 
Meaux  is  located  on  the  Paris  road  about  20  miles  east  of  Paris.  When  the  infantry  arrived, 
the  city  was  in  a  state  of  great  excitement.  The  streets  were  filled  with  refugees.  Marines  said 
every  living  thing  they  saw  was  going  in  the  opposite  direction  as  they  moved  up  to  the  front. f 
Refugees  hunying  with  their  worldly  goods  along  the  road  stopped,  knelt  and  prayed  as  the 
American  soldiers  passed  them.  Old  men  and  old  women  and  children  loaded  down  with  bundles, 
some  carrying  the  sick,  and  all  haggard  and  worn  and  pitiful,  trudged  on  down  the  road  as  rapidly 
as  their  feeble  legs  could  carry  them.  A  number  of  the  Buffalo  marines,  after  their  return,  said 
the  sight  of  those  oppressed  people  gave  them  a  determination  to  stop  the  Germans  at  all  hazard. 

When  General  Bundy,  commanding  the  2d  Division  arrived  at  Meaux  he  was  directed  to  take 
up  a  position  between  Gandelu  and  Montigny  northwest  of  Chateau  Thierry.  At  that  time 
General  Bundy  had  no  information  as  to  the  location  of  the  French  or  the  Germans,  possibly 
because  the  line  was  changing  so  rapidly.  The  French  High  Command  had  no  definite  knowledge 
itself. 

On  June  1st  General  Bundy  left  his  temporary  headquarters,  at  Montreuil  in  the  Gandelu 
area,  and  went  to  meet  General  Degoutte  commanding  the  French  21st  Army  Corps.  They  met 
a  short  distance  west  of  Chateau  Thierry.  General  Degoutte's  corps  had  fought  against  superior 
numbers  for  five  days,  and  had  conducted  an  orderly  retreat  saving  most  of  their  artillery  and 
transports.  At  the  time  of  the  conference  between  the  American  and  the  French  Commanders, 
it  was  explained  to  Bundy  that  the  Germans  had  taken  Chateau  Thierry  and  Hill  204.  Don 
Martin,  the  former  Buffalo  newspaper  man,  was  in  Chateau  Thierry  the  day  the  Germans  entered. 

Although  General  Degoutte  had  made  no  mention  of  the  fact,  it  appears,  that  the  Germans 
had  also  taken  Vaux  and  were  in  full  command  of  the  Paris  Road.  Their  first  line  ran  through 
Vaux  and  along  a  railroad  to  Bouresches,  thence  through  the  Belleau  Wood  to  Chezy,  passing 
through  Torcy.  The  American  brigades  of  the  Second  Division  established  their  brigade  head- 
quarters on  the  east  and  west  side  of  the  Paris  Road  a  few  miles  west  of  Vaux.  Some  of  the  trains 


*  On  April  26th  the  First  Division  had  gone  into  the  line  in  the  Montdidier  salient  on  the  Picardy  battle  front.  Tactics  had  been  suddenly 
revolutionized  to  those  of  open  warfare,  and  our  men,  confident  of  the  results  of  their  training,  were  eager  for  the  test.  On  the  morning  of  May 
28th.  this  division  attacked  the  commanding  German  position  in  its  front,  taking  with  splendid  dash  the  town  of  Cantigny  and  all  other  objec- 
tives, which  were  organized  and  held  steadfastly  against  vicious  counter  attacks  and  galling  artillery  fire.  Although  local,  this  brilliant  action 
had  an  electrical  effect,  as  it  demonstrated  our  fighting  qualities  under  extreme  battle  conditions,  and  also  that  the  enemy's  troops  were  not  alto- 
gether invincible. — From  General  Pershing's  Report. 

On  .\pril  20th,  the  26th  Division  had  successfully  attacked  the  Germans  at  Seicheprey.  The  attack  occurred  during  the  26th's  period  of  train- 
ing, and  was  considered  by  many  officers  as  the  most  important  of  the  local  combats  in  which  the  Americans  had  taken  part  up  to  that  time. 

— Editor. 

T  It  was  on  the  evening  of  May  30th,  after  a  day  dedicated  to  the  memory  of  their  comrades  who  had  fallen  in  the  training  days  and  in  the 
Verdun  sector,  that  the  Fifth  and  Sixth  Regiments  and  the  Sixth  Machine  Gun  Battalion,  United  States  Marines,  each  received  the  following 
orders: 

.\dvance  information,  official,  received,  that  this  regiment  will  move  at  10  P.  M.,  30th  May,  by  bus  to  new  area.  All  trains  shall  be  loaded  at 
once  and  arrangements  hastened.  Wagons,  when  loaded,  will  move  to  Serans  to  form  train. 

.\11  through  the  night  there  was  feveristi  activity  among  the  Marines.  Then,  the  next  morning,  the  long  trains  of  camions,  buses,  and  trucks, 
each  carrying  its  full  complement  of  United  States  Marines,  went  forward  on  a  road  which  at  one  place  wound  within  less  than  ten  miles  of  Paris, 
toward  Meaux  and  the  fighting  line. 

Through  the  town  of  Meaux  went  the  long  line  of  camions  and  to  the  village  of  Montreuil-aux-Lions,  less  than  four  miles  from  the  rapidly  ad- 
vancing German  line.  Refugees,  old  men  and  women,  small  children,  riding  on  every  conceivable  conveyance,  many  trudging  along  the  side  of 
the  road  driving  a  cow  or  calf  before  them,  all  of  them  covered  with  the  white  dust  which  the  camion  caravan  was  whirling  up  as  it  rolled  along: 
along  that  road  only  one  organization  was  advancing,  the  IJnited  States  Marines- — Secretary  Daniels'  Report,  December  1,  I91S. 


186 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 


German  Entrenchments  on  Battlefield  North  of  Soissons 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War  187 

which  were  to  bring  a  part  of  the  Division  were  cancelled,  and  the  units  assigned  to  those  trains 
started  on  a  forced  march  of  70  miles;  among  the  marchers  were  most  of  the  machine  gun  units, 
and  motor  trucks  were  later  sent  to  hurry  them  in. 

The  spirit  of  the  French  was  revived  when  they  heard  that  the  Americans  "in  large  numbers" 
had  entered  the  line.  A  gap  in  the  front  between  Gandelu  and  Montigny  held  by  the  French 
Seventh  Corps  was  filled  by  the  23d  Infantry  and  a  battalion  of  Marines  under  Colonel  Paul  B. 
Malone.  A  part  of  the  Third  Division  went  into  the  line  south  of  the  Marne  near  Chateau  Thierry. 
When  the  oncoming  Prussians  struck  this  new  formation  the  entire  American  front  held.*  The 
German  drive  was  stayed. 

The  Germans,  from  Hill  204  which  they  occupied,  had  a  splendid  view  of  the  American  forces 
and  positions.  They  also  had  control  of  the  air,  and,  in  general,  every  advantage  of  location. 
While  the  Germans  had  been  checked,  the  American  situation  was  not  an  enviable  one. 

Having  successfully  held,  the  Americans  quickly  decided  that  the  time  had  arrived  for  their 
offensive,  and  on  June  6th,  the  Marines  began  the  attack  on  Belleau  Wood  and  Bouresches. 
This  move  was  made  in  conjunction  with  the  164th  French  Division  on  the  left.  Belleau  Wood 
is  about  a  mile  and  a  half  in  length  from  north  to  south  with  an  average  width  of  less  than  one 
mile.  It  was  covered  at  that  time  with  a  thick  undergrowth.  The  Germans  had  not  been  un- 
mindful of  its  advantages  for  concealing  machine  guns  and  infantry  and  they  had  occupied  it 
with  both,  together  with  some  trench  mortar  batteries.  The  woods  had  the  protection  of  the 
German  artillery,  and  were  a  menace  to  the  American  position,  for,  if  driven  off  the  Paris  Road, 
the  American  line  of  supplies  would  be  wiped  out  and  the  troops  forced  to  fight  with  their  backs 
to  the  Marne. 

The  Marines  went  into  Belleau  Woodf  at  5  P.  M.  on  June  6th,  and  when  night  fell  they  had 
taken  Bouresches  and  a  goodly  portion  of  the  woods.  Their  losses  were  heavy,  but  they  held 
their  position  in  the  face  of  fierce  counter-attacks.  It  had  been  difficult  for  the  Germans  to  believe 
that  their  advance  had  been  stopped ;  now  it  was  bitterly  aggravating  to  them  to  find  themselves 
being  pushed  back  and  they  fought  desperately.   Their  morale  was  at  high  pitch  then. 

James  Doyle,  a  Buffalo  Marine,  a  former  street  car  conductor,  who  was  in  the  Marine  regiment 
that  met  the  Germans  in  the  wheat  field,  himself  wounded  in  Belleau  Wood,  said  on  his  return: 
"They  were  the  sorest  mob  of  Prussians  I  ever  saw  when  they  were  forced  to  go  back.  We  had 
hung  them  on  the  wires  by  the  hundreds  for  they  came  at  us  the  first  time  in  massed  formation." 

Private  Turner,  connected  with  the  Buffalo  Marine  Recruiting  Station,  fought  through  Belleau 
Wood.  He  left  here  some  days  before  the  declaration  of  war  for  Quantico,  Virginia,  a  marine 
training  station.  Most  of  the  Marines  who  left  Buffalo  prior  to  and  at  that  time,  as  well  as  those 
who  left  subsequently,  were  sent  to  Paris  Island  for  preliminary  training;  they  were  then  trans- 
ferred to  Quantico,  and  from  the  latter  place  to  France.  Among  the  Marines  the  trip  was  called 
a  "hop,  step  and  a  jump."  The  hop  was  to  Paris  Island,  the  step  to  Quantico  and  the  jump  to 
France. 


*  On  the  evening  of  June  2d  the  first  fieldmessage  from  the  Fourth  Brigade  to  Major  General  Omar  Bundy,  Commanding  the  Second  Division, 
went  forward: 

Second  Battalion,  Sixth  Marines,  in  line  from  Le  Thiolet  through  Clarembauts  Woods  to  Triangle  to  Lucy.  Instructed  to  hold  line.  First 
Battalion,  Sixth  Marines,  going  into  line  from  Lucy  through  Hill  142.  Third  Battalion  in  support  at  La  Voie  du  Chatel,  which  is  also  the  post 
command  of  the  Sixth  Marines.    Sixth  Machine-gun  battalion  distributed  at  line. 

Meanwhile  the  Fifth  Regiment  was  moving  into  line,  machine  guns  were  advancing,  and  the  artillery  taking  its  position.  That  night  the  men 
and  officers  of  the  Marines  slept  in  the  open,  many  of  them  in  a  field  that  was  green  with  unharvested  wheat,  awaiting  the  time  when  they  should 
be  summoned  to  battle. 

The  advance  of  the  Germans  was  across  a  wheat  field,  driving  at  Hill  165  and  advancing  in  smooth  columns.  The  United  States  Marines, 
trained  to  keen  observation  upon  the  rifle  range,  nearly  every  one  of  them  wearing  a  marksman's  medal  or  better,  that  of  the  sharpshooter  or 
expert  rifleman,  did  not  wait  for  those  gray-clad  hordes  to  advance  nearer.  Calmly  they  set  their  sights  and  aimed  with  the  same  precision  that 
they  had  shown  upon  the  rifle  ranges  at  Paris  Island,  Mare  Island  and  Quantico.  Incessantly  their  rifles  cracked,  and  with  their  fire  came  the 
support  of  the  artillery.  The  machine-gun  fire,  incessant  also,  began  to  make  its  inroads  upon  the  advancing  forces.  Closer  and  closer  the  shrapnel 
burst  to  its  targets.  Caught  in  a  seething  wave  of  machine-gun  fire,  of  scattering  shrapnel,  of  accurate  rifle  fire,  the  Germans  found  themselves 
in  a  position  in  which  further  advance  could  only  mean  absolute  suicide.  The  lines  hesitated.  They  stopped.  They  broke  for  cover,  while  the 
Marines  raked  the  woods  and  ravines  in  which  they  had  taken  refuge  with  machine  gun  and  rifle  to  prevent  them  making  another  attempt  to 
advance  by  infiltrating  through.  Above,  a  French  airplane  was  checking  up  on  the  artillery  fire.  Surprised  by  the  fact  that  men  should  deliber- 
ately set  their  sights,  adjust  their  range,  and  then  fire  deliberately  at  an  advancing  foe,  each  man  picking  his  target,  instead  of  firing  merely  in 
the  direction  of  the  enemy,  the  aviator  signaled  below  "Bravo!" — Secrtlary  Daniels'  Report,  December  1,  191S. 

t  In  theblack  recesses  of  Belleau  Wood  the  Germans  had  established  nest  after  nest  of  machine  guns.  There  in  the  jungle  of  matted  under- 
brush, of  vines,  of  heavy  foliage,  they  had  placed  themselves  in  positions  they  believed  impregnable.  And  this  meant  that  unless  they  could  be 
routed,  unless  they  could  be  thrown  back,  the  breaking  of  the  attack  of  June  2d  would  mean  nothing.  There  would  come  another  drive  and 
another.    The  battle  of  Chateau  Thierry  was,  therefore,  not  won  and  could  not  be  won  until  Belleau  Wood  had  been  cleared  of  the  enemy. 

It  was  June  6th  that  the  attack  of  the  American  troops  began  against  that  wood  and  its  adjacent  surroundings,  with  the  wood  itself  and  the 

iContinued  on  page  1S9) 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War  189 

The  Fifth  and  Sixth  Marine  Regiments  left  America  June  13,  1917  on  the  *' Henderson/'  and 
arrived  at  St.  Nazaire,  France,  on  June  26.  On  April  20,  1918  some  of  the  Marines,  among 
them  Turner,  were  injui^d  with  shrapnel  at  Verdun,  but  most  of  them  had  returned  to  the  line 
by  May  30,  when  the  trip  from  Chaumont-en-Vixen  to  Meaux  was  started.  His  battalion  arrived 
in  position  at  Chateau  Thierry  on  June  5,  and  on  the  following  day  was  in  the  thick  of  the 
fight  in  the  fields  and  ploughed  ground  adjacent  to  Belleau  Wood. 

The  Marines  lost  hundreds  of  their  men  in  Belleau  Wood.  The  machine  gun  nests  and  the  high 
explosive  shells,  the  gas  and  the  shrapnel  took  a  mighty  toll.  But  the  Marines  hung  on,  and  on 
June  11th  they  tore  in  again.  In  their  second  assault  they  took  another  portion  of  the  Wood, 
but  it  was  not  all  theirs  as  yet.  Fritz  rushed  in  fresh  troops,  and  subjected  the  Americans  to  a 
terrific  shell  fire  of  gas  and  shrapnel.  On  the  13th  the  Germans  launched  a  counter-attack.  But 
the  Marines,  their  lines  thin  but  unshakable,  held  fast,  relied  on  their  bayonets,  and  beat  off  the 
onslaught  with  the  cold  steel. 

It  so  happened  that  the  7th  Infantry,  a  part  of  the  Third  Division,  was  in  I'eserve  behind  the 
Marines  on  June  13th  when  the  depleted  ranks  successfully  withstood  the  German  counter-stroke. 
General  Bundy  made  application  for  the  use  of  the  7th  Infantry  for  six  days.  The  request  was 
granted,  and  the  7th  Regiment  of  the  Third  Division  took  the  place  of  two  battalions  of  Marines. 
The  Marine  Battalions,  reduced  one-half  in  numbers,  were  withdrawn  to  billets  on  the  Marne 
for  replacements  and  a  rest. 

General  Bundy  in  his  report  says:  *'The  presence  of  the  7th  Infantry  was  of  great  value.  The 
battalion  south  of  Torcy  advanced  its  position  to  within  a  short  distance  of  the  village,  thus 
straightening  out  a  re-entrant  that  existed  in  our  lines  at  that  point.  The  other  two  battalions 
fought  gallantly,  but  unsuccessfully,  to  gain  the  northern  edge  of  Belleau  Wood.  They  encoun- 
tered the  same  opposition  that  had  held  the  Marines,  and  when  they  were  relieved  at  the  end  of 
six  days  the  northern  part  of  the  woods  was  still  in  possession  of  the  Germans.'' 

It  is  interesting  to  note  that  Corporal  Dombrowski,  the  drafted  Buff'alo  boy,  was  a  member 
of  the  7th  Infantry  and  thus  took  part  in  the  battle  of  Belleau  Wood.  In  a  letter  to  friends,  he 
said: 


towns  i>f  Torcy  and  Bouresches  forming  the  objectives.    At  5  o'clock  the  attack  came,  and  there  began  the  tremendous  sacrifices  which  the  Marine 
Corps  gladly  suffered  that  the  German  fighters  might  be  thrown  back. 

In  Belleau  Wood  the  fighting  had  been  literally  from  tree  to  tree,  stronghold  to  stronghold.  Belleau  Wood  was  a  jungle,  its  every  rocky  forma- 
tion forming  a  German  machine-gun  nest,  almost  impossible  to  reach  by  artillery  or  grenade  tire.  There  was  only  one  way  to  wipe  out  these 
nests — by  the  bayonet.  And  by  this  method  were  they  wiped  out,  for  United  States  Marines,  bare  chested,  shouting  their  battle  cry  of  E-e-e-e-e- 
y-a-a-h-h-h  yip! "  charged  straight  into  the  murderous  fire  from  those  guns,  and  won!  Out  of  the  number  that  charged,  in  more  than  one  instance, 
only  one  would  reach  the  stronghold.  There,  with  his  bayonet  as  his  only  weapon,  he  would  either  kill  or  capture  the  defenders  of  the  nest,  and 
then  swinging  the  gun  about  in  its  position,  turn  it  against  the  remaining  German  positions  in  the  forest.  Such  was  the  character  of  the  fighting 
in  Belleau  Wood;  fighting  which  continued  until  July  6th,  when  after  a  short  relief  the  invincible  Americans  finally  were  taken  back  to  the  rest 
billet  for  recuperation. 

In  all  the  history  of  the  Marine  Corps  there  is  no  such  battle  as  that  one  in  Belleau  Wood.  Fighting  day  and  night  without  relief,  without 
sleep,  often  without  water,  and  for  days  without  hot  rations,  the  Marines  met  and  defeated  the  best  divisions  that  Germany  could  throw  into 
the  line.  The  heroism  and  doggedness  of  that  battle  are  unparalleled.  Time  after  time  officers  seeing  their  lines  cut  to  pieces,  seeing  their  men 
so  dog  tired  that  they  even  fell  asleep  under  shell  fire,  hearing  their  wounded  calling  for  the  water  that  they  were  unable  to  supply,  seeing  men 
fight  on  after  they  had  been  wounded  and  until  they  dropped  unconscious:  time  after  time  officers  seeing  these  things,  believing  that  the  very  limit 
of  human  endurance  had  been  reached,  would  send  back  messages  to  their  post  command  that  their  men  were  exhausted.  But  in  answer  to  this 
would  come  the  word  that  the  lines  must  hold,  and  if  possible  those  lines  must  attack.  And  the  lines  obeyed.  Without  water,  without  food, 
without  rest  they  went  forward — and  forward  every  time  to  victory.  Companies  had  been  so  torn  and  lacerated  by  losses  that  they  were  hardly 
platoons:  but  they  held  their  lines  and  advanced  them.  In  more  than  one  case  companies  lost  every  officer,  leaving  a  sergeant,  and  sometimes  a 
corporal  to  command,  and  the  advance  continued.  After  thirteen  days  in  this  inferno  of  fire  a  captured  German  officer  told  with  his  dying  breath 
of  a  fresh  division  of  Germans  that  was  about  to  be  thrown  into  the  battle  to  attempt  to  wrest  from  the  Marines  that  part  of  the  wood  they  had 
gained.  The  Marines,  who  for  days  had  been  fighting  only  on  their  sheer  nerve,  who  had  been  worn  out  from  nights  of  sleeplessness,  from  lack 
of  rations,  from  terrific  shell  and  machine-gun  fire,  straightened  their  lines  and  prepared  for  the  attack.  It  came — as  the  dying  German  officer 
had  predicted. 

At  2  o'clock  on  the  morning  of  June  13th  it  was  launched  by  the  Germans  along  the  whole  front.  With  their  backs  to  the  trees  and  boulders 
of  the  Bois  de  Belleau,  with  their  sole  shelter  the  scattered  ruins  of  Bouresches,  the  thinning  lines  of  the  Marines  repelled  the  attack  and  crashed 
back  the  new  division  which  had  sought  to  wrest  the  position  from  them. 

And  so  it  went.    Day  after  day,  night  after  night,  while  time  after  time  messages  like  the  following  traveled  to  the  Post  command: 

Losses  heavy.    Difficult  to  get  runners  through.    Some  have  never  returned.     Morale  excellent,  hut  troops  about  all  in      Men  exhausted. 

And  they  continued  to  hold  on  in  spite  of  every  difficulty.  Advancing  their  lines  slowly  day  by  day,  the  Marines,  finally,  prepared  their  posi- 
tions to  such  an  extent  that  the  last  rush  for  the  possession  of  the  wood  could  be  made.  Then,  on  June  24th,  following  a  tremendous  barrage, 
the  struggle  began. 

The  barrage  literally  tore  the  woods  to  pieces,  but  even  its  immensity  could  not  wipe  out  all  the  nests  that  remained:  the  emplacements  that 
were  behind  almost  every  clump  of  bushes,  every  jagged,  rough  group  of  boulders.  But  those  that  remained  were  wiped  out  by  the  American 
method  of  the  rush  and  the  bayonet,  and  in  the  days  that  followed  every  foot  of  Belleau  Wood  was  cleared  of  the  enemy  and  held  by  the  frayed 
lines  of  the  Americans. 

It  was.  therefore,  with  the  feeling  of  work  well  done  that  the  depleted  lines  of  the  Marines  were  relieved  in  July,  that  they  might  be  filled 
with  replacements  and  made  ready  for  the  grand  offensive  in  the  vicinity  of  Soissons,  July  18th.  And  in  recognition  of  their  sacrifice,  and  bravery 
this  praise  was  forthcoming  from  the  French: 

"Army  Headquarters.  June  30,  1918. 

"In  view  of  the  brilliant  conduct  of  the  Fourth  Brigade  of  the  Second  United  States  Division,  which  in  a  spirited  fight  took  Bouresches  and 
the  important  strong  point  of  Bois  de  Belleau,  stubbornly  defended  by  a  large  enemy  force,  the  general  commanding  the  Sixth  Army  orders  that 
henceforth,  in  all  official  papers,  the  Bois  de  Belleau  shall  be  named  "Bois  de  la  Brigade  de  Marine. 

"Division  CJeneral  Degoutte,  Commanding  Sixth  Army." 
— Fnnn  Secretary  Daniels'  Report,  December  1,  1918. 


I 


190 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 


•^^ 


American  Marines  in  France 

Burying  their  first  German  dead 

In  the  front  line  trenches  on  Western  Front 

U.  S.  Marine  on  sentry  duty  during  a  gas  attack 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War  191 

"Early  in  June  we  were  sent  to  relieve  the  Marines  in  Belleau  Wood,  proceeding  right  up  to 
the  front  line.  My  platoon  went  into  the  front  line  the  first  night  we  arrived.  The  whole  regiment 
occupied  both  the  front  and  support  lines.  Two  platoons  would  take  the  front  line  each  night 
and  two  fall  back,  alternating  in  this  way  nightly.  The  front  line  here  consisted  of  dug-outs  only. 
There  were  no  trenches.  These  dug-outs  were  called  fox  holes  or  funk  holes.  The  morning  follow- 
ing the  night  we  entered  the  front  line  we  were  told  to  go  over  at  7.45  A.  M.  We  understood  the 
barrage  was  to  start  at  5.30  A.  M.  No  barrage  came  and  we  sent  back  runners  to  find  out  what 
was  the  trouble.  Some  of  the  runners  were  '  bumped  off, '  but  finally  one  got  through  and  on  his 
return  gave  us  the  news  that  the  artillery  had  no  orders  for  a  barrage.  We  later  found  out  that 
this  attack  was  not  ordered  by  our  own  command  but  was  ordered  by  a  spy  with  the  rank  of 
lieutenant  colonel  in  the  Marines.  We  started  over,  however,  without  the  barrage,  but  failed  in 
our  effort,  and  had  to  fall  back  to  our  front  line.  Company  D  was  practically  wiped  out  of  exist- 
ence in  this  attack.   We  held  the  line  until  relieved  by  the  Marines. " 

Whether  or  not  Corporal  Dombrowski's  reference  to  the  spy  is  accurate  must  depend  for  verifi- 
cation upon  the  complete  data  which  will  come  with  the  lapse  of  time.  The  official  reports  of 
that  period  convey  no  confirmation,  but  numerous  accounts  of  the  activities  of  spies  in  French 
and  American  uniforms  have  come  back  with  the  returning  soldiers,  and  not  all  of  these  narra- 
tives can  be  entirely,  nor  readily,  dismissed. 

The  Marines  returned  to  the  line  at  the  end  of  six  days,  and  favored  by  a  well  placed  and 
terrific  barrage  they  drove  the  Germans  from  the  woods  and  sent  them  flying  across  the  open 
ground  toward  the  railroad  tracks  north.   Belleau  Wood  had  been  won! 

The  moral  effect  of  this  victory  was  immense;  not  only  among  the  Allied  fighting  men  but  in 
the  French  and  English  homes  and  in  the  American  homes  far  across  the  ocean.  The  praise  of 
the  Marines  was  sung  at  every  fireside  and  on  every  street  corner  in  Buffalo  when  the  news 
finally  got  through. 


192 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 


CHAPTER   LVII 
HOUSE  WARMING   PARTY   FOR  77th  DIVISION  AT   BACCARAT 

WHILE  the  Marines  with  the  Second  Division  were  pressing  north  through  Belleau  Wood, 
and  it  became  apparent  that  American  courage  and  driving  power  was  taxing  the  military 
skill  of  the  enemy,  a  very  extended  movement  of  the  American  troops  on  the  Continent 
began.  Five  of  the  ten  divisions  then  training  in  the  British  area  were  withdrawn.  Among  these 
was  the  77th  Division  which,  during  the  month  of  May  and  early  in  June,  had  been  within  ear- 
shot of  the  heavy  artillery  duel  at  Ypres  and  Mount  Kemmel.  They  were  subjected  nightly  to 
Boche  bombing  raids,  and  had  suffered  some  casualties.  The  Buffalo  boys  had  absorbed  British 
combat  methods  but  balked  at  British  "chow. "  .Jam  and  tea  and  lime  juice,  with  meat  for  dinner 
and  cheese  for  supper  day  in  and  day  out  was  not  entirely  to  their  liking.  Later  on,  when  they 
were  battling  through  the  Argonne  it  would  have  looked  like  a  banquet. 

The  42d  Division  had  held  a  front  line  trench 
at  Baccarat  in  the  Lori-aine  Sector  for  some 
weeks.  And  they  held  it  well.  It  was  a  quiet 
sector,  apparently  by  mutual  consent,  but  in  a 
quiet  sector  the  raiding  parties,  the  night  prowl- 
ers, always  establish  for  one  side  or  the  other  a 
conviction  of  superiority.  It  is  related  of  the 
42d  Division  that  during  their  period  on  the 
Lorraine  front  they  "held  the  edge"  to  such  an 
extent  that  the  American  doughboys  were  able 
to  "hang  their  wash  on  the  barbed  wire  en- 
tanglements" in  No-Man's  Land.*  That  may 
not  be  entirely  accurate,  but  it  serves  to  in- 
dicate that  the  42d  Division  was  not  playing 
the  subordinate  part  in  No-Man's  Land  in 
Lorraine.  When  the  77th  Division  was  with- 
drawn from  its  training  area,  it  was  sent  to  the 
Lorraine  front  to  relieve  the  42d  Division.  The 
42d  had  suffered  some  casualties  and  those  places 
were  filled  with  men  from  the  77th  Division. 

On  June  19th  the  change  was  begun  and  by 
the  26th  the  new  Division  had  moved  into 
place.  The  Rainbow  Division  was  gone,  and 
the  77th  had  established  the  historic  fact  of 
being  the  first  draft  division  to  take  over  a  part 
An  Abandoned  German  Machine  Gun  of  the  front  line.    The  Rainbow  Division  pulled 

out,  and  went  into  reserve,  presently  to  take  up  a  position  east  of  Rheims. 

Apparently  the  Germans  had  knowledge  of  the  lack  of  ti-aining  in  the  new  division.  If  the  42d 
Division  had  been  masters  of  No-Man's  Land  in  the  Baccarat  sector,  the  Boche  apparently  saw 
no  immediate  necessity  of  having  the  dose  repeated  with  the  newcomers.  They  welcomed  the 
77th  at  4.00  A.  M.  on  the  24th  of  .June  with  a  shower  of  gas,  mixing  phosgene  and  mustard  with 
fine  discrimination,  showing  a  special  favoritism  for  the  densely  billeted  villages  of  Migneville, 


*  Yesterday  in  broad  daylight  some  Alabama  troops  on  our  right  walked  over  to  the  German  trenches  unmolested  and  unchallenged.  They 
found  a  German  officer  and  three  men  in  a  dugout.  The  Alabama  party  was  only  five.  They  killed  all  tour  Germans  and  upon  their  return  found 
one  of  their  own  party  missing.  They  went  back  and  found  him  caught,  in  the  German  wire.  While  rescuing  him  they  heard  footsteps  on  the  Ger- 
man duckboard.  Lying  in  wait  thev  caught  two  other  Boche.  killed  them  and  stripped  all  of  their  victims  bringing  their  clothes  back.  Their  only 
worry  was  the  dirty  socks  of  the  last  Hun  they  caught.  The  .\labama  crowd  are  the  greatest  crowd  I  have  ever  seen.  They  wander  all  over  the 
landscape  shooting  at  everything. — From  a  letter  icrillen  by  Major  William  J.  Donovan,  165th  Regiment  {iZd  Division),  to  his  wife,  March  10, 1918. 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 


193 


St.  Maurice,  Neuviller  and  Badonviller.  The 
front  line  was  not  overlooked.  If  the  77th  had 
anticipated  a  quiet  time  in  that  quiet  sector  they 
got  over  the  notion  quickly.  Their  housewarm- 
ing  party  was  not  entirely  of  the  sort  they  would 
have  chosen  if  the  matter  had  been  left  to  them, 
but  yet  they  made  no  grumble.  They  were  new 
at  the  war  business  and  not  disposed  to  be 
critical  about  front  line  ethics.  They  put  their 
gas  masks  on  with  great  speed  and  thereby 
saved  themselves  much  inconvenience  and 
suffering  and  many  casualties. 

The  Baccarat  sector,  a  portion  of  which  was 
held  by  French  troops,  was  between  Luneville 
and  St.  Die,  southwest  of  Nancy.  The  77th 
was  given  the  portion  of  the  front  extending 
from  Herbeviller  on  the  left  to  a  point  east  of 
Badonviller  on  the  right.  This  territory  was 
divided  into  four  sub-sections  which  were  held 
by  the  305th,  306th,  307th,  308th  Infantry 
respectively;  a  battalion  front  of  each  sub- 
division with  a  battalion  in  reserve.  Each  week 
or  so,  the  battalions  would  alternate  in  the  front 
line.  The  77th  remained  in  Baccarat  sector  from 
June  26th  to  August  4th.  About  the  middle  of 
July  when  the  drive  was  started  at  Soissons  to 
break  through  the  Marne  salient,  the  nose  of 
which  the  Marines  and  Regulars  had  turned  up 
at  Belleau  Wood,  the  French  Division,  the  61st, 
which  had  shared  the  Baccarat  sector  with  the  77th  was  withdrawn,  leaving  the  Mew  York 
drafted  men  in  charge  of  the  entire  front.  The  New  York  artillery  came  into  support,  and  the 
Baccarat  zone  had  then  become  for  the  first  time  in  the  war  an  all-American  affair,  with  nearly 
2,000  Buffalo  and  Erie  County  boys  doing  their  bit  there. 


Watching  the  Enemy  from  an  Old  .Stone  Outhouse 


194  Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 


CHAPTER    LVIII 
SMASHING    THE    MARNE    SALIENT 

WHILE  troop  movement  from  the  United  States  during  April,  May  and  June  was  gratifying 
to  the  Allied  commanders  it  had  the  effect  of  intensifying  the  German  attack.  The  Marines 
had  taken  Belleau  Wood,  but  the  grey  hordes  released  from  the  Russian  front  rolled  down 
toward  the  Marne. 

The  Allies  were  still  fighting  a  defensive  war.  General  Pershing  in  his  conferences  with  General 
Foch,  according  to  the  best  attainable  information,  urged  an  offensive  operation  on  the  Marne 
salient — the  wedge  which  had  been  driven  down  to  Chateau  Thierry,  its  sides  extending  to  a 
point  just  west  of  Rheims  on  the  east  and  Soissons  on  the  West.  Major  Frederick  Palmer,  war 
coiTespondent  and  censor  on  General  Pershing's  staff,  in  commenting  on  this  situation  said: 

"  The  Allied  armies  on  the  western  front  had  been  almost  as  completely  on  the  defensive  for 
four  months  as  if  we  were  a  besieged  garrison.  In  spirit  they  had  been  on  the  defensive  since 
Cambrai  in  the  previous  autumn.  After  the  fourth  offensive,  which  brought  the  enemy  within 
forty  miles  of  Paris,  you  might  hear  military  discussions  on  whether  or  not  Paris  should  be  de- 
fended in  the  event  of  another  German  drive  bringing  it  under  the  German  guns.  The  preparations 
which  the  military  authorities  had  made  for  any  emergency  were  matters  of  common  talk.  We 
were  ready  to  move  our  own  army  offices  from  Paris;  the  Red  Cross  and  the  Y.  M.  C.  A.  had 
arranged  for  trucks  to  remove  their  workers.  Lay  pessimists  saw  Paris  as  already  lost ;  and  mili- 
tary pessimists  saw  its  defenses  as  impracticable  directly  it  was  seriously  threatened.  All  hopes 
centered  on  the  arrixang  American  divisions.  If  the  Allies  could  stem  the  tide  until  August  1  then 
we  should  outnumber  the  enemy;  and  when  there  were  enough  Americans  and  they  were  oi-ganized 
we  might  consider  an  offensive  which  could  hardly  take  place  before  Spring.  Thus,  confidence  in 
eventual  victory  rested  entirely  upon  the  Americans;  and  the  spirit  of  initiative  in  our  men  was 
reflected  in  counsel  by  General  Pershing  which  was  to  have  an  important  influence  on  the  opera- 
tions that  were  to  recover  the  offensive  for  the  Allies  in  a  single  stroke. 

"Any  soldier  of  any  age  who  looked  at  the  German  salient  after  the  Marne  offensive  could 
have  had  only  one  thought,  and  that  was  a  drive  at  the  base  of  the  salient  to  close  the  mouth  of 
the  pocket.  Yet  one  heard  talk  that  salients  no  longer  counted.  Neither  reports  of  German 
strength  nor  the  defensive  spirit  of  the  time  diverted  General  Pei-shing's  attention  from  that 
inviting  bulge  in  the  German  battle  line.  When  Premier  Clemenceau  and  General  Foch  came 
to  American  Headquarters  June  22  for  a  conference,  he  again  pointed  to  its  obvious  vulnerability, 
and  vigorously  advocated  an  offensive.  He  had  faith  that  the  German  strength  was  overestimated ; 
and  that  under  a  determined  attack  the  salient  would  crack  like  an  egg  shell. 

"But  where  were  the  troops  for  the  operation?  The  events  of  the  four  years  of  war,  which 
had  placed  such  heavy  responsibilities  upon  the  French  Army,  had  made  the  French  thrifty  of 
their  man  power.  Although  no  sufficient  strategic  reserve  for  a  counter  offensive  existed.  General 
Pershing  suggested  that  there  were  divisions  in  rest  which  could  be  mobilized.  Our  untrained 
divisions  could  release  other  French  divisions  from  quiet  .sectors.  Our  older  divisions  had  already 
proved  their  mettle.  We  had  others  which  might  not  be  fully  trained,  but  they  would  fight. 
They  knew  how  to  shoot;  they  had  initiative.  Behind  them  were  still  other  American  divisions 
rapidly  training  and  others  arriving  from  America.  The  time  had  come  to  prick  the  bubble  of 
the  Marne  salient.  It  was  only  a  bubble,  though  it  was  German.  Let  the  veteran  French  Army 
attack  with  its  old  elan  and  the  young  American  Army  attack  by  its  side  with  the  energy  of  its 
youth,  and  we  should  force  the  Germans  to  dance  to  our  tune  instead  of  our  dancing  to  their 
tune." 

Just  at  that  time  Major  William  J.  Donovan,  Buffalo,  was  in  the  line  with  a  portion  of  the 
42d  Division  east  of  Rheims.   General  Pershing  in  his  report  said,  "they  held  ground  unflinch- 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War  195 

ingly."  Lieutenant  Wertz,  the  old  74th  boy,  was  in  the  First  Division  on  the  Soissons  front, 
and  the  Second  division,  with  a  big  contingent  of  Buffalo  boys,  was  then  moving  into  position 
beside  the  First ,  on  the  western  side  of  the  Marne  Salient.  If  a  fight  was  to  come  off  there,  Buffalo 
would  be  in  it.   They  did  not  have  to  wait  long. 

The  Germans  launched  an  attack  on  July  15th  with  a  view  to  crossing  the  Marne  east  of  Chateau 
Thierry.  This  was  the  offensive  they  expected  would  carry  them  to  Paris.  The  German  drive 
was  teiTific.   One  regiment  of  the  Third  Division  *  alone  held  its  positions — the  Thirtieth  Infantry. 

The  French  Division  which  had  been  holding  the  ground  on  the  right  retired  under  fire,  and 
the  38th  Infantry  on  the  left  of  the  Thirtieth  also  fell  back.  Colonel  Butts  of  the  30th,  who  at 
that  period  in  the  German  advance,  when  told  by  the  French  to  fall  back,  sent  word  that  the 
.American  soldiers  would  not  be  able  to  understand  why  their  flag  should  be  carried  to  the  rear; 
that  he  proposed  to  hold  his  position. 

Colonel  Butts  estimated  that  10,000  German  soldiers  were  killed  in  that  battle.  Upon  his 
return  to  a  rest  billet  a  few  days  afterwards  he  dictated  the  following: 

"On  July  15th  the  30th  Infantry  held  the  sector  from  Mezy  nearly  to  Fossoy  and  covered  more  than  four  kilo- 
meters of  front,  and  five  or  six  kilometers  back  from  the  river  (Marne).  The  front  was  hghtly  held.  The  ground 
was  open  for  a  mile  back  from  the  river  and  then  it  was  interspersed  with  woods.  The  reserves  were  in  the  Bois 
d'Agremont  and  near  the  front  line  of  the  woods  was  the  P.  C.  post.  The  ground  rose  gradually  from  the  river  and 
a  moving  picture  artist  could  not  have  selected  a  spot  where  there  was  such  an  ideal  view  of  a  battlefield;  but  a 
view  meant  practical  annihilation,  so  that  the  reserves  suffered  more  than  the  men  in  front.  For  hours  there  was 
nothing  to  do  but  lie  close  in  trenches  with  gas  masks  on. 

"The  main  attack  was  directed  against  the  30th  Infantry,  which  received  the  greatest  percentage  of  the  artillery 
fire  in  the  3rd  Division. 

"In  the  first  ten  seconds  every  wire  was  cut  by  shellfire,  every  horse  was  killed,  every  rolling  kitchen  and  water 
cart  was  destroyed,  every  trail  obliterated,  and  four  of  the  five  runners  were  killed.  Three  German  divisions  were 
opposite  the  3d  Division  and  the  attack  was  mostly  on  the  sector  held  by  the  30th ;  they  received  at  least  one-half 
of  it. 

"The  French  division  on  the  right  of  the  30th  and  38th  retired  under  fire  until  the  Boches  were  across  the  Marne 
and  had  put  artillery  on  the  hills  south  of  .Jaulgonne.  This  forced  the  38th  to  back  up,  and  that  left  the  30th  being 
shelled  from  three  sides.  The  reserve  line  and  P.  C.  post  were  for  a  day  on  the  advance  line  of  the  7th  Infantry  on 
the  left  and  the  38th  Infantry  on  the  right.  This  left  the  30th  shelled  on  three  sides  for  twenty-four  hours.  Orders 
captured  on  a  German  officer  showed  they  expected  to  have  been  at  St.  Eugene  at  7  A.  M.  and  at  Montmirail,  six 
miles  to  the  rear  of  the  30th,  that  night. 

"Officers  and  men,  crazed  from  shell  shock,  would  rush  to  the  P.  C.  post  to  cry  that  all  was  lost,  and  that  it  was 
hell  and  they  could  not  stand  it  any  longer.  But  all  of  them  did!  It  was  a  wonderful  lot  of  officers  and  men  and  I 
am  proud  to  have  commanded  them.  Believe  me,  they  can  fight!  Any  tale  can  be  told  of  them  and  it  can  be  more 
than  true.    Recite  any  tale  of  heroism  and  sacrifice  and  it  has  already  been  duplicated." 

Major  Palmer  speaking  of  this  German  drive  on  the  Marne  says: 

"The  result  of  the  German  offensive  of  July  15  justified  General  Pershing's  premises  and  con- 
clusions both  in  the  repulse  of  the  enemy  and  in  the  way  which  the  3d  and  4th  Divisions  and 
the  French  and  British  divisions  had  fought.  All  the  Germans  had  gained  was  to  deepen  their 
pocket.  They  had  put  the  point  of  their  salient  over  a  river  in  a  bloody  and  unsuccessful  effort. 
They  were  in  reaction  as  the  result  of  their  failure;  we  were  in  the  reaction  from  our  depression. 
It  was  the  turning  point  of  psychology.  Immediate  advantage  must  be  taken  of  the  opportunity. 
The  Germans  had  started  a  war  of  movement;  we  accepted  the  challenge  at  the  moment  that 
they  were  trembling  and  confused  from  the  failui'e  of  their  own  initiative.  We  should  not  take 
the  time  for  elaborate  preparations  which  would  reveal  oui'  point  of  attack;  we  should  go  in  with 
the  rush  of  Manoury's  men  in  September,  1914,  and  along  many  of  the  same  roads  where  he  had 
struck  Von  Kluck. " 

Many  boys  from  Buffalo  fought  that  day — the  Marne  attack — with  the  3d  Division.    They  were 

■^  On  the  right  tiank  nf  this  (July  15th)  offensive  four  companies  of  the  Twenty-eighth  Division  were  in  position  in  face  of  the  advancing  waves 
of  the  German  infantry.  The  Third  Division  was  holding  the  bank  of  the  Marne  from  the  bend  east  of  the  mouth  of  the  Surmelin  to  the  west 
of  Mezy,  opposite  Chateau  Thierry,  where  a  large  force  of  German  infantry  sought  to  force  a  passage  under  support  of  powerful  artillery  con- 
centrations and  under  cover  of  smoke  screens.  A  single  regiment  of  the  Third  wrote  one  of  the  most  brilliant  pages  in  our  military  annals  on 
this  occasion.  It  prevented  the  crossing  at  certain  points  on  its  front  while,  on  either  flank,  the  Germans,  who  had  gained  a  footing,  pressed 
forward.  Our  men.  firing  in  three  directions,  met  the  German  attacks  with  counter  attacks  at  critical  points  and  succeeded  in  throwing  two 
German  divisions  into  complete  confusion,  capturing  fiOO  prisoners. — From  Gfnt'ral  Pershim/s  Report,  Noiriiibrr  -20,  191s.) 


i^i'  4  '>A  '^-  ik 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War  197 

in  the  7th  Infantry,  which  escaped  the  fury  that  had  fallen  to  the  30th  Infantry.  On  July  15th, 
in  a  letter  home,  Frank  Mazurowski  of  129  Coit  Street,  Company  H,  7th  Infantry,  says  they 
had  been  given  a  two-weeks'  rest,  after  their  Belleau  Wood  experience  and  were  then  sent  up  to 
the  Marne  River  at  Fossoy. 

"  I  had  to  work  hard  there, "  he  wrote,  "  I  was  at  it  day  and  night.  Most  of  my  work  was  getting 
hand  grenades  ready,  and  getting  chow  to  the  trenches."  Getting  "chow"  to  the  trenches  was 
a  dangerous  task,  for  food  servers  usually  pass  under  continuous  shell  fire.  "Ours  was  a  fairly 
quiet  place,"  his  letter  continues,  "until  the  14th  of  July.  That  night,  or  rather  at  1  o'clock  in 
the  morning,  the  Gei-man  guns  broke  loose.  It  was  some  barrage.  I  wanted  to  die — that  is  how 
bad  it  was.  This  I  will  never  forget,  but  the  Germans  were  held  back  until  the  21st  of  July,  on 
a  Sunday  morning,  when  we  crossed  the  river.  You  should  have  seen  the  "square  heads"  as  we 
call  them.  They  were  hanging  dead  on  trees  and  all  over  the  field.  We  chased  them  until  July 
29th  when  we  were  relieved." 

Leo  Dombrowski,  another  Buffalo  Polish  boy  in  the  3d  Division,  told  the  story  of  the  Marne 
attack  of  the  Germans  on  July  15th,  with  perhaps  a  little  more  of  detail,  but  his  view  was  the 
same.  "We  went  up  to  the  front,"  he  says,  "on  the  night  of  July  14th.  A  barrage  came  over 
from  the  Germans  which  lasted  seven  hours.  We  lost  about  a  platoon  and  a  half  of  the  men  of 
our  company  during  this  barrage.  The  Germans  then  came  over  and  attacked  the  30th  Infantry 
of  our  Division.  The  30th  Infantry  lost  heavily  but  held  on.  Others  fell  back,  and  the  Germans 
crossed  the  Marne,  and  proceeded  down  the  Paris-Metz  Road  for  about  a  quarter  of  a  kilometer. 
The  Germans  held  their  position  for  five  days.  I  think  it  was  about  July  22d  we  took  the  offen- 
sive. After  crossing  the  Marne  we  advanced  about  4  kilometers.  The  Germans  were  dug  in  and 
we  encountered  mostly  machine  gun  nests.  We  went  up  into  a  little  woods  called  Meurcy  Farm, 
and  in  that  woods  we  had  a  hot  time  with  a  lot  of  German  snipers.  They  held  us  up  for  some 
time  until  we  fianked  them  out.  We  lost  many  men  in  doing  this.  Other  divisions  had  broken 
through  their  lines  further  up,  and  we  then  started  our  major  advance  going  clean  to  Fismes. 
There  we  were  relieved  by  the  28th  Division  about  the  end  of  July." 

Neither  of  the  two  Buffalo  Polish  boys  were  aware  at  that  time  of  the  American  attack  then 
being  made  on  the  other  side  of  the  Marne  salient.  General  Pershing  had  persistently  urged  an 
attack  on  the  German  salient,  as  has  been  pointed  out  by  Major  Palmer,  and  General  Foch 
was  not  unmindful  of  the  value  of  the  suggestion.  General  Retain  worked  out  the  plans  for  the 
attack.  When  the  German  drive  of  July  15th  had  been  checked  by  the  American  3d,  it  was 
quickly  decided  by  the  Allied  High  Command  to  hit  back.  Not,  however,  until  4  P.  M.  on  the 
afternoon  of  July  17th,  with  the  attack  set  for  5.35  on  the  morning  of  July  18th,  were  the  plans 
for  the  attack  drawn  up  and  instructions  given  to  the  artillery  and  infantry  commanders. 

General  Pershing  in  his  report  tells  briefly  of  the  movements  which  broke  up  the  Marne  salient 
and  finally  turned  the  Germans  back  from  Paris: 

"The  great  force  of  the  German  Chateau  Thierry  offensive  established  the  deep  Marne  salient,  but  the  enemy 
was  taking  chances,  and  the  vulnerability  of  this  pocket  to  attack  might  be  turned  to  his  disadvantage.  Seizing 
this  opportunity  to  support  my  conviction,  every  division  with  any  sort  of  training  was  made  available  for  use  in  a 
counter-offensive.  The  place  of  honor  in  the  thrust  toward  Soissons  on  July  18th  was  given  to  our  First  and  Second 
Divisions  in  company  with  chosen  French  divisions.  Without  the  usual  brief  warning  of  a  preliminary  bombardment, 
the  massed  French  and  American  artillery,  firing  by  the  map,  laid  down  its  rolling  barrage  at  dawn  while  the  infantry 
began  its  charge.  The  tactical  handling  of  our  troops  under  these  trying  conditions  was  excellent  throughout  the 
action.  The  enemy  brought  up  large  numbers  of  reserves  and  made  a  stubborn  defense  both  with  machine  guns  and 
artillery,  but  through  five  days'  fighting  the  First  Division  continued  to  advance  until  it  had  gained  the  heights 
above  Soissons  and  captured  the  village  of  Brezy-le-sec.  The  Second  Division  took  Beau  Repaire  farm  and  Vierzy 
in  a  very  rapid  advance  and  reached  a  position  in  front  of  Tigny  at  the  end  of  its  second  day.  These  two  divisions 
captured  7,000  prisoners  and  over  100  pieces  of  artillery. 

"The  Twenty-sixth  Division,  which,  with  a  French  division,  was  under  command  of  our  First  Corps,  acted  as  a 
pivot  of  the  movement  toward  Soissons.  On  the  18th  it  took  the  village  of  Torcy  while  the  Third  Division  was 
crossing  the  Marne  in  pursuit  of  the  retiring  enemy.  The  Twenty-sixth  attacked  again  on  the  21st,  and  the  enemy 
withdrew  past  the  Chateau  Thierry-Soissons  road.  The  Third  Division,  continuing  its  progress,  took  the  heights  of 
Mont  St.  Pere  and  the  villages  of  Charteves  and  Jaulgonne  in  the  face  of  both  machine-gun  and  artillery  fire. 


198  Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 

"On  the  24th,  after  the  Germans  had  fallen  back  from  Trugny  and  Epieds,  our  Forty-second  Division,  which  had 
been  brought  over  from  the  Champagne,  relieved  the  Twenty-sixth  and,  fighting  its  way  through  the  Foret  de  Fere, 
overwhelmed  the  nest  of  machine  guns  in  its  path.  By  the  27th  it  had  reached  the  Ourcq,  whence  the  Third  and 
Fourth  Divisions  were  already  advancing,  while  the  French  divisions  with  which  we  were  co-operating  were  moving 
forward  at  other  points. 

"The  Third  Division  had  made  its  advance  into  Roncheres  Wood  on  the  29th  and  was  relieved  for  rest  by  a  brigade 
of  the  Thirty-second.  The  Forty-second  and  Thirty-second  undertook  the  task  of  conquering  the  heights  beyond 
Cierges.  When  the  Forty-second  and  Thirty-second  were  relieved,  the  Seventy-seventh  Division  took  up  a  position 
on  the  Vesle." 

As  the  story  of  these  various  engagements  in  the  Marne  battle,  beginning  with  the  holding  of 
the  Marne  bridgehead  on  Memorial  Day,  1918,  is  told  in  patches,  it  may  be  difficult  for  the 
reader  to  follow  accurately,  in  this  story,  the  various  movements  in  which  Buffalo  men  partici- 
pated. In  reality,  the  holding  of  that  bridgehead  by  the  7th  Machine  Gun  Company  was  the 
first  check  of  the  (rerman  Drive  towards  Paris.  Two  days  later  the  Marines  had  flocked  in  on 
the  Paris  Road,  somewhat  west  of  Chateau-Thierry.  While  we  have  published  statements  fi-om 
but  a  few  Buffalo  boys,  very  many  from  Buffalo  and  the  suiTounding  towns  were  in  that  Marine 
Brigade  which  fought  through  the  wheatfield  and  subsequently,  throughout  the  month  of  June, 
through  the  Belleau  Wood. 

During  the  time  the  2d  Division,  to  which  the  Marines  were  attached,  was  clearing  the  Belleau 
Wood,  and  thus  holding  a  substantial  element  of  the  German  attack,  the  3d  Division,  supporting 
a  French  Division,  had  worked  in  along  the  railroad  north  of  the  bend  of  the  Marne.  Generally 
speaking,  they  wei-e  in  the  territory  as  shown  on  the  map  between  Chateau-Thierry  and  Epernay. 
It  will  be  easy  for  the  reader  to  find  Fossoy  on  the  map  and  that,  for  all  practical  purposes,  will 
give  one  an  idea  of  the  location  of  the  3d  Division.  This  Division  also  had  quite  a  few  Buffalo 
men  in  it,  and  early  on  the  morning  of  the  15th  of  July  they  received  the  impact  of  the  big  Ger- 
man offensive,  which,  in  truth,  was  the  real  thrust  of  the  German  army  towards  Paris.  While 
not  as  many  Buffalo  men  were  engaged  there  as  with  the  Marines,  still  quite  a  few  of  our  towns- 
men participated  in  that  terrific  engagement  and  acquitted  themselves  with  signal  honors.  The 
reader  who  has  followed  carefully  the  statements  of  Palmer  and  Pershing  can  realize  that  it  was 
largely  through  the  earnest  appeals  of  the  American  Commander  that  the  Allies  determined  on 
taking  the  offensive  at  this  period;  an  offensive  that  stopped  the  Germans  on  all  sides  of  the 
Marne  Salient  and  by  July  24th  was  rapidly  turning  them  back  at  the  Ourcq,  heading  them 
toward  the  Vesle.  At  this  point  General  Pershing  sent  in  the  tearing,  fighting  42d  Division, 
putting  them  in  the  "clean  up"  position,  with  a  view  to  breaking  the  German  spirit.  This  they 
did,  as  is  told  by  Major  Donovan  in  the  succeeding  chapter. 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 


199 


CHAPTER   LIX 
MAJOR    DONOVAN    AT    THE    BATTLE    OF    THE    OURCQ 

MAJOR  William  J.  Donovan,  who  conceived  Troop  I,  Buffalo's  crack  little  cavalry  company 
of  State  Guard,  years  before  the  Mexican  Border  episode  and  who  gained  some  military 
prestige,  and,  possibly,  some  military  experience  in  the  Mexican  patrol,  took  an  effective,  and 
conspicuous  part  in  the  attack  on  the  Marne  salient.  Major  Donovan,  then  a  Captain,  left  Buffalo 
directly  after  war  was  declared,  and  assumed  the  post  of  Brigade  Adjutant  of  the  First  Brigade, 
New  York.  During  his  service  on  the  border,  his  appointment  had  been  asked  as  Lieutenant  Colonel 
of  the  69th.  New  York's  "Fighting  Sixty-Ninth"  had  taken  a  keen  liking  to  Captain  Donovan 
and  that  sentiment  was  reciprocated  by  the  Buffalo  officer.  His  designation  as  Lieutenant  Colonel 
was  not  accomplished,  however,  but  appreciating  that  the  69th,  by  reason  of  its  record,  would  be 
one  of  the  first  National  Guard  units  called  for  active  service,  he  quickly  accepted  the  duties  of  Brig- 
ade Adjutant  as  a  preliminary  step  to  field  work  with  the  69th  Regiment  when  it  should  move  out. 

In  the  early  days  Troop  I  had  been  looked  upon  as  a  riding  school  for  rich  men's  sons.  The 
family  "coat"  was  supposedly  the  bridle  ornamentation  of  the  Troop,  and  the  members  of  that 
organization  were  sometimes  called  "Silk-stocking  boys." 

Through  the  efforts  of  Captain  Donovan  and  his  Troop  the  co-operation  of  Senator  John  F. 
Malone,  then  an  influential  figure  in  the 
State  Legislature  at  Albany,  was  obtained 
and  an  appropriation  for  an  armory  in  Dela- 
van  Avenue  secured.  The  Troop  grew  rap- 
idly. They  policed  the  industries  at  Depew 
during  the  big  strike  of  1913,  and  made  a 
reputation  for  soldierly  conduct  and  ability 
to  take  care  of  themselves  in  any  kind  of  a 
scramble. 

Major  Donovan  was  not  the  son  of  a  rich 
father,  but  of  parents  from  whom  he  in- 
herited a  wealth  of  courage  and  of  character. 
Those  traits  took  him  rapidly  to  the  front 
in  the  legal  profession,  and,  subsequently,  in 
his  military  pursuit.  He  was  born  in  Buffalo 
on  New  Year's  Day,  1883. 

On  July  15, 1914,  Captain  Donovan  mar- 
ried Miss  Ruth  Rumsey,  daughter  of  the 
late  Dexter  P.  Rumsey,  a  pioneer  Buffalo- 
nian  of  wealth  and  position.  Mrs.  Donovan 
tearfully  but  proudly  and  patriotically  gave 
way  to  the  demands  of  her  country  for 
the  services  of  her  husband,  so  splendidly 
equipped  for  military  work. 

After  his  i-eturn  from  the  Border,  Captain 
Donovan  learned  that  the  Troop  would 
probably  remain  in  this  country  a  long  while, 
so  he  went  to  New  York  and  called  on  Gen- 
eral O'Ryan  for  an  assignment.     He  had  Buffalo  Boy  Gets  Croix  de  Guerre 

been   in    New   York    but  a  short    time  when  Major  D.movan  being  decorated  by  French  Commander 


200  Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 

he  was  appointed  a  Major,  and  given  the  task  of  organizing  Brigade  Headquarters  at  the  71st 
Regiment  Armory.  When  the  69th  was  ordered  out  as  the  first  regiment  to  go  to  France  with 
the  42d  or  Rainbow  Division,  he  gladly  quit  his  task  as  Brigade  Adjutant  to  take  command 
of  the  First  Battalion  of  the  old  69th,  now  the  165th  Infantry.  During  the  apprenticeship 
of  the  regiment  at  Camp  Mills,  New  York,  and  in  the  training  area  in  France,  Major  Donovan 
devised  a  system  of  preparation  for  the  hardships  of  the  campaign,  along  the  lines  of  his  own 
experience  as  a  football  player,  and,  as  events  proved,  with  very  good  success. 

The  first  intensive  work  which  fell  to  Major  Donovan  in  France  was  in  the  Luneville  sector 
at  Rouge  Bouquet.  On  the  night  of  the  13th  of  March,  1918,  when  Donovan's  battalion  was  being 
reheved  in  the  front  line,  the  new  troops  were  fired  on  by  the  Germans.  One  of  the  dugouts  in 
which  a  number  of  men  were  working  was  hit  by  a  huge  minenwerfer,  and  caved  in  completely. 
While  not  of  that  command,  Donovan  secured  permission,  by  reason  of  his  familiarity  with  the 
location,  to  go  to  the  scene,  and,  though  exposed  to  shell  fire  thi-oughout,  he  steadied  the  men  at 
their  posts,  and  began  operations  to  secure  the  release  of  the  entombed  men  in  the  dugout.  Or- 
ganizing a  relief  crew,  he  picked  up  ten  men  who  had  lost  their  way  and  started  back  with  them, 
intending  to  bring  up  some  engineers.  Before  leaving,  however,  he  straightened  out  each  man. 
He  stopped  for  a  minute  to  put  his  arm  around  a  youngster  on  guard  and  asked  him  if  he  was 
"going  to  let  those  damned  Dutchmen  get  his  goat."  In  response,  the  boy  said  "No";  grasped 
his  gun  more  firmly,  and  resumed  his  watch.  Major  Donovan  started  back  through  the  dark  for 
the  post  of  command,  but  the  Germans  evidently  heard  the  little  party  for  it  was  greeted  with 
a  shower  of  shi-apnel  and  gas.  They  took  cover  in  a  woods.  The  shells  struck  all  around  them 
and  ht  up  the  dead  trees.  In  the  blaze  of  the  explosions  they  could  see  the  twigs  and  branches 
and  sometimes  the  trees  crash  down.  Some  of  the  men  were  badly  frightened,  but  Donovan 
finally  got  them  all  in  and  made  his  report.  He  had  just  reached  his  quarters,  however,  when  the 
officer  who  had  said  they  would  get  the  imprisoned  men  out  of  the  dugout  reported  that  the 
vibrations  from' the  other  bombardment  had  knocked  down  more  earth  and  he  had  been  obliged 
to  take  his  relief  crew  out.  Shells  were  still  flying  about  the  trenches  when  Major  Donovan 
returned  to  the  demolished  dugout.  There  everybody  had  found  shelter,  leaving  the  entombed 
men  to  their  fate.  Donovan  ordered  all  hands  to  work;  had  coffee  prepared  for  the  workers, 
declaring  that  if  they  did  not  succeed  in  releasing  the  men  they  would  at  least  establish  the  fact 
that  a  United  States  soldier  is  never  deserted  by  his  comrades  no  matter  how  difficult  the  situa- 
tion. As  Donovan  entered  the  trenches,  he  tripped  over  the  body  of  a  dead  soldier,  and  found 
it  was  the  boy  around  whose  shoulders  a  few  minutes  before  he  had  thrown  his  arm.  When  the 
shelling  began  they  had  called  to  the  lad  to  seek  cover,  but  he  had  refused  to  leave  his  post.  He 
was  hit  on  the  head  with  a  piece  of  shrapnel  and  killed  instantly.  With  a  few  brave  men  and 
officers,  Donovan  went  down  a  stairway  leading  to  the  demolished  dugout,  with  only  a  candle 
lighting  their  way.  Shells  were  hitting  around  them.  Cold,  muddy,  dead  hands  stuck  up  out  of 
the  earth  here  and  there.  Two  young  officers  stood  on  the  stairs  above  Donovan,  tense  and  white 
and  tired;  willing  to  face  all  personal  dangers,  but  rapidly  losing  their  nerve  at  the  thought  of 
the  poor  devils  under  the  wi-eckage,  and  the  absolute  futility  and  helplessness  of  it  all.  As  Dono- 
van looked  at  the  mass  of  earth  it  was  brought  home  to  him  that  nothing  more  could  be  done, 
and  that  that  must  be  their  tomb.  He  said  afterwards,  "I  almost  wished  that  the  rest  of  the 
covering  would  fall  and  bury  me."  It  was  two  o'clock  in  the  morning  when  he  came  out  of  the 
trench;  saw  that  the  guards  were  posted  and  that  everybody  was  "on  his  feet"  again,  and  started 
back  four  miles  through  the  dark  to  headquarters  to  make  his  report.  For  his  courage  and 
coolness  on  that  occasion  Major  Donovan  was  awarded,  by  the  French  Army,  the  Croix  de  Guerre. 

July  15th  when  the  German  drive  which  spent  much  of  its  fury  on  the  Third  Division  near 
Fossoy,  was  on,  the  42d  Division  was  in  the  defense  of  the  line  at  Champagne.  Sevei-al  Buffalo 
boys  were  now  in  that  Division  having  been  transferred  from  the  77th  at  Baccarat.  The  bulk  of 
the  fighting  there  fell  upon  Major  Anderson  with  the  Second  Battalion.  After  the  First  and 
Second  Divisions  had  made  their  thrust  through  the  German  salient  at  Soissons  on  the  west. 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War  201 

and  the  Third  and  Fourth  were  striking  north,  the  42d  went  into  action  on  the  southeastern 
side  of  the  salient,  going  over  on  July  27th.  On  July  28th  the  Third  Battalion,  under  Major 
M'Kenna,  led  the  attack  across  the  Ourcq.  While  there  has  been  some  dispute  as  to  which  Batta- 
lion was  first  across,  the  Division  Commander  and  Father  Duffy,  the  regimental  chaplain, 
both  support  the  pi-ecedence  of  M'Kenna's  Battalion.  In  the  remaining  four  days  of  the  fighting 
however,  the  operations  in  the  field  were  conducted  by  Major  Donovan  until  the  Germans  were 
finally  driven  from  their  position  to  a  depth  of  ten  kilometers.  Major  Donovan  was  wounded 
in  that  action,  but  refused  to  leave  the  front;  he  was  awarded  the  Distinguished  Service  Cross,* 
and,  a  vacancy  occurring  shortly  afterward,  was  made  Lieutenant  Colonel  of  the  regiment.  In 
a  letter  written  to  his  wife,  Colonel  Donovan  gives  an  interesting  account  of  that  engagement: 

"August  7,  1918,  5.30  P.  M. 

"More  of  life  has  been  crowded  into  the  past  few  weeks  than  I  have  ever  known  before.  Let  me  begin — On  the 
morning  of  July  25th  we  left  our  little  town  of  Champigny  in  camions,  16  men  in  each  camion,  so  that  we  stretched 
for  miles.  I  rode  in  a  little  Ford  with  the  French  lieutenant  in  charge,  for  it  was  French  camion  service,  and  such  a 
sight  I  have  never  witnessed.  The  Germans  were  only  three  days  ahead  of  us.  We  passed  through  fields  and  towns 
still  filled  with  their  dead  and  our  dead.  The  roads  were  choked  with  supply  wagons,  artillery  and  machine  guns. 
Artillerymen  were  asleep  on  their  horses.  Machine  gun  drivers  were  going  along  with  their  heads  on  their  knees 
and  their  reins  dragging  in  the  dirt.  We  were  relie\'ing  the  26th  Division.  The  other  brigade  of  our  division  had 
gone  up  the  night  before.  For  about  a  half  hour  we  stopped  at  Chateau  Thierry.  In  time  of  peace  this  must  be 
beautiful.  I  went  into  three  fine  mansions  which  the  Germans  had  occupied.  Books  and  paintings  and  clothing  had 
been  pulled  from  their  places  and  scattered  indiscriminately.  It  was  evident  that  these  homes  had  been  quitted 
by  their  owners  hurriedly,  because  private  papers  and  letters  were  lying  about  so  that  anyone  might  read  them. 
Most  of  the  town  was  just  a  mass  of  ruins.  I  went  into  the  hallway  of  one  house,  and  found  a  French  soldier  and 
from  him  borrowed  a  piece  of  cheese  and  a  crust  of  bread  and  canteen  of  water.  That  was  the  first  meal  I  had  that 
day,  and  it  was  3  o'clock.  About  7  P.  M.,  we  arrived  at  the  little  town  of  Epieds  and  marched  right  straight  into 
an  air  battle  in  which  the  German  planes  predominated.  They  came  down  over  our  camions  and  fired  their  machine 
guns  into  us.  No  one  was  hurt.  One  plane  came  sailing  over  us  not  far  back  of  where  we  made  a  quick  turn  and 
then  passing  directly  over  one  of  our  observation  balloons  fired  down  around  it  and  passed  on.  It  was  very  brilliantly 
and  daringly  done.  Immediately  the  observer  dropped  in  his  parachute  and  the  balloon  went  up  in  flames.  We 
marched  to  the  Chateau  Moucheton,  which  only  a  few  days  before  had  been  German  Brigade  Headquarters.  It 
was  very  cold  and  very  wet.  Our  wagons  were  not  in — we  had  no  food,  excepting  the  men  who  had  their  reserve 
rations  with  them.  As  the  night  wore  on  Ames  (Captain  Ames)  and  I  got  in  on  the  floor  of  an  ambulance  and  managed 
to  get  a  little  sleep. 

"The  ne.xt  morning  we  made  reconnoissance  of  our  position,  and  it  was  decided  that  my  battalion  should  go  in  and 
relieve  an  entire  French  Regiment  near  a  town  called  Beauvardes.  In  the  afternoon  with  my  company  officers  we 
made  reconnoissance  of  these  woods  and  ran  into  a  terrific  fight  between  our  84th  Brigade  and  the  Germans.  It  was 
very  hot  and  bloody.  Two  of  my  company  commanders  were  wounded.  A  shell  mixed  with  high  explosives  and  gas 
hit  the  roof  directly  over  my  head.  The  rain  of  rocks  and  dirt  and  tile  fell  about  us,  and  we  each  got  a  beautiful 
mouthful  of  gas. 

"My  battalion  was  on  the  move  to  make  the  relief  but  orders  came  sending  them  back  to  the  Chateau,  as  the 
relief  was  off.  The  doctor  gave  me  some  sniffs  of  ammonia,  fixed  up  my  eyes  with  boracic  acid  and  then  laid  me 
down  on  a  billiard  table  in  the  Chateau  and  I  thought  I  was  there  for  the  night.  About  midnight,  however,  orders 
came  directing  us  to  complete  the  relief,  and  then  in  the  rain  and  the  darkness  we  marched  nine  kilometers,  stretched 
along  in  columns  of  twos,  with  fifty  yards  distance  between  platoons  and  one  hundred  yards  between  companies, 
so  that  it  seemed  like  quite  an  army.  It  was  no  easy  matter  making  a  relief  in  the  woods  with  the  Germans  taking 
pot  shots  at  you,  but,  finally,  we  managed  to  effect  it,  and  I  lay  in  a  ditch  with  a  blanket  around  me,  for  an  hour's 
sleep.  The  next  morning,  in  making  the  rounds,  I  noticed  an  unusual  stillness,  and  made  report  of  the  fact  to  head- 
quarters.  We  then  learned  that  they  had  pulled  out  under  cover  of  darkness,  and  were  retreating  some  four  kilo- 


201  *AMERICAN    EXPEDITIONARY    FORCES 

From:  Division  Adjutant,  42d  Division.  September  13,  1918. 

To:       Lieutenant  Colonel  William  J.  Donovan.  165th  Infantry, 

(Through  Military  Channels). 
Subject — Citation  for  Dicoration. 

The  Commander  in  Chief,  in  the  name  of  the  President,  has  awarded  you  the  Distinguished  Service  Cross  (presented  you  September  7.  1918) 
for  the  following  act: 

"  Major  William  J.  Donovan,  165th  Infantry. 
"He  led  his  battalion  across  the  River  Ourcq  and  captured  important  enemy  strongholds  near  Villers-sur-Fere,  France,  on  28th  to  3Uth  July,  1918. 
He  was  in  advance  of  the  Division  for  four  days,  all  the  while  under  shell  and  machine  gun  fire  from  the  enemy,  who  were  on  three  sides  of  him, 
and  he  was  repeatedly  and  persistently  counter-attacked.    Fifty  per  cent  of  his  command  were  lost  and  he  himself  wounded  twice.    His  coolness, 
courage  and  efficient  leadership  rendered  possible  the  maintenance  of  this  position." 
By  Command  of  Major  General  Menoher. 

Walter  E.  Powers,  Major,  U.  S.  A.,  Adjidanl  General. 


202 


Buffalo's  Part  ix  the  World  War 


meters  ahead  of  us.  We  received  orders  to  advance.  I  was  tacked  up  on  the  flank  of  the  Alabama  Regiment.  We 
started  in  the  afternoon.  We  made  the  advance  in  line  of  small  groups  and  marched  through  large  forests  over  the 
same  grounds  the  Germans  had  left  just  a  few  hours  before.  They  had  made  a  very  orderly  retreat  as  they  had  through 
all  this  territory.  They  had  gotten  away  with  all  their  rolling  stock  and  had  left  behind  only  large  and  small  shells, 
most  of  which  were  dated  April,  May  and  .June  of  this  year.  Dead  horses  were  lying  all  about,  but  only  a  few  unburied 
Germans.    We  found  many  newly-made  graves,  but  no  wounded. 

"About  7.00  P.  M.  we  left  the  woods  and  came  out  on  a  hill  on  the  southwestern  part  of  a  place  of  which  you 
have  often  heard — Sergy.  This  town  was  on  the  other  side  of  the  Ourcq  River  and  looked  very  suspicious  to  me. 
I  halted  my  outfit  and  with  that  the  168th  also  halted.  I  then  sent  out  patrols  to  the  left  to  get  in  touch  with  the 
French  who  were  supposed  to  be  there,  but  I  could  not  find  them.  Then  we  heard  a  burst  of  machine-gun  fire  and  the 
patrol  came  back  towards  us  at  a  gallop,  one  riderless  horse.  We  had  gained  contact.  Then  the  lieutenant  in  com- 
mand came  back  and  reported  to  me,  and  all  of  us  lay  on  our  stomachs  while  the  shells  began  to  burst  all  around 
us.  It  was  a  perfect  place  for  a  fight.  This  town  lay  in  a  little  basin,  while  up  behind  us  lay  high  hills.  We  lay  on 
the  forward  slope.  As  darkness  was  coming  over,  I  moved  the  Battalion  back  on  the  reverse  slope,  where  it  could 
be  a  little  freer  from  the  fire.  That  was  a  horrible  night.  It  was  cold,  wet  and  damp,  and  the  shells  were  pretty 
uncomfortable.  I  sat  on  the  ground  with  my  knees  huddled  up  to  my  chin  and  managed  to  sleep  two  or  three  hours. 
At  4.30  A.  M.  orders  came  in  that  we  were  to  lead  an  attack  further  to  our  left.  I  went  forward  to  where  the  Colonel's 
post  was  and  reported,  and  while  there  received  a  message  from  the  General  to  advance  and  cover  the  right  of  the 
3d  BattaUon.  That  meant  an  advance  of  two  kilometers  in  the  face  of  heavy  artillery  fire.  The  Battalion  then  did 
what  I  think  was  one  of  the  best  things  I  have  seen.  We  made  that  advance  of  our  tw^o  kilometers  in  an  approach 
formation,  passed  through  a  woods,  crossed  the  River  Ourcq  with  only  five  casualties.  Shells  were  bursting  all 
around  us.  I  shall  never  forget  Ames.  He  was  handling  his  little  detachment,  as  I  was  waiting  at  the  river,  like  a 
quarterback  of  a  football  team.  We  got  up  on  top  of  the  hill  which  we  were  directed  to  take  and  dug  in.  The  other 
Battalions  were  unable  to  stand  the  fire  and  fell  back  through  us. 

"All  that  day  we  were  subjected  to  heavy  artillery  and  machine-gun  fire.  As  it  wore  on,  some  of  the  positions 
that  the  German  machine  guns  had  abandoned  were  resumed  and  they  got  in  a  cross-fire  on  us  that  made  a  heavj- 
toll.  That  day,  however,  I  lost  only  one  officer.  Two  or  three  of  the  men  dug  in  a  little  hole  that  night  and  Ames 
and  I  crept  into  it  and  I  had  a  very  refreshing  two  and  a  half  hours  sleep,  which,  with  a  cup  of  coffee  and  a  piece  of 
bacon  gave  us  new  life. 

"The  next  morning  we  were  ordered  to  connect  up  with  the  Ohio  Regiment  on  our  left  and  advance  to  a  new  objec- 
tive.  The  machine  gunners  had  climbed  in  so  close  to  us  in  the  night  that  it  was  very  difficult  to  move.   To  get  to 


An  Allied  Bombing  Plane  on  Its  Way  to  Metz 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War  203 

our  position  we  liad  to  face  a  machine  gun  nest,  with  two  machine  guns  in  the  nest  they  put  forth  a  burst  of  fire  as 
each  man  crossed  the  open  space.  Before  we  got  going  the  first  ten  men  crossing  dropped,  shot,  and  yet  the  next, 
without  a  falter,  went  over.   There  were  some  fine  examples  of  daring  and  courage. 

"Finally  we  got  back  where  the  stream  took  a  bend,  and  we  were  able  to  get  under  cover  of  a  bank.  Here  I  lost 
one  officer,  killed.  The  battalion  commanders  on  the  right  and  left  refused  to  move  forward  at  all  without  obtaining 
artillery  assistance.  I  said  that  we  would  go  forward  in  accordance  with  orders.  It  was  simply  a  matter  of  duty. 
One  sergeant  took  a  platoon  against  a  machine-gun  nest.  He  had  twenty  men  when  he  started  and  when  he  reached 
the  gun,  he  had  four.  But  he  took  the  gun  and  the  seven  men  who  were  serving  it.  We  took  very  few  prisoners. 
The  men,  when  they  saw  the  Germans  with  Red  Crosses  on  one  sleeve  and  serving  machine  guns  against  us,  firing 
until  the  last  minute,  then  cowardly  throwing  up  their  hands  and  crying  "Kamerad,"  became  just  lustful  for  Ger- 
man blood.  I  do  not  blame  them.  Several  officers  and  men  were  wounded  and  killed,  and  when  I  heard  that  Captain 
Bootz,  who  was  just  ahead  of  me,  was  wounded,  I  ran  forward  to  see  that  the  line  was  steadied.  I  met  him  as  he 
was  being  carried  out  and  I  lay  down  by  the  side  of  a  stream  to  talk  with  him.  Ames  came  running  up  behind  me  to 
look  out  for  me.  I  ordered  him  back,  but  he  just  smiled  and  said  he  was  going  to  stay  with  me.  He  came  up  and  lay 
beside  me.  A  sniper  began  to  play  on  us  and  machine  gun  bullets  crossed  my  shoulder  and  struck  Ames  in  the  ear. 
He  died  instantly.  I  reached  for  him,  and  as  I  did,  another  bullet  struck  me  in  the  hand.  I  rolled  into  the  creek, 
worked  my  way  up  to  a  group  of  men,  and  with  that  fire  playing  over  us,  stayed  there  for  three-quarters  of  an  hour 
with  mud  and  water  above  our  waists.  An  aeroplane  came  over  us,  saw  these  troops  advancing  up  the  creek,  gave 
its  signal  to  its  artillery,  and  soon  shells  began  to  drop  all  around  us  and  in  the  creek  itself.  I  got  the  men  out  and  into 
a  wood  which  was  in  the  very  center  of  the  position,  and  had  them  entrench  in  the  hillside,  and  on  the  farm  and  dug 
in  for  the  night.  We  had  advanced  some  three  kilometers  without  any  support  either  on  our  right  or  on  our  left 
flank,  with  no  artillery  preparation  and  with  no  auxiliary  arms.  We  had  done  it  with  rifles,  machine  guns  and  bayonets 
and  against  artillery  and  machine  guns. 

"All  that  night  we  held  on  and  all  the  next  day,  with  no  food,  the  machine  guns  which  the  Germans  had  placed  sweep- 
ing us  constantly.  I  do  not  know  why  I  was  not  killed.  I  had  been  previously  hit  on  the  chest  with  a  piece  of  stone 
or  shell  which  ripped  my  gas  mask  and  another  piece  of  shell  had  hit  me  on  the  left  heel,  tearing  my  shoe,  and  throw- 
ing me  off  my  balance,  while  somehow  I  got  some  shrapnel  in  my  leg.  I  guess  I  have  been  born  to  be  hanged.  All 
my  headquarters  oflicers  had  been  killed  or  wounded,  except  Weller.  I  had  Joyce  Kilmer,  who  is  a  sergeant,  and 
whose  poetry  you  have  undoubtedly  read,  acting  as  Sergeant  Major,  my  own  Sergeant  Major  having  been  wounded. 
Kilmer  got  a  bullet  in  the  head.    He  was  buried  beside  Ames. 

"I  had  worked  into  a  position  a  little  to  the  right  rear  of  the  Germans.  We  were  in  a  very  narrow  and  very  dan- 
gerous salient  but  we  had  observation  on  them.  I  got  on  the  edge  of  this  wooded  knoll  with  an  extension  telephone 
and  a  map.  I  had  six  machine  guns,  a  stokes-mortar  and  a  37  millimeter.  From  there  I  furnished  information  not 
only  to  our  ow  n  regiment  but  to  those  on  the  left  and  right.  I  would  use  the  stokes  and  the  37m.  to  strike  some  of 
the  shell  holes  where  the  Germans  were  hidden  and  then  as  they  would  start  to  get  away  we  would  shoot  them  up 
with  the  machine  gun. 

"Relief  was  effected  about  2.30  in  the  morning.  At  3.00  o'clock  I  lay  on  the  ground  and  slept  a  very  refreshing 
sleep  until  6.00  o'clock  when  the  Lieutenant  Colonel  awakened  me  and  announced  that  the  Germans  had  pulled  out 
and  that  he  was  sending  forward  patrols  from  the  3d  Battalion.  I  hiked  back  to  the  town  where  my  Battalion  had 
been  sent  and  awakened  them  and  then  we  started  out  again.  We  went  over  the  field  on  which  we  had  fought  and 
while  we  found  our  own  dead,  we  found  five  Germans  for  every  one  of  us.  The  Germans  kept  on  retreating  and  were 
moving  on  to  the  next  forest.  We  took  Moreuil,  as  you  have  read  in  the  papers  before  this,  without  opposition. 
Then  we  were  relieved  by  another  division.  We  marched  back  that  night  through  the  old  farm  we  had  taken,  crossed 
the  stream  we  had  crossed  some  days  before  and  not  a  sound  from  the  men.    It  has  its  dramatic  touch! 

"In  eight  days  of  battle,  our  Division  had  forced  the  passage  of  the  Ourcq,  taken  prisoners  from  six  enemy  divisions, 
met,  routed  and  decimated  a  crack  division  of  the  Prussian  Guards,  a  Bavarian  division  and  one  other  division  and 
driven  back  the  enemy's  line  for  16  kilometers.  In  every  day  of  that  fight  our  battalion  had  participated.  It  had 
never  retired:  it  had  gone  the  farthest  and  stayed  the  longest. 

"The  Division  Commander  and  the  Regimental  Commander  were  good  enough  to  say  that  it  was  our  Battalion 
that  had  cracked  the  shell  and  that  it  was  our  tenacity  in  rushing  forward  and  hanging  on  that  had  made  the  day 
possible.   They  have  been  good  enough  to  recommend  me  for  a  cross  in  terms  which  are  too  exaggerated." 


204  Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 


CHAPTER   LX 
FIRST    AMERICAN    ARMY    FORMED 

riEUTENANT  HAROLD  Wertz,  the  old  74th  Regiment  Sergeant  who  had  won  his  commission 
.  at  Madison  Barracks,  took  a  courageous  part  in  the  Soissons  onslaught  to  reduce  the  Marne 
■*  salient.  He  went  over  the  top  on  July  18th  with  the  First  Division,  the  18th  Regiment 
forming  the  point  of  the  attack.  His  captain  was  hit  by  a  machine  gun  bullet  before  they  had 
proceeded  far.  Wertz  assumed  command  immediately  and  led  the  company  for  three  days  through 
a  vigorous  and  unrelenting  offensive.  Just  before  the  German  salient  was  finally  crushed  in, 
Wertz,  while  leading  his  company  over  a  knoll,  was  struck  in  the  left  wrist  with  a  machine  gun 
bullet.  He  went  on  for  some  time  until  he  began  to  waver  from  the  loss  of  blood;  a  non-com- 
missioned officer  took  him  to  the  rear.  The  bullet  had  entered  just  above  the  palm  of  his  hand, 
followed  the  bone,  and  came  out  on  the  back  of  the  forearm  near  the  elbow.  The  wound  was 
received  on  July  21st.  He  was  in  the  hospital  for  more  than  a  month,  returning  in  time  for  the  St. 
Mihiel  drive,  but  was  destined  for  harder  struggles  and  severer  wounds  than  he  had  yet  experienced. 

Dombrowski,  with  the  3d  Division,  got  as  far  as  Fismes.  About  4  o'clock  in  the  afternoon  of 
July  28th  while  attacking  Fismes,  Dombrowski  started  across  a  field — a  mustard  gas  shell  landed 
near  him.  Mustard  gas  shells  make  but  little  noise  when  exploding.  He  was  heavily  gassed,  the 
effect  of  it  taking  away  his  voice  for  a  period  of  eight  days.  After  spending  a  little  more  than  a 
month  in  a  hospital  he  was  returned  to  his  command  on  September  2d. 

The  effect  of  this  American-French  offensive  of  July  18th  was  to  wipe  out  the  Marne  salient 
and  put  the  fear  of  God  into  the  German  heart.  The  crisis,  which  the  German  drive  of  March 
21st  on  the  British  line  and  of  May  27th  toward  Paris  created,  now  having  been  successfully 
met,  plans  were  again  put  in  operation  to  establish  an  American  front.  Early  in  August  General 
Foch  made  known  to  the  military  commanders  that  the  Americans  were  going  to  try  to  reduce 
the  St.  Mihiel  salient  which  had  stood  impregnable  for  four  years. 

The  First  American  Army  was  organized  on  August  10th  under  the  command  of  General 
Pershing. 

"While  American  units  had  held  different  divisional  and  corps  sectors  along  the  Western  Front, 
there  had  not  been  up  to  this  time,  for  obvious  reasons,"  said  General  Pershing,  "a  distinct  Amer- 
ican sector;  but,  in  view  of  the  important  parts  the  American  forces  were  now  to  play,  it  was 
necessary  to  take  over  a  permanent  portion  of  the  line.  Accordingly,  on  August  30th,  the  line 
beginning  at  Port  sur  Seille,  east  of  the  Moselle,  and  extending  to  the  west  through  St.  Mihiel, 
thence  north  to  a  point  opposite  Verdun,  was  placed  under  my  command.  The  American  sector 
was  afterwards  extended  across  the  Meuse  to  the  western  edge  of  the  Argonne  Forest,  and  included 
the  Second  Colonial  French,  which  held  the  point  of  the  salient,  and  the  Seventeenth  French 
Corps,  which  occupied  the  heights  above  Verdun. 

"The  preparation  for  a  complicated  operation  against  the  formidable  defenses  in  front  of  us 
included  the  assembling  of  divisions  and  of  corps  and  army  artillery,  transport,  aircraft,  tanks, 
ambulances,  the  location  of  hospitals,  and  the  molding  together  of  all  of  the  elements  of  a  great 
modern  army  with  its  own  railheads,  supplied  directly  by  our  own  service  of  supply.  The  concentra- 
tion for  this  operation,  which  was  to  be  a  surprise,  involved  the  movement,  mostly  at  night,  of  ap- 
proximately 600,000  troops,  and  required  for  its  success  the  most  careful  attention  to  every  detail. 

"The  French  were  generous  in  giving  us  assistance  in  corps  and  army  artillery,  with  its  per- 
sonnel, and  we  were  confident  from  the  start  of  our  superiority  over  the  enemy  in  guns  of  all 
calibres.  Our  heavy  guns  were  able  to  reach  Metz  and  to  interfere  seriously  with  German  rail 
movements.  The  French  Independent  Air  Force  was  placed  under  my  command  which,  together 
with  the  British  bombing  squadrons  and  our  air  forces,  gave  us  the  largest  assembly  of  aviation 
that  had  ever  been  engaged  in  one  operation  on  the  Western  Front." 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War  205 


CHAPTER   LXI 

GIRLS  AT  CANTEENS   CARRY  ON   THROUGH   THE   HOT  SUMMER 

DORIS  Kellogg  and  the  other  Buffalo  girls  working  in  canteens  in  France  during  the  months 
of  June,  July  and  August  were  engaged  in  hard,  nerve-racking  work.  Caring  for  thousands 
of  soldiers  who  passed  along  the  line  of  communication  was  no  easy  task  for  those  girls. 
The  physical  hardships,  long  hours,  heavy  trays,  and  unending  service  sapped  their  strength. 
However,  they  never  faltered. 

From  early  in  June,  through  the  hot  days  of  July  and  August,  the  roads  were  blocked  with 
soldiers  going  back  and  forth  from  the  front  lines;  new  men  arriving,  the  wounded  ones  on  their 
way  back  to  the  hospitals.  Writing  from  Chantilly  whei-e  Miss  Kellogg  was  stationed,  she  stated 
that  one  of  the  saddest  things  in  the  world  to  her  was  the  daily  trip  they  took  to  the  funerals 
of  the  American  boys  who  died  in  the  hospitals  there.  "I  tell  you,  since  I  have  seen  the  Star 
Spangled  Banner  draping  those  coffins,  the  flag  has  a  new  meaning  to  me,"  she  said. 

About  June  10th,  Miss  Kellogg  and  the  other  members  of  her  party  were  detached  from  the 
hospital  service,  where  they  temporarily  filled  in,  and  were  detailed  to  their  canteen  work  at  Orry- 
le-Ville.  Writing  from  Chantilly,  where  they  had  their  rooms.  Miss  Kellogg  set  down  in  a  very 
attractive  way  the  story  of  canteen  work  in  France  from  June  to  August. 

"The  White  House,  Chantilly,  France,  June  19,  1918. 

"At  last  I  have  seen  the  'terrible  Boche,' — seven  hundred  prisoners  just  went  through  Chantilly,  fresh  from  the 
front.  Oh.  let  me  omit  that  'fresh,'  for  they  were  anything  but  that,  just  a  worn-out  bedraggled  bunch  of  Fritzies. 
First  four  hundred  of  them  shuffled  past  me  on  the  road,  and  then  I  followed  them  till  they  were  halted  along  the 
railroad  tracks  beside  the  empty  freight  cars  which  were  to  take  them  South.  As  I  was  staring  at  them  with  firm 
mouth,  I  saw  another  bunch  coming  along.  I  beat  it  out  to  the  road  and  saw  three  hundred  more,  about  ten  officers 
in  the  first  lines.  I  looked  at  them  pretty  closely  and  found  that  most  of  them  were  quite  young  boys,  many  of  them 
very  sickly  and  thin.  Of  course,  they  were  prisoners  and  that  meant,  probably,  had  been  fighting  hard  these  past 
few  days,  at  any  rate  were  pretty  tired,  but  even  so,  I  think  them  a  much  less  formidable  bunch  than  the  French, 
and,  of  course,  a  thousand  times  less  fit  than  our  boys. 

"I  really  tried  quite  hard  to  get  up  some  feeling  of  hate  toward  those  'terrorizing  Huns,'  but  I  simply  could  not 
manage  it.  They  were  so  thin-necked  and  pinched  about  the  eyes.  The  officers  looked  a  million  times  better  kept 
than  the  men.  The  Fritzies'  uniforms  are  pretty  seedy,  patched  and  faded  but  a  marvelous  color  as  far  as  camouflage 
goes,  grey-green  that  quite  melts  into  the  landscape,  and  steel  helmet  the  same  color,  some  camouflaged,  which  comes 
quite  down  over  the  ears  and  protects  also  the  back  of  the  neck.  Only  a  few  had  their  helmets  and  the  others  wore 
those  little  round  caps  with  a  scarlet  band. 

"I  hear  that  Ahce  O'Brian  of  Buffalo  is  coming  up  to  the  canteen  next  door  to  us  as  Directrice.  It  will  be  quite 
nice  to  see  someone  from  Buffalo.    I  saw  Sheldon  Hodge  one  day  out  at  some  American  Field  Day  Sports." 


"June  25th. 

"Now  the  work  is  coming  so  fast  and  furiously.  Every  day  new  experiences  lived  through.  We  are  running  two 
canteens  and  that  makes  us  have  to  double  up  on  our  work — so  you  can  imagine  how  we  have  to  scurry.  But  work 
certainly  agrees  with  me  and  I  am  in  fine  health, — and  not  losing  weight — alack-a-day! 

"We  were  asked  to  take  over  the  canteen  at  Serveilliers,  the  next  railroad  stop  from  Orry,  where  the  soldiers  are 
taken  care  of  on  their  way  home  from  the  Front." 

(From  then  on  the  work  each  day  was  very  much  the  same,  plenty  to  do;  thousands  of  French 
soldiers  were  fed  and  refreshed  as  they  marched  through.) 

"July  15th. 

"Last  night  the  Huns  flew  over  us  on  their  way  to  Paris  and  the  Creil  defense  guns  shook  our  house.  Al  and  I 
went  down  to  the  cave  like  the  sensible  girls  we  are.  My,  but  it  was  a  brilliant  night,  clear  moon  and  many  stars, 
and  all  about  'eclat'  bursting  in  the  sky.  You  have  no  idea  of  the  different  feeling  in  the  atmosphere  now,  as  com- 
pared with  that  during  the  last  offensive.  Then  every  one  was  grim  and  apprehensive,  but  now  the  morale  has  shot 
up  like  a  rocket  and  we  all  expect  fine  things  to  come.   There  is  a  suppressed  excitement  like  electricity  in  the  air. ' ' 

"July  19th. 

"As  we  drove  into  Chantilly  this  evening  in  our  camion,  we  saw  lined  up  in  front  of  the  station  masses  and  masses 
of  German  prisoners.   We  were  ready  to  scream  with  joy.   There  were  fifteen  hundred  of  them  and  all  taken  by  our 


206 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 


-.-i-J^Cv  ^1t3-',, 


Rheims.  France,  April  5,  1919 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War  207 

boys  at  Soissons  to-day.  It  is  too  wonderful.  I  stood  so  near  them  as  they  marched  past  that  they  bumped  into  me 
time  after  time.  I  must  tell  you  that  those  Huns  were  the  most  encouraging  sight  I've  seen  since  I've  been  in  France. 
No  exaggeration,  they  are  a  terribly  mangy-looking  crowd — poor  uniforms  to  begin  with,  pieced  and  worn,  and  then 
they  are  very  young  and  have  a  decidedly  under-nourished  look,  thin  and  very  poor  color.  There  were  two  captains 
and  many  lieutenants,  and  quite  a  bunch  of  them  were  wounded. 

"But  to-night  was  the  most  unforgetable  experience  of  them  all.  The  wounded  are  pouring  in  here  by  scores  and 
we  heard  that  they  needed  food  over  at  the  huge  tent  evacuation  hospital  and  that  there  were  many  Americans  there. 
So  after  dinner  we  got  our  camion,  loaded  it  with  a  crate  of  tobacco,  hot  chocolate,  bread  and  eggs,  and  Al  ran  us 
over.  I  cannot  begin  to  express  the  condition  of  things  in  those  tents.  They  are  swamped  with  wounded  and  with- 
out hope  of  doing  anything  for  the  men  except  what  is  utterly  essential.  There,  lying  about  in  the  grass,  were  the 
wounded  Germans,  blood-caked  and  exhausted:  some  of  the  worst  cases  were  given  a  tent  and  I  watched  them  going 
in,  helping  each  other  as  well  as  they  could.  One  boy  was  crawling  and  dragging  one  leg — It  was  too  pitiful  and  I 
had  to  give  him  an  encouraging  smile.  He  appreciated  that  and  smiled  back  so  gratefully.  We  gave  some  cigarettes 
to  one  old  Red  Cross  Fritzie  who,  we  were  told  by  an  American  had  given  first  aid  to  twelve  of  our  wounded  boys 
on  the  battlefield. 

"Then  we  took  off  our  coats  and  pitched  in.  I  gave  water  to  men  who  were  writhing  in  pain,  fed  men  who  had  not 
eaten  for  two  and  three  days  and  tried  my  best  to  make  the  poor  devils  a  little  bit  comfortable  on  their  stretchers 
that  will  be  their  beds  for  a  day  or  so  more  probably.  I  went  from  gaunt,  sunken-eyed  Frenchmen  to  our  own  open- 
faced  Americans.  The  French  with  their  exquisite  appreciation  thanked  me  so  beautifully  and  our  boys  smiled 
and  said,  'She's  an  American  all  right.'  But  most  of  them  could  not  rally  enough  to  even  think,  and  after  giving  them 
some  water  we  just  let  them  rest.  The  most  heart-rending  time  of  all  is  when  you  have  to  refuse  a  boy  a  drink  on 
account  of  the  location  of  his  wound.  It  makes  your  heart  ache  as  though  it  were  being  torn  out.  Then  it  got 
dark,  and  in  the  dim  electric  light  those  long  rows  of  suffering  soldiers  were  awful.  As  we  came  out  to  the  auto,  the 
ambulances  were  still  piling  in,  and  the  full  moon  gave  enough  light  to  help  along  the  work  of  unloading. 

"One  more  thing  before  I  go  to  sleep.   They  say  we  are  two  and  a  half  miles  from  Soissons  and  that  it  must  fall." 

"Chantilly,  July  25th. 

"You  know  it's  the  saddest  thing  in  the  world.  Every  morning  now  some  of  us  take  time  off  to  go  to  the  funerals 
of  our  boys  who  die  here  in  the  hospitals.  We  follow  the  hearses  a  long  way  through  the  forest  road  to  a  new  ceme- 
tery that  has  been  cleared  this  last  week.  You  can  imagine  the  impressiveness  of  it  all,  so  simple,  with  no  unnecessary 
flourishes.  I  tell  you,  since  I've  seen  our  Star  Spangled  Banner  draping  those  coflins  the  flag  has  had  a  new  meaning 
to  me. 

"Yesterday  I  wrote  letters  for  our  boys  who  couldn't  manage  it  themselves.  I  had  the  funniest  time  trying  to 
get  them  to  tell  me  what  to  say.   They'd  say,  'Well,  you  just  go  ahead  and  write  just  like  you  was  writin'  home.' 

"So  I'd  exercise  my  imagination  a  bit,  and  then  when  I  got  to  the  end  I'd  say,  'Now  how  shall  I  end  it?'  No 
suggestions  forthcoming. 

"Well,  shall  I  say  'with  love?'  I  asked  one  big  fellow  to  whose  mother  and  father  I  was  writing.  He  simply  roared 
at  that,  and,  stretching  in  an  embarrassed  way,  said,  'This  ain't  no  love  letter.  No,  just  say,  "I  remain  your  son, 
Jeremiah.'" 

"Having  learned  a  lesson  in  correspondence  from  the  above  mentioned  .Jeremiah,  I  repeat  in  his  words,  only  alter- 
ing the  word  'son',  I  remain  your  daughter — Doris." 

July,  30th. 

"My,  but  it  was  interesting  yesterday  here  in  Chantilly,  long  lines  of  squirming,  straining  tanks  passed 
through  town  at  different  intervals  all  day.  They  were  coming  from  the  Front  where  they  have  been  fighting  with  our 
Marines  at  Chateau  Thierry  and  were  the  raciest  looking  things  in  the  world,  covered  with  mud  and  dust  and  so 
cleverly  camouflaged  and  with  wicked-looking  guns  sticking  out  of  their  turrets.  I  think  I  have  had  a  slight  change 
of  heart  since  yesterday,  and  from  now  on  these  marvelous  tankers  are  my  matinee  idols.  They  are  really  snappier 
than  the  aviators,  though  one  really  should  not  compare  them,  they  are  so  different.  The  ace  is  always  perfectly 
'soigner'  (well  groomed),  and  goodness  knows  attractive  enough,  but  your  tanker  is  a  dashing,  a  devil-may-care  fellow, 
in  black  baret  (tarn),  black  leather  coat  and  a  long  knife  stuck  through  his  belt.  I  couldn't  help  but  think  of  them  as 
pirates  of  the  land,  in  their  rolling,  heaving  tanks.  We  handed  each  fellow  a  package  of  cigarettes  as  he  passed.  It 
was  like  feeding  animals;  a  hand  would  be  thrust  out  of  the  small  opening  in  the  front  of  the  tank  where  the  driver 
sits,  grab  the  smokes,  and  then  be  drawn  quickly  in  again.  In  front  of  each  machine  stalked  the  gunner,  too  snappy 
for  anything,  with  knife  in  belt,  and  a  long,  easy  stride.    Really  it  was  a  great  sight." 

Through  the  long  Summer  the  girls  worked  hard  at  that  canteen,  but  in  October  they  were 
to  be  given  a  furlough  for  rest.  Just  before  leaving  Miss  Kellogg  wrote: 

"From  serving  meals  to  six  hundred  Poilus  every  day  at  noon  time,  we  have  now  jumped  up  to  twelve  and  thir- 
teen hundred,  and  I  can  tell  you  it  means  some  exertion  on  the  part  of  'ces  dames.'  All  this  eating  goes  on  within 
about  four  hours.  Yesterday  I  was  'tray  slinger'  and  passed  over  eleven  hundred  meals  from  the  serving  table  to 
the  counter  in  three  hours  and  a  half.    I  have  to  admit  that  last  night  after  I  got  to  bed  I  was  so  tired  and  I  ached 


208  Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 

so  that  I  couldn't  go  to  sleep  till  dear  old  Al  rubbed  all  the  knots  out  of  my  muscles.  But  'I  should  worry,'  for  I 
succeeded  in  buying  five  'Gott  Mit  Uns'  belts  to  bring  home  to  anyone  who  wants  them.  Kell  is  to  have  one  to  wear 
with  his  white  flannels — they  are  awfully  'swanky!'  (the  last  is  our  latest  expression,  acquired  from  our  two  Aus- 
tralian co-workers).  We  get  the  Poilus  here  on  their  way  home  from  the  Front,  and  they  have  lots  of  Boche  trophies 
which,  as  luck  and  military  law  will  have  it,  the  men  are  not  allowed  to  take  home  with  them.  One  of  the  girls  got 
a  short  bayonet  with  a  saw  edge;  it  seems  that  the  Hun  uses  his  spare  time  in  the  trenshes  to  hack  teeth  in  the 
blade.    It  must  be  quite  satisfying,  this  self-expression  of  his  artistic  nature." 

While  the  Meuse-Argonne  offensive  was  in  progress  a  number  of  American  canteen  workers  were 
moved  into  territory  adjacent  to  the  American  sector.  Miss  Kellogg  had  been  chosen  for  work 
with  the  American  forces,  and  late  in  October  received  a  furlough  of  ten  days,  before  taking  up 
the  new  post. 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 


209 


CHAPTER   LXII 
GERMANY'S   DEAD   MARK  TRAIL  OF  AMERICAN  ADVANCE 

THROUGH  the  rigid  censorship  during  America's  heavy  fighting  months  but  little  intelligent 
news  trickled.  We  grew  into  a  habit  of  reading  hurriedly  and  doubting  what  we  read.  The 
war  cables  refused  to  be  more  definite  than  "some  unit"  of  daring  Americans,  "some  time" 
on  the  preceding  day  or  week,  "somewhere  in  Finance "  accomplished  something.  Newspaper 
stories  carried  the  reader  to  an  interesting  point  in  a  narrative  and  then  appeared  the  word  "de- 
leted," and  we  tried  to  guess  what  in  reality  had  happened.  We  knew  Don  Martin,  New  York 
Herald  correspondent  and  knew  he  would  be  close  to  the  real  situation,  and  we  knew  further 
that  what  he  set  down  for  perusal  would  be  as  accurate  as  human  eyes  could  see  it  and  human 
hands  could  write  it,  and  as  complete  as  the  censorship  would  permit.   We  finally  felt  convinced 

that  American  boys  were  succeed- 
ing; that  Chateau  Thierry  and  Bel- 
leau  Wood  had  become  monuments 
to  the  valor  of  the  American  ma- 
rines, and  that  it  was  being  impres- 
sively demonstrated  to  the  edifica- 
tion of  the  Prussian  war  party  that 
a  new  force  had  come  into  the  war 
whose  fighting  spirit,  at  least,  was 
not  to  be  denied.  We  received  ac- 
counts of  new  American  successes 
as  over  the  top  the  doughboys  went, 
but  nothing  came  through  of  Amer- 
ican losses  or  defeats.  We  did  not 
realize  until  months  later  there  had 
been  no  American  defeats,  but  we 
gradually  began  to  hear  of  losses. 
In  August,  1918,  Don  Martin,  writing  to  his  daughter,  told  rather  briefly,  but  clearly,  the 
situation  as  it  then  existed.  It  was  the  first  real  intimate  estimate  of  the  American  achieve- 
ments anyone  in  Buffalo  had  received,  and  it  thrilled  those  who  were  fortunate  enough  to  read 
the  letter.     He  wrote: 

"Dorothy:  "Meaux,  August  4,  1918. 

"I  suppose  you  are  in  Chautauqua  or  Dahm's  Beach  or  some  pleasant  place  by  this  time.  I  trust  such  is  the  case. 
I  wish  I  were  with  you.   It  is  quite  easy  to  get  enough  of  this  war — to  get  'fed  up'  on  it  as  the  saying  goes. 

"The  war  is  going  along  pretty  well  just  now  for  the  Allies.  We  were  all  surprised  at  the  extent  of  the  German 
retreat  and  the  vigor  of  the  Allied  attack.  The  great  importance  of  the  present  situation  is,  not  the  territory  regained, 
but  the  placing  of  the  Germans  on  the  defensive.  Now  the  Allies  have  the  initiative.  The  Germans  must  be  guessing 
all  the  time  at  the  next  move.  It  has  always  been  the  other  way,  General  Foch's  and  General  Petain's  skill  as  strate- 
gists, backed  by  the  American  troops,  made  the  Allied  offensive  possible.  The  German  has  now  been  outgeneraled 
and  outfought.    The  French  did  the  outgeneraling;    the  Americans  most  strikingly  did  the  outfighting. 

"The  Americans  are  by  far  the  most  wonderful  fighters  in  Europe.  No  exception  need  be  made.  They  are  all 
young  men  who  don't  know  what  it  means  to  turn  back.  They  may  be  reckless.  We  may  suffer  heavy  losses  because 
of  the  impetuosity  of  the  Americans;  but  it  is  that  "get  there  or  die'  spirit  and  the  utter  lack  of  fear,  which  has 
temporarily  stunned  the  Germans  and  which  will  win  the  war.  Europe  never  saw  fighting  such  as  the  Americans 
are  putting  up.  Perhaps  Napoleon's  Old  Guard  was  good,  but  certainly  no  better,  than  the  Americans.  Now  Germany 
stands  no  more  chance  of  winning  the  war  than  I  do  of  being  President  of  France.  Her  teeth  have  been  pulled.  On 
the  defensive  she  can  fight  for  years,  if  necessary,  and  fight  a  desperate  war,  but  the  crest  of  her  wave  has  been  passed. 
She  is  bound  to  slip,  slip,  slip  until  she  is  defeated.    And  America  has  made  it  possible! 

'  'We  have  a  vast  army  here  now  and  a  vast  army  ready  to  fight.  Along  the  roads  in  a  part  of  the  front  now  there 
are  more  Americans  to  be  seen  than  anything  else.   I  ask  man.V  of  them  where  they  are  from.    One  says  '  Alabama,' 


German  Skeleton  With  Gas  Mask  on  Chest  Found 
on  Battlefield 


210 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 


one  'Arizona,'  'Missouri,'  'Michigan,'  'Florida,'  'New  York,'  'Ohio,'  'Wyoming'— or  they  come  from  every  State 
and  all  look  alike  somehow. 

"Yesterday  afternoon,  on  a  hill  overlooking  the  town  of  Cierges,  I  saw  56  Americans  buried  in  a  big  grave.  Strangely 
enough  a  German  clergyman  from  Milwaukee,  conducted  the  ceremony.  Of  course,  he  is  an  American,  and,  I  judge 
from  what  he  said,  a  very  good  one.  These  men  were  killed  by  machine-gun  bullets  while  capturing  a  woods  where 
the  Germans  were  strongly  entrenched.  I  wrote  quite  a  story  about  the  fight  for  the  woods.  On  the  field  adjoining 
I  saw  dead  Huns  all  over;  in  the  woods  there  are  scores  of  them.  Around  a  little  farm  of  ten  acres,  known  as  Bellevue 
Farm,  I  counted  72  dead  Germans  in  a  trench  and  could  have  counted  more  than  a  hundred  in  a  quarry  nearby,  if 
I  had  cared  to  do  so.  I  was  there  the  day  after  the  battle  occurred.  The  farm  house  was  banged  all  to  pieces  but 
the  old  couple  (I  mentioned  them  in  a  story  I  wrote  last  night),  were  back  trying  to  do  something  with  the  ruin.  I 
could  not  help  but  feel  that  it  is  a  fine  thing  to  have  someone  come  in  and  use  your  house  and  farm  for  a  battlefield. 
I  went  along  the  entire  wake  of  the  retreating  Germans;  saw  the  fires  at  night,  caused  by  burning  ammunition  dumps, 
and  heard  the  constant  booming  of  our  guns  which  were  dropping  shells  on  the  roads  over  which  the  fleeing  Germans 
were  going.    The  scene  along  these  roads  is  not  a  pleasant  one. 

"I  hope  the  people  at  home  are  reconciled  to  the  fact  that  the  United  States  will  pay  a  heavy  price  in  lives  to  win 
the  war.  It  can't  be  helped.  It  seems  a  terrible  thing,  but  the  blame  must  be  put  on  Germany.  And  how  the  Ameri- 
cans hate  the  Germans!  The  spirit  runs  all  through  the  army.  The  Germans  are  triek-y  and  unfair,  as  the  newspapers 
have  told  you.  The  men  at  machine  guns  keep  shooting  at  the  enemy  until  they  see  they  are  bound  to  be  captured, 
when  they  put  up  their  hands  and  cry  '  Kamarad,'  meaning  they  want  to  surrender.  One  man  with  a  machine  gun 
can  kill  or  wound  from  200  to  1,000  soldiers  and  the  theory  of  the  Americans  is  that  a  German  who  has  done  every- 
thing he  could  to  murder  and  then  asks  for  mercy  should  be  treated  with  a  bayonet  or  a  rifle  bullet— and  that  is 
precisely  what  happens.  The  Americans,  however,  never  disregard  the  cry  of  '  Kamarad '  when  the  soldiers  give  up 
in  an  honorable  way.  The  truth  of  the  whole  situation  is  the  Germans  have  found  a  foe  that  can  lick  them  every 
time  they  meet,  and  Germany  is  worried." 


An  AiUL-ncaii  Murine  Receiving  Instructions  from  a  French  Blue 
in  the  Value  of  Individual  Concealment 


Devil 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 


211 


CHAPTER   LXIII 

108th  infantry   ENTERS   FRONT   LINE   AT   MOUNT    KEMMEL 

During  the  period  the  American  Army  was  engaged  in  crushing  the  Marne  Salient,  and 
before  the  77th  Division  began  to  fight  its  way  through  the  valley  of  the  Vesle,  Buffalo's 
National  Guardsmen,  the  old  74th,  co-operating  with  the  British,  were  holding  the  line 
before  Kemmel  Hill.  Most  of  their  time  through  the  months  of  July  and  August  was  spent  on 
that  front,  the  Buffalo  boys  being  located  in  what  is  generally  known  as  the  Dickebush  Swamp. 
They  were  in  a  low  land  and  in  a  position  where  they  could  not  inflict  much  damage  on  the  enemy 
being  subject  themselves,  however,  to  shelling  and  raiding  parties.  They  left  the  Mt.  Kemmel 
front  on  the  31st  of  August.  The  period  of  time  beginning  with  their  landing  in  France  until 
they  pulled  out  on  that  hot  summer's  day,  forms  a  rather  interesting  chapter  in  the  history  of 
their  career. 

The  108th  Infantry  arrived  at  Brest  in  the  Spring  of  1918  on  two  separate  convoys.  Those 
arriving  in  the  first  convoy  were  Headquarters  and  the  First  Battalion,  stepping  foot  on  French 
soil  on  May  24th,  while  the  detachments  consisting  of  the  Second  and  Third  Battalions  dis- 
embarked on  May  31st.  The  first  named  contingent  was  camped  at  Fort  Bougon  on  the  out- 
skirts of  Brest,  while  the  latter  was  quartered  at  Pontenezen  Barracks,  between  two  and  three 
miles  from  the  City.  The  latter  place  is  of  particular  interest  historically  as  it  was  at  one  time 
a  barracks  and  training  headquarters  for  the  Armies  of  Napoleon.  The  barracks  proper  were 
surrounded  by  an  old  stone  wall  enclosing  stone  buildings  of  considerable  age.  These  were  being 
used  at  the  time  for  much  the  same  purpose  as  they  had  been  in  the  past,  such  as  quarters  for 
troops,  warehouses,  jails  or  guardhouses,  hospitals,  commandant's  headquarters  and  officers' 
quarters.    The  accommodations  were  much  too  small  to  care  for  incoming  American  troops.     For 


212 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 


■^^m:i',i^xn^mM9^,\{^\{^\■^.\^A 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War  213 

this  reason  various  fields  for  many  miles  on  each  side  had  been  taken  over  for  camp  sites,  while 
others  were  used  simply  for  bivouac  shelter  tent  camps. 

Fortunately  the  weather  was  continuously  fair  and  warm  so  that  privations  which  would  have 
loomed  large  under  other  circumstances  were  lost  sight  of  in  the  novelty  experienced  by  newly 
arrived  troops.  The  change  from  a  regular  and  fairly  abundant  ship's  mess  to  that  supplied  by 
entirely  inadequate  issue  from  the  camp  commissary  was  very  noticeable.  To  add  to  the  difficulty 
most  of  the  units  were  at  once  put  to  work  on  the  docks  to  aid,  in  conjunction  with  negro  troops, 
unloading  freight  from  the  transports,  which  work  was  kept  up  during  24  hour  shifts  and  should 
have  been  backed  up  with  hearty,  well-cooked  meals.  Still,  in  spite  of  those  drawbacks,  work  was 
carried  on  with  great  cheerfulness  on  the  part  of  the  men. 

After  about  a  week  of  that  duty  which  served  well  in  losing  their  sea-legs,  and  once  more  teach- 
ing them  to  shift  for  themselves,  they  entrained  by  battalions  and  similar  units  for  a  three  day 
train  trip,  destination,  of  course,  unknown.  Later  developments  proved  that  they  were  on 
their  way  to  the  Abbeville  area  to  join  the  British  forces  with  which  they  were  to  be  affiliated. 

It  was  on  that  trip  the  men  first  used  that  antiquated  and  battle-scarred  side-door  "Pullman," 
henceforth  to  be  known  to  the  doughboy  as  "40  Hommes,  8  Chevaux."  In  those  carriages, 
scarcely  larger  than  a  piano  box,  were  crowded  thirty-two  men  plus  their  equipment  and  rations, 
and  although  subjected  on  that  and  future  movements  to  considerable  scorn  and  ridicule,  that 
means  of  transportation  served  its  purpose  throughout  their  continental  travelling  experience. 
This  first  ride  took  them  to  Noyelles,  north  of  the  Somme,  a  place  used  by  the  British  for  han- 
dling troops  sent  into  the  Abbeville  area  for  training. 

The  train  schedules  were  apparently  so  arranged  as  to  bring  all  arrivals  to  Noyelles  in  the  morn- 
ing to  allow  time  for  detraining,  messing  and  turning  in  surplus  equipment  preparatory  to  march- 
ing into  billets  in  the  Abbeville  area.  Their  arrival  at  Noyelles  marked  the  time  at  which  they  were 
supposed  to  leave  behind  the  customs  and  traditions  of  the  U.  S.  Army  in  which  they  had  been 
so  carefully  brought  up,  in  order  that  they  might  study  and  adapt  themselves  to  those  of  our 
Allies  the  British,  with  whom  their  lot  had  been  cast  for  the  duration  of  the  war.  It  was  there- 
fore with  a  chip  on  their  shoulder  they  climbed  out  and  organized  their  forces  under  the  super- 
vision of  British  officials.  A  48-hour  train  trip  with  meager  fare  and  sleepless  nights  added  nothing 
to  the  frame  of  mind  with  which  they  met  their  future  comrades-in-arms. 

They  were  hurried  by  detachments  for  mess  to  an  unusually  dirty  area,  set  aside  for  feeding 
detraining  troops  and  at  that  point  received  their  initiation  into  the  mysteries  of  the  British  issue. 
It  consisted  of  two  hard-tack,  one-half  cup  of  tea  and  one-fourth  tin  of  "bully-beef  "per  man. 
Poor  fare  after  the  famine  of  a  three-day  train  trip.  After  messing  was  finished  the  troops  were 
distributed  by  units  in  surrounding  fields  and  relieved  of  all  surplus  articles  so  that  ultimately 
each  soldier  carried  away  what  later  proved  to  be  the  regular  fighting  equipment  of  Ameri- 
can soldiers  with  the  British  Army.  The  surplus  property  was  stacked  in  piles,  each  of  its 
kind,  blankets,  shoes,  blouses,  breeches,  underwear,  etc.  These  were  quickly  made  into  bundles 
and  reloaded  on  the  cars  under  constant  attention  of  a  swarm  of  civilians  and  British  "  Tommies. " 

After  going  through  the  preliminaries  of  reduction  in  weight,  packs  were  made  and  troops 
formed  for  a  march  to  Nouvion — their  camp  site  for  the  night.  This  camp  was  located  on  a  bare 
slope  about  three  miles  from  Noyelles  and  was  in  the  form  of  conical  tents  thoroughly  camouflaged. 
They  were  again  rationed  by  the  British,  having  received  neither  equipment  nor  supplies  of  their 
own.  At  that  point  the  shortage  of  water  began  to  make  itself  felt,  but  little  did  they  realize 
how  much  greater  would  be  the  scarcity  in  days  to  come.  Before  taps,  troops  were  formed  and 
sectors  designated  into  which  they  were  to  deploy  in  case  of  air-raids.  Fortunately  they  were 
not  subjected  to  attack  and  had  the  first  full  night's  sleep  since  leaving  Brest. 

From  Nouvion  the  regiment  marched  to  its  billeting  area.  Headquarters  and  the  Third  Battalion 
being  at  Canchy  a  distance  of  about  five  miles,  while  the  Second  and  First  were  at  Domvast 
and  Froyelles  respectively.  The  Division,  less  artillery,  eventually  reached  this  area  with  Head- 
quarters at  St.  Riquier  and  under  the  Commanding  General  of  the  Fourth  British  Army  who 


214 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 


assigned  to  them  a  "Cadre,"  meaning  corps  of  British  instructors,  both  officers  and  N.  C.  O's. 
Judging  from  later  experiences  that  billeting  area  would  be  called  fair,  but  to  green  troops  straight 
from  well-regulated  camps  in  the  States,  it  was  a  great  source  of  disappointment  to  take  up  liv- 
ing quarters  in  French  barns,  lofts  and  chicken-coops. 

The  water  supply  of  northern  France  was  dangerous  and  scanty.  A  corps  of  chemists  and 
inspectors  had  to  establish  the  status  of  all  wells  and  sources  of  supply  before  troops  could 
use  the  water.  Carts  provided  for  hauling  water  were  handled  by  men  trained  for  the  work  and  all 
water  received  a  proper  sterilizing  treatment.  Bathing,  washing  and  delousing  facilities  com- 
mensurate with  the  fuel  and  water  supply  were  diligently  and  ingeniously  operated.  Cases  were 
observed  where  water  supply  was  so  short  that  it  was  necessary  to  save  waste  water,  treat  it 
chemically,  settle  it,  and  use  it  over  again. 


Some  Buffalo  Officers,  108th  Infantry 

After  they  had  been  in  the  Abbeville  area  for  about  ten  days  and  training  had  been  well  es- 
tablished it  was  decided  to  move  the  division  to  the  St.  Valery  area  just  south  of  the  Somme. 
Pursuant  to  orders  the  regiment  marched  on  .June  18th,  a  distance  of  some  21  miles.  The  march 
was  extremely  difficult  owing  to  the  distance  and  the  fact  that  no  opportunity  had  been  given 
to  harden  the  men  since  leaving  home.  The  weather  was  hot  and,  as  the  wearing  of  blouses 
was  insisted  on,  there  was  a  tremendous  amount  of  straggling  on  account  of  exhaustion  and  blis- 
tered feet.  French  roads  are  very  hard  and  this  trip  stands  out  in  memory  of  most  of  the  old 
74th  men  as  by  far  the  most  difficult  of  even  their  forced  marches  into  the  line. 

On  Sunday  .June  20th  they  had  their  first  day  of  rest  since  leaving  the  boat  a  month  before. 
A  game  of  ball  was  arranged  with  the  3d  Canadian  Divisional  Signal  Company.  Officers  and 
men  found  many  acquaintances  in  the  troops  from  home  and  much  of  the  vin  sisters  (blanc  and 
rouge)  was  consumed  to  the  health  of  our  Canadian  cousins — a  fine  lot  of  fighting  men. 

Owing  to  the  conditions  on  the  Ypres  front  the  108th  was  moved  on  .July  2d,  to  the  vicinity 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War  215 

of  St.  Omar  about  25  miles  east  of  Calais.  This  trip  carried  them  via  St.  Pol  very  close  to  the 
lines  and  through  the  first  really  devastated  country  they  had  seen. 

By  the  night  of  July  3d  the  regiment  was  again  thoroughly  established.  On  July  4th  a  review 
of  the  54th  Brigade  was  conducted  by  the  Commanding  General  P.  E.  Pierce.  The  afternoon 
was  devoted  to  band  concerts,  boxing  and  wrestling  matches,  until  the  spectators  were  scattered 
by  a  fleet  of  Jerry  planes. 

At  8  o'clock  on  the  morning  of  the  5th  the  regiment  marched  on  Zermezeele.  Later  events  proved 
that  this  was  the  first  day  of  its  march  into  Belgium.  That  night  it  bivouacked  in  the  vicinity 
of  Zermezeele  ten  miles  from  the  Belgian  frontier  and  due  west  of  Ypres.  The  6th  was  spent  in 
resting  and  washing  up.  On  the  7th  the  march  was  continued  via  Cassel  and  Steenvoords  when 
in  the  early  afternoon  the  men  crossed  the  Belgian  frontier  and  earned  the  distinction  of  being  the 
first  American  troops  to  enter  Belgium.  In  this,  the  St.  Eloi  area,  regimental  headquarters  was  in  an 
abandoned  British  aerodrome  near  Abeele  while  the  1st,  2d  and  3d  battalions  were  at  Beauvoords 
Woods,  St.  Eloi  and  Trappist  Farm  respectively.  Very  few  billets  were  available,  making  a  bivouac 
camp  necessary,  which  was  bad  owing  to  the  fact  that  the  weather  which  for  nearly  two  months 
had  been  ideal  for  campaigning,  suddenly  changed  to  a  series  of  thunder  storms  with  much  rain. 

The  2d  American  Corps,  comprising  the  27th  and  30th  Divisions,  was  attached  to  the  19th 
Corps  of  the  2d  British  Army  under  General  Plumer.  About  July  7th  the  Americans  found 
themselves  established  west  of  Ypres  with  Division  headquarters  at  Oudezeele  and  Watou 
respectively.  They  had  been  moved  into  that  area  in  anticipation  of  a  big  German  push  on  the 
Ypres  sector,  the  enemy  intention  supposedly  being  to  break  through  the  British  lines  to  the 
sea,  Calais  on  the  Channel  being  only  40  miles  from  the  Boche  lines. 

For  defensive  purposes  the  27th  Division  was  given  a  certain  sector  of  the  East  Poperinghe 
Line  which  was  a  switch  line  constructed  in  support  of  the  Scherpenberg-Dickebush  system 
which  latter  was  the  main  line  of  defense  at  that  time.  Incidentally,  a  portion  of  it  covered  a 
section  of  the  famous  Kemmel  Hill  held  by  the  Hun. 

The  108th  sector  of  the  East  Poperinghe  line  was  about  6,000  yards  front,  extending  that  dis- 
tance south  from  the  southern  edge  of  the  town  of  Poperinghe.  The  regiment  was  disposed  with 
the  3d  battalion  on  the  left  and  the  2d  in  the  center  and  the  first  on  the  right.  The  proper  dis- 
positions were  made  by  personal  reconnaissance  of  officers  from  all  units.  Various  headquarters, 
ammunition  and  supply  dumps,  signal  centers,  telephone  cables,  routes  for  troops  and  separate 
routes  for  transport  were  all  laid  out  by  small  carefully  conducted  parties.  Machine  gun  nests  and 
strong  points  were  also  planned.  During  the  progress  of  that  work  the  billeting  area  was  also 
subjected  to  periodical  shelling  and  air  raids  both  day  and  night.  They  were  being  constantly 
warned  by  the  British  of  an  impending  push  by  the  enemy  which  was  expected  about  July  18th. 
Other  units  of  the  division  had  not  yet  come  up  so  that  the  108th  was  to  hold  the  position  at 
all  costs  even  if  they  were  wiped  out  in  doing  so.    They  were  thus  in  a  most  critical  position. 

The  2d  Battalion  had  sent  two  companies  into  the  East  Poperinghe  line  on  July  19th,  occupy- 
ing the  line  for  several  days.  On  July  23d,  Company  F  had  two  men  killed  in  action  by  the  explo- 
sion of  an  enemy  shell — Corporal  Morris  Lynchick  and  Private  Grant  C.  Colton.  These  were  the 
first  casualties  which  the  regiment  had  experienced  in  action.  The  battalion  joined  the  regi- 
ment in  the  Tilques  area  on  July  25th. 

The  regiment  was  in  the  Tilques  training  area  for  eight  days  during  which  time  intensive 
instruction  was  given  in  target  practice  as  well  as  all  the  specialties  before  mentioned.  Further 
supplies  were  issued  here  so  that  altogether  when  the  regiment  left  for  the  St.  Eloi  area  on 
August  1st  it  felt  ready  for  any  emergency  that  might  arise. 

Front  line  duty  in  that  sector  was  almost  a  typical  example  of  position  warfare  as  developed 
during  four  years.  There  was  no  general  advance  on  the  lines  but  numerous  small  raids 
and  counter  attacks,  together  with  artillery  counter  preparation  and  gas  shelling,  which  kept 
them  very  busy.  They  also  did  a  great  deal  of  trench  digging  and  wire  work,  the  latter  along 
the  front  line  which  was  a  series  of  organized  shell  holes  held  thinly  by  Lewis  guns  and  rifie 


216  Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 


posts.  The  casualties*  were  fairly  light  during  the  action  but  as  the  men  were  experiencing  the 
front  line  "baptism  of  fire"  they  weighed  rather  heavily.  However,  the  morale  was  superb, 
so  that  after  the  last  unit  was  relieved  and  had  had  a  few  days  rest  the  men  felt  like  veterans 
and  were  again  ready  for  duty. 

The  lOSth's  next  move  into  the  line  came  on  August  23d  just  four  days  after  the  last  battalion 
was  out  of  the  previous  action.  At  this  time  the  27th  Division  relieved  the  British  6th  Division 
in  the  Scherpenberg-Dickebush  Lake  system.  The  53d  Brigade  was  disposed  in  the  front  and 
support  lines  of  the  divisional  sector  while  the  54th  Brigade  was  in  reserve,  the  108th  Infantry 
being  on  the  left  of  the  reserve  sector.  Regimental  headquarters  were  then  just  south  of  the  town 
of  Poperinghe.  The  1st  and  2d  battalions  were  in  the  vicinity  of  Ouderloom,  backing  up  the 
106th  Infantry,  while  the  3d  battalion  was  further  west  near  Mandalay  Corners. 

For  the  next  few  days  their  duties  in  the  reserve  were  chiefly  maintaining  liaison  with  forward 
units,  sending  out  scouting  parties,  mapping  and  reorganizing  their  position.  They  were  inter- 
mittently subjected  to  all  kinds  of  artillery  fire  which  was  directed  by  the  enemy  against  battery 
positions  and  roads.  Air  activity  was  considerable  and  resulted  in  severe  casualties  in  Company  I. 

The  strain  of  enduring  shell  fire  in  reserve  areas  and  waiting  for  something  to  happen  far  for- 
ward was  very  wearing  so  that  when  the  news  came  on  August  28th  that  the  Boche  were  evacuat- 
ing Mt.  Kemmel  and  falling  back  all  along  the  line  it  was  received  with  much  relief.  Word  was 
received  to  be  ready  to  move  forward  at  a  moment's  notice  and  they  remained  ready  for  twelve 
hours  but  no  order  came. 

In  the  meantime  the  53d  Brigade  advanced,  suffering  severe  losses  from  machine  gun  nests 
which  had  been  left  by  the  enemy  for  rear  guard  action.  They  continued  their  advance,  however, 
to  Vierstraat  Ridge  which  they  held  until  the  Division  was  relieved  by  the  British  on  August 
31st.  They  moved  out  of  the  line  at  that  time  and  concentrated  around  Winnezeele  preparatory 
to  entraining  for  a  rest  area  near  Doullens.  Casualties  suffered  by  the  regiment  during  the  cam- 
paign in  Belgium  were  as  follows: 

Killed— 10  Wounded~.56  Missing— 4 

It  has  been  well  established  through  official  channels  that  the  British  were  ready  to  leave 
the  Mt.  Kemmel  front  on  a  moment's  notice  of  attack  at  the  time  the  two  American  divisions 
arrived.  The  big  German  attack  was  expected  there  at  that  time,  and  the  British  officers  were  frank 
in  saying  they  did  not  expect  to  be  able  to  stop  it;  they  expressed  an  eager  willingness  to  turn  the 
job  over  to  the  Americans.  The  latter  proposed  to  let  Fritz  know  he  had  been  to  the  circus.  That 
German  attack  was  never  made.  Fritz  was  then  in  trouble  on  the  Marne.  The  incident  simply  went 
to  show  how  shaken  was  the  confidence  and  how  low  the  morale  of  the  British  Army  in  that  sector 
when  the  Buffalo  boys  and  their  associates  in  the  27th  Division  entered  the  Mount  Kemmel  front. 

The  27th  Division  was  relieved  on  September  3d  and  went  into  reserve  at  Beauquesne  near 
Amiens,  preparatory  to  participating  in  the  drive  by  which  General  Foch  contemplated  breaking 
the  German  line  of  supplies  between  Valenciennes  and  Metz,  and  obtaining  control  of  the  Sedan- 
Mezieres  railroad.  In  that  effort  the  Americans  were  affiliated  with  the  British  Fourth  Army 
under  General  Rawlinson,  and,  best  of  all,  were  to  co-operate  with  the  Australian  troops  between 
whom  and  the  Americans  a  very  strong  attachment  had  sprung  up.  The  men  understood  they 
were  to  make  a  drive  on  the  famous  Hindenburg  line  where  on  three  distinct  occasions  the 
British  had  been  repulsed. 

Arriving  in  Doullens  from  their  rest  area  the  108th  Regiment  assembled  at  a  place  called 
Tincourt,  a  small  woods  located  in  what  was  known  as  the  Somme  area  at  a  point  back  of  the 
Hindenburg  line  between  Cambria  and  St.  Quentin. 


*  The  third  man  of  the  108th  to  meet  death  was  Corporal  James  Carney,  the  first  Buffalo  man  of  the  regiment  to  be  killed.  While  on  duty  in 
Belgium  on  August  13th,  a  shell  struck  the  point  of  Corporal  Carney's  gun,  filling  him  with  shrapnel.  He  died  instantly.  Private  Fred  Hall  of 
Batavia  was  badly  wounded  by  the  same  shell.  Another  ButTalo  man  of  the  108th  to  give  his  life  while  the  regiment  was  in  the  Dickebush  sector 
was  Corporal  W.  H.  Davidson.  He  had  just  been  selected  as  a  Gas  N.  C.  O.  and  had  been  up  in  the  front  line  for  instruction.  Coming  out  of  the 
line  he  received  a  bullet  through  the  chest  and  was  dead  when  picked  up  by  first  aid  men. 

While  the  regiment  was  still  in  Belgium,  in  the  reserve  line,  a  Hun  night  Iiombing  plane  dropped  'an  egg*  on  a  billet  and  wounded  thirteen 
members  of  I  Company.  Sergeant  Souter  was  killed  instantly;  Charles  W.  Hoadley,  a  Bradford  boy  was  also  killed,  and  Corporal  Wagner  severely 
wounded.  — Captain  E.  G.  Ziegler. 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War  217 


CHAPTER   LXIV 
77th  division   IN   THE   HELL   HOLE   VALLEY   OF   THE   VESLE 

IT  will  be  recalled  that  General  Pershing  in  concluding  his  report  on  the  breaking  of  the  German 
Marne  salient  said,  "the  77th  Division  took  up  a  position  on  the  Vesle. "  That  statement 
is  interesting,  and  important  perhaps,  only  in  that  it  was  the  official  announcement  of  the 
arrival  of  the  first  National  Army  division  on  the  fighting  front.  First  in  France,  first  to  hold  a 
front  line  position,  and  now,  first  among  the  selective  service  men  to  enter  the  battle  line  is  some- 
thing of  a  distinction  which  that  Division  of  Buffalo  boys  and  their  comrades  from  other  sections 
of  the  State  will  long  enjoy. 

Beginning  on  the  night  of  August  1st  the  37th  Division,  composed  of  former  Ohio  national 
guardsmen,  moved  up  to  the  Baccarat  front  to  relieve  the  77th  Division.  When  the  77th  had 
relieved  the  42d  at  Baccarat  it  was  green,  frightfully  green;  American  military  men  knew  it, 
the  77th  knew  it,  and  the  Germans  knew  it.  It  was  a  much  improved  outfit,  however,  when  the 
Ohio  men  came  up  for  front  line  training,  and  the  77th  was  withdrawn  for  front  line  action.  But 
five  Buffalo  boys,  so  far  as  now  known,  were  in  the  Ohio  Division  which  moved  up  to  that  Lor- 
raine sector  on  August  First.  One  was  Charles  Freuh,  who  had  been  rejected  by  the  doctors  in 
Buffalo,  but  who  persistently  sought  enlistment  and  finally  was  accepted  by  the  physicians  in 
Cleveland,  enlisting  in  the  " Cleveland  Greys;"  another  was  Victor  Sweeney,  of  95  Eastwood 
Place,  a  student  of  Case  College  in  Cleveland  who  enlisted  in  the  Ohio  National  Guard  at  the 
outbreak  of  the  war;  Irving  H.  Johnson,  147th  Infantry  and  two  Greek  boys,  William  Huroodas, 
148th  Infantry,  and  Speur  Sardales,  147th  Infantry.  Two  of  these  boys  were  severely  injured 
before  the  close  of  the  war,  the  first  named  passing  through  a  tragic  experience. 

When  the  37th  Division  arrived  at  Baccarat  and  the  77th  was  leaving,  the  302d  Engineers 
were  the  first  to  move  out.  They  proceeded  by  march  to  the  neighborhood  of  Bayon,  where 
they  were  joined  by  the  artillery.  The  infantry  hiked  to  Charmes.  On  August  6th  they  entrained 
but  were  unaware  of  their  destination.  Their  train  ride  lasted  for  two  days  and  they  soon  became 
aware  of  the  fact  that  they  were  going  into  the  neighborhood  of  real  battle.  The  Engineers  and 
the  Artillery  detrained  at  Coulommieres.  Here  they  found  busses  waiting.  They  were  carried 
through  the  ruin  and  wreckage  of  the  Marne  battlefield  over  which  the  Americans  had  just  driven 
the  retreating  Huns.  Death  stared  at  them  from  every  ditch.  Snipers,  dead  in  their  lofty  tree- 
top  posts,  swung  in  the  wind;  destroyed  buildings,  the  scattered  bodies  of  animals,  torn  with 
shells,  all  gave  them  a  never-to-be-forgotten  introduction  to  a  real  battle  area.  The  bus  ride 
carried  them  through  Chateau  Thierry  and  Fere-en-Tardenois  to  Nesle  Wood,  near  Seringes. 
They  joined  the  infantry  at  Fere-en-Tardenois,  and  then  relieved  the  tired  and  battle-worn  4th 
American  and  52d  French  divisions.  The  relief  was  effected  on  the  night  of  August  11th,  in  the 
"Hell-Hole  Valley  of  the  Vesle,"  where  the  advance  in  the  second  battle  of  the  Marne  had  been 
halted. 

The  77th  was  given  no  time  to  be  shown  around  and  get  acquainted  with  its  new  premises;  the 
old  tenants  pulled  out  and  the  new  moved  in.  The  28th  Pennsylvania  guardsmen  had  relieved 
the  32d  Division  on  the  right  of  the  77th,  and  a  French  Division  was  on  the  left.  Opposing  the 
77th  were  the  German  17th,  39th  and  216th  Divisions  and  the  Fourth  Guard  Division.  While 
the  Germans  had  been  pushed  out  of  the  Marne  salient,  nothing  was  wrong  with  their  morale  at 
that  time,  and  military  men,  generally,  conceded  the  Germans  had  not  given  way  much.  The 
moral  effect  at  home  of  their  failure  to  go  through  was  the  most  serious  blow  they  had  suffered. 
The  worst  was  yet  to  come. 

The  entire  77th  Division  was  in  position  by  the  17th  of  August,  the  artillery  being  the  last 
to  come  up,  and  for  three  weeks  stood  a  rather  severe  siege.  They  found  themselves  buried  in 
the  hottest  kind  of  a  hole.    The  Engineers,  302d  Regiment,  worked  heroically  night  after  night 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War  219 

repairing  the  bridges  over  the  Vesle  under  heavy  shell  and  machine  gun  fire.  They  constructed 
wire  defenses  for  their  positions,  constructed  many  artillery  and  foot  bridges,  repaired  and  cam- 
ouflaged roads.  Here  the  first  Buffalo  man  in  the  302d  Engineers  to  die,  Private  Wallace  Parmenter, 
was  killed  while  at  work  on  a  bridge. 

Two  other  Buffalo  boys  of  the  302d  Engineers  were  killed  at  that  point,  "It  was  a  bright 
Sunday  morning  about  8  o'clock,  when  'Fritz'  started  to  shell  us, "said  William  Sweetland  of 
Angola.  "  It  was  breakfast  time  and  some  of  those  who  had  been  out  on  detail  the  night  before 
had  not  yet  got  up.  I  was  just  going  down  with  my  mess  kit  when  I  heard  a  shell  coming.  I 
flopped  flat  on  the  ground  for  I  could  tell  by  the  sound  it  was  going  to  land  pretty  close.  They 
have  the  sound  of  a  sky  rocket  when  they  'go  off.'  It  landed  and  threw  dirt  all  over  us.  The 
second  landed  right  in  front  of  my  comrade's  bunk.   Then  I  heard  the  cry  for  first  aid. 

"When  the  smoke  cleared  away  three  were  dead  and  two  of  them  were  Buffalo  boys,  George 
Kreutzer  and  Gerald  Sabin.  The  shell  had  killed  three  and  wounded  four.  Our  chaplain  could 
not  get  there  that  day  and  I  volunteered  to  take  his  place.  I  held  a  short  service  and  buried 
my  friends  that  afternoon." 

Roswell  Park,  a  first  lieutenant  in  the  305th  Infantry,  of  this  Division  was  put  out  of  the  war 
at  the  time  his  regiment  moved  up  on  the  Vesle.  He  was  gassed  and  shell-shocked  on  August 
14th,  and  was  never  returned  to  his  company.  Lieutenant  Park,  in  a  letter  prior  to  that  time, 
shows  how  small  this  old  world  is  anyway.  It  is  injected  here  rather  abruptly,  but  necessarily, 
as  Park  here  passes  out  of  the  war  picture: 

"The  middle  of  June  saw  me  in  Paris  for  eight  days  where  I  was  fortunate  to  meet  Roscoe 
R.  Mitchell,  Arnold  Watson,  James  How,  William  Meadows  and  C.  W.  Goodyear  who  had  just 
landed  for  Red  Cross  work.  Also  met  Mrs.  John  Knox  Freeman  who  was  working  with  the  Ser- 
bian Mission  of  the  American  Red  Cross  and  who  was  later  decorated  by  the  Serbian  Govern- 
ment. Captain  Davis  T.  Dunbar  arrived  in  Paris  while  I  was  there,  having  just  been  through 
the  famous  fight  at  Belleau  Wood.  I  also  met  Captain  (later  Major)  John  Satterfield.  While 
in  the  field  hospital  near  Fere-en-Tardenois  I  met  up  with  a  Buffalo  operating  team  composed 
of  Captain  (later  Major)  Joseph  P.  Brennen  and  First  Lieutenants  M'Dowell  and  Fairbanks. 
Also  met  '  Bill '  Emerick  of  the  Courier,  and  it  was  good  to  see  them. " 

It  was  the  dogdays  of  Summer  when  the  Division  arrived  on  the  Vesle,  and  the  77th  were 
super-heated  with  all  the  Germans  had  to  send  over.  As  one  Buffalo  boy  put  it  "the  smaller 
guns  were  sending  over  quart  cans  of  dynamite  and  the  larger  ones  cook-stoves. 

"Baccarat,"  he  said,  "was  only  a  boxing  match,  but  the  Vesle,  that  was  a  sure-enough  fight." 

The  Vesle  River  is  only  about  thirty  feet  wide  at  that  point,  and  eight  or  ten  feet  in  depth 
at  its  deepest  point.  It  has  high,  straight  banks,  however,  and  steep  ridges  on  each  side.  The 
Germans  held  the  north  bank,  while  the  front  of  the  77th  Division  ran  parallel  with  the  southern, 
one  end  touching  at  Mont  Notre  Dame  and  extending  east  in  the  direction  of  Fismes.  The  artil- 
lery was  behind  Hill  210.  For  three  weeks  the  77th  held  that  position  under  artillery  fire,  suffer- 
ing many  casualties.  German  patrols  crossed  the  river  at  frequent  intervals  and  hand-to-hand 
combats  were  numerous. 

The  77th,  however,  was  no  longer  a  "green"  Division,  but  was  rapidly  rounding  into  a  high- 
class  combat  organization.   Still,  it  had  a  severe  lesson  yet  to  learn. 

That  lesson  was  taught  on  the  Vesle ! 

The  Division  leaders,  growing  restless  under  the  severe  strain  of  simply  holding  without  the 
incentive  of  making  an  advance,  decided  to  capture  Bazoches.  The  306th  Infantry  was  selected 
for  the  job,  and  the  tactical  maneuvers  were  all  worked  out  to  perfection.  Bazoches  rested  in 
a  deep  pocket  on  the  German  side  of  the  Vesle.  Hills  stretched  back  from  it  on  three  sides.  The 
attack  started  at  4 .15  A.  M.  August  27th  and  at  daylight  one  platoon  signaled  "objective  reached  ". 
Then  the  Germans  began  to  bomb  that  platoon  on  the  front  and  both  flanks  from  their  concealed 
positions  on  the  hills.  At  5.25  A.  M.  the  platoon  was  retiring,  the  Lieutenant  in  charge  and  four 
men  alone  getting  back.   At  10  o'clock,  Captain  Bull,  who  was  in  charge  of  the  raid,  decided  to 


220  Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 

withdraw  from  the  village.  The  Division  had  paid  a  big  price  for  success  and  failure,  but  it  had 
a  lesson,  which  in  the  short  time  it  had  to  prepare  for  the  greater  struggle  to  follow,  it  could 
probably  have  acquired  in  no  other  way. 

Among  those  who  made  the  trip  across  the  Vesle  into  Bazoches  on  August  27th  were  Edward 
P.  Morrisey,  Arthur  Georger,  Frank  Shultz  and  about  five  others  of  the  302d  Engineers.  Mor- 
risey  is  a  son  of  Battalion  Chief  Morrisey  of  the  Buffalo  Fire  Department.  With  his  companion 
Shultz  he  was  cut  off  from  the  infantry  platoon  in  the  confusion  which  followed  the  opening  up 
of  the  German  guns  on  the  hills.  Seeing  that  the  Germans  again  had  possession  of  the  town, 
Morrisey  and  Shultz  picked  up  Frank  DeBlase,  a  wounded  infantryman,  and  crawled  over  to 
an  immense  pile  of  charcoal  near  the  railroad  track.  They  had  some  food  with  them.  But  it  did 
not  last  long  during  their  self-imprisoned  stay.  Each  night  Morrisey  would  crawl  out  from  their 
hiding  place  on  a  foraging  expedition.  They  intended  to  fight  their  way  to  the  river  but  the 
wounded  man,  at  the  time  they  found  him,  was  in  no  shape  for  a  hurried  departure.  Morrisey 
determined  not  to  leave  without  him,  though  it  is  probable  the  two  engineers  could  have  made 
their  way  back  at  night  through  the  German  lines.  Finally,  after  five  days  of  waiting  and  with 
hunger  coming  on,  the  infantryman  having  recovered  his  strength  somewhat,  the  three  men  left 
their  hiding  place  and  crawled  toward  the  German  sentry.  The  night  was  very  dark.  When 
they  reached  the  line,  they  could  see  two  German  machine  gunners  walking  back  and  forth. 
Morrisey  killed  the  two  gunners  with  a  hand  grenade,  made  a  dash  for  the  river,  swam  across, 
bringing  the  wounded  infantryman  safely  back  into  the  American  lines.  For  his  courage  and 
valor  the  Buffalo  boy  was  awarded  the  Distinguished  Service  Cross,  and  promoted  to  the  post 
of  sergeant. 

On  the  same  night  John  J.  Kelly  and  John  Dwyer  of  Company  E  distinguished  themselves. 
Lieutenant  Meadman,  of  their  company,  had  been  shot  down  near  the  bank  of  the  river.  Dwyer 
and  Kelly  saw  him  fall  and  hurried  to  his  side.  While  exposed  to  machine  gun  and  shell  fire 
they  carried  the  injured  Lieutenant  to  headquarters  company,  but  he  was  dead  when  they  arrived. 
For  their  heroic  act  they  received  official  citation. 

In  the  party  which  left  with  Morrisey  for  the  trip  across  the  river  on  the  eventful  night  of  the 
26th,  were  Arthur  Georger  and  John  Bastedo  of  Buffalo  and  some  others  of  C  Company.  Corporal 
Thomas  F.  Reilly  was  in  charge  of  the  detachment.  The  little  group  had  a  difficult  time  fighting 
their  way  out  of  the  trap  into  which  they  had  been  sent,  but  they  showed  an  heroic  front,  and 
Reilly,  with  one  or  two  others  returned.  Young  Georger,  the  popular  son  of  a  Genesee  Street 
merchant,  was  killed  while  protecting  the  retreat  of  the  detachment.  When  Shultz  and  Mor- 
risey finally  came  through,  it  was  thought  that  possibly  Georger  was  hiding  somewhere  in  the 
town,  but  the  retreat  of  the  Germans  and  the  advance  of  the  Americans  two  weeks  later  showed 
that  Georger  had  gone  down  with  his  rifle  in  his  hand  facing  the  enemy.  Several  German  bodies 
near  the  place  where  Georger  was  found  would  indicate  that  he  had  collected  full  toll  for  the 
sacrifice  he  made.  Georger  was  recognized  by  his  tag  and  gas  mask  on  which  he  had  written 
his  name. 

Another  Buffalo  boy,  Simon  H.  Risman,  Company  D,  307th  Infantry  was  wounded  the  same 
night  but  not  in  that  sortie. 

Shortly  after  the  Bazoches  episode,  Major  General  George  B.  Duncan  was  relieved  from  the 
command  of  the  77th,  being  replaced  by  Major  General  Robert  Alexander.  The  two  incidents, 
perhaps,  were  in  no  way  identical  or  related,  but  the  change  came  at  a  time  when  the  77th  was 
"finding  itself."  From  then  on,  the  77th  was  a  full-fledged  combat  division  of  the  finest  fighting 
temper  and  efficiency,  equipped  for  the  great  task  it  was  about  to  perform  in  the  drive  through 
the  Argonne  Forest. 

On  September  2d  the  Germans  began  to  pull  out  of  their  position  on  the  Vesle.  The  First 
American  Army  had  been  formed,  and  it  was  known  the  Americans  were  to  start  a  major  offen- 
sive. Where  it  was  going  to  hit,  and  when,  were  the  unknown  factors.  Undoubtedly  the  Germans 
decided  to  pull  back  to  a  more  advantageous  point  than  they  then  held  on  the  Vesle,  retiring  to 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War  221 

the  Aisne.  The  77th  followed  them  rapidly,  however,  pressing  the  retreating  Boche,  and  fight- 
ing a  successful  engagement  with  the  rear  guard  detachments  at  Haute  Maisons  on  September 
3d.   The  77th  followed  for  seven  and  a  half  miles,  causing  appreciable  loss  to  the  German  forces. 

When  the  Boche  fell  back,  details  of  the  engineers  accompanied  the  advance  infantry,  while 
the  remainder  worked  immediately  behind  repairing  roads,  constructing  more  bridges  across  the 
Vesle,  de-gassing  the  numerous  caves  and  rendering  harmless  the  enemy's  traps  and  mines. 

The  77th  Division  was  relieved  by  an  Italian  Division  on  September  15th.  The  units  marched 
back  to  the  Coulonges-Villers-Agron-Aquizy  area.  Two  days  later  they  again  embussed  for  a 
long  ride  to  Verrieres,  preparatory  to  taking  their  place  in  the  Argonne  offensive. 

Many  members  of  the  Division  had  been  killed,  wounded  or  gassed  in  the  "Hell-Hole  Valley 
of  the  Vesle." 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War  223 


CHAPTER   LXV 
BATTLE   OF   ST.  MIHIEL— DEATH   OF   CAPTAIN   PLATT 

THE  St.  Mihiel  attack  after  its  crashing  artillery  start  became  in  the  judgment  of  many  a 
promenade.  It  consisted  mostly  of  preparation  and  barrage,  and  yet,  returned  soldiers  have 
said  they  experienced  rough  going  at  St.  Mihiel.  Hoping  to  make  it  a  surprise  attack.  General 
Pershing  observed  the  strictest  secrecy,  concerning  his  plans,  the  place  and  time  of  attack.  Rain 
fell  continuously  for  several  days  prior  to  September  11th,  but  on  that  day  the  skies  cleared  and 
from  enemy  aeroplanes  German  observers  had  their  eyes  filled  with  a  fascinating  picture  of  what 
was  coming  to  them.  American  soldiers  and  artillery  were  .massed  on  three  sides  of  the  salient. 
There  are  those  who  believe  the  German  High  Command  had  decided  not  to  make  a  stand  in 
that  salient,  which  they  held  so  successfully  for  three  years  against  every  sort  of  attack.  Metz 
was  a  much  more  substantial  ground  from  which  to  make  a  resistance.  If  they  had  not  reached 
that  decision  before  the  barrage,  they  arrived  at  it  soon  after  the  American  barrage  began. 

Buffalo's  big  contingent,  represented  in  the  78th  Division,  had  been  selected  to  take  part  in 
the  St.  Mihiel  attack.  They  opened  in  support  of  the  Second  Division.  The  42d,  numbering  many 
Buffalo  men  in  its  ranks,  was  in  the  line  and  the  153d  Artillery  Brigade  (78th  Division)  with  farmer 
boys  and  city  chaps  from  this  end  of  the  State  well  represented,  had  taken  up  a  position  in  sup- 
port of  the  90th  Division.  The  Second  Division,  now  numbering  upward  of  300  boys  from 
Buffalo  and  surrounding  towns  in  the  Marine  regiments,  was  in  line  by  the  side  of  the  90th.  In 
addition  to  those  two  divisions,  the  82d  and  the  5th  divisions*  were  also  in  the  First  Corps,  under 
the  command  of  Major  General  Hunter  Liggett.  The  right  of  this  corps  rested  on  Pont-a-Mousson, 
and  the  left  joined  the  Third  American  Corps,  containing  the  89th,  42d  and  First  divisions. 
Their  line  extended  to  Xivray,  and  they  were  to  swing  in  towards  Vigneulles  for  the  initial  assault. 
The  Second  Colonial  French  Corps  was  next  in  line,  and  then  came  the  Fifth  American  Corps. 
The  78th  Division,  together  with  the  Third  Division,  was  in  reserve  for  the  First  Corps.  The 
35th  and  91st  were  also  in  reserve  and  the  80th  and  33d  were  available. 

The  106th  Field  Artillery  and  the  102d  Trench  Mortar  Battery  of  Buffalo  were  co-operating 
with  the  33d,  and  had  moved  up  on  September  11th.  but  did  not  get  into  the  fighting  until  the 
close  of  the  drive. 

When  the  German  aviators  hovered  over  the  American  lines  on  that  clear  September  day,  the 
11th,  they  saw  1700  guns  set  for  a  barrage;  ammunition  had  been  drawn  up  in  vast  quantitiesf 
and  the  American  Army  was  ready  to  send  across  the  heaviest  and  mightiest  barrage  of  the  war. 

The  night  of  September  11-12  was  dark— impenetrably  dark— and  a  soul-seeking  rain  was  fall- 
ing. At  7  o'clock  the  men  were  ordered  forward  and  through  the  dismal  night  they  crowded  the 
roads,  each  seeking  his  appointed  place,  the  commanders  anxiously  groping  for  the  right  turn  in  the 
road.  By  12  o'clock  all  units  were  in  their  preliminary  positions.  The  artillery  opened  the  pre- 
paratory firing  at  1  o'clock;  at  3  A.  M.  the  heavy  barrage  opened.  To  the  infantrymen  it  looked 
as  though  they  were  set  in  one  vast  circle  of  flashing  skies  and  crashing  thunder.   So  well  lighted 

♦"The  9th  Infantry  Brigade  of  the  5th  Division  regular  army,  consists  of  the  60th  and  61st  regiments  of  infantry,  and  the  14th  Machine  Gun 
Battalion.    In  these  three  units  a  large  portion  of  the  personnel  are  boys  from  Buffalo,  Lockport,  Niagara  Falls,  and  other  neighboring  towns. 

Last  February.  1,500  or  more  men  were  transferred  from  the  78th  Division,  then  at  Camp  Dix  to  the  6th  Infantry  Brigade  at  Camp  Green. 
N.  C.    All  these  men  left  their  homes  in  the  drafts  of  September,  October  and  November,  1917. 

The  5th  Division  left  the  United  States  April  16,  1918,  arriving  at  Brest,  France,  April  28th.  After  arrival  we  were  given  three  weeks  of  mten- 
aive  training,  when  the  division  was  inspected  bv  General  Pershing,  and  designated  as  a  shock  division. 

In  the  Saint  Mihiel  offensive  the  division  gained  fame,  going  over  the  top  at  5  A.  M.,  September  12th,  taking  a  number  of  towns  and  many 
prisoners.  The  division  was  cited  in  general  orders  for  its  great  work.  We  came  out  of  the  Saint  Mihiel  sector  about  September  17th,  for  a  brief 
rest  and  training. — Letter  from  Private  J.  F.  Kersten,  Buffalo.  6Ist  Infantry,  Fifth  Division." 

t  "  I  never  shall  forget  the  night  the  big  push  started  at  Saint  Mihiel.  It  was  the  first  big  American  drive  that  was  pulled  olT  by  an  all-Ameri- 
can  army.  Two  of  us  were  out  with  a  load  of  powder  charges  and  we  couldn't  find  the  place  where  it  was  supposed  to  be  taken.  It  was  as  dark 
as  pitch  and  raining  like  blazes.  Men  were  swarming  up  to  the  trenches.  They  went  over  the  top  at  5  o'clock  that  morning.  We  finally  unloaded 
the  ammunition  where  it  was  wanted. 

"The  dugouts  were  filled  with  artillerymen  who  were  resting  up  for  the  big  fracas.  The  big  guns  were  to  start  at  1  o  clock  and  we  were  warned 
to  get  our  trucks  off  the  road  before  that  time.  We  finally  got  started  back,  but  our  truck  slid  into  a  ditch.  We  were  out  of  gas.  Suddenly  the 
guns  started  all  together.  It  was  the  most  fearful  noise  I  have  ever  heard.  The  earth  seemed  to  shake.  The  next  afternoon  the  German  prisoners 
were  brought  in.  in  groups  of  100  or  more.  They  totaled  thousands.  Our  division,  the  78th  was  given  great  credit  in  this  drive.  — Letter  from 
Private  William  Lawson.  303d  A.  T.  {employe  Buffalo  News). 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War  225 


was  the  field  from  the  blazing  powder  that  they  could  now  easily  find  their  lines.  The  1700  guns 
belched  away  and  the  earth  rocked.  There  was  no  answering  shot  from  the  Germans,  and  the 
American  troops  at  5  A.  M.  walked  quietly  down  behind  their  barrage,  across  No  Man's  Land 
for  a  considerable  distance,  before  they  met  even  the  slightest  resistance.  General  Pershing  in 
his  report  on  the  battle  says : 

"After  four  hours'  artillery  preparation,  the  seven  American  divisions  in  the  front  line  advanced 
at  5  A.  M.,  on  September  12th,  assisted  by  a  limited  number  of  tanks  manned  partly  by  Amer- 
icans and  partly  by  the  French.  These  divisions,  accompanied  by  gi-oups  of  wire  cutters  and 
others  armed  with  bangalore  torpedoes,  went  through  the  successive  bands  of  barbed  wire  that 
protected  the  enemy's  front  line  and  support  trenches,  in  irresistible  waves  on  schedule  time, 
breaking  down  all  defense  of  an  enemy  demoralized  by  the  great  volume  of  our  artillery  fire 
and  our  sudden  approach  out  of  the  fog. 

"Our  First  Corps  advanced  to  Thiacourt,  while  our  Fourth  Corps  curved  back  to  the  south- 
west through  Nonsard.  The  second  Colonial  French  Corps  made  the  slight  advance  required  of 
it  on  very  difficult  ground,  and  the  Fifth  Corps  took  its  three  ridges  and  repulsed  a  counter  attack. 
A  rapid  march  brought  reserve  regiments  of  a  Division  of  the  Fifth  Corps  into  Vigneulles  in  the 
early  morning,  where  it  linked  up  with  patrols  of  our  Fourth  Corps,  closing  the  salient  and  form- 
ing a  new  line  west  of  Thiacourt  to  Vigneulles  and  beyond  Fresnes-en-Woevre.  At  the  cost  of 
only  7,000  casualties,  mostly  light,  we  had  taken  16,000  prisoners  and  443  guns,  a  great  quantity 
of  material,  released  the  inhabitants  of  many  villages  from  enemy  domination,  and  established 
our  lines  in  a  position  to  threaten  Metz.  This  signal  success  of  the  American  First  Army  in  its 
first  offensive  was  of  prime  importance.  The  Allies  found  they  had  a  formidable  army  to  aid 
them,  and  the  enemy  learned  finally  that  he  had  one  to  reckon  with." 

The  enemy  left  the  point  of  the  salient  under  the  heavy  barrage  and  quickly  sought  healthier 
lines  in  the  rear.  Many  got  through,  but  the  Americans,  forcing  in  from  both  sides,  cut  them  off 
by  the  hundreds,  capturing  an  immense  number  of  men  and  vast  quantities  of  supplies.  The  First 
Division  alone,  attacking  in  the  Beaumont  sector,  advanced  14  kilometers  in  19  hours,  captured 
five  officers,  including  a  major,  1190  men,  30  guns  of  77  and  150mm,  50  machine  guns,  1  anti- 
tank gun,  100  rifles,  large  quantities  of  ammunition  and  three  narrow  gauge  locomotives.  Other 
Divisions  had  like  bags.  In  the  haul  made  by  the  42d  Division,  in  addition  to  wagonloads  of  vege- 
tables, was  a  mail  box  filled  with  letters  from  German  soldiers  to  their  folk  back  home.  In  all 
those  letters  ran  the  same  story  of  a  weakening  morale,  and  these  were  a  source  of  encourage- 
ment to  the  American  leaders.   The  following  missives  are  typical  of  them  all : 

From  Grenadier  P.  Langner,  6th  Grenadier  Regiment.  September  11,  1918. 

" Dear  Joseph.     As  I  liave  already  told  you,  we  have  been  here  in  a  quiet  position  since  August  21st.   This 

would  be  a  good  place  to  wait  for  peace,  but,  of  course,  dear  friend,  you  know  that  the  10th  Infantry  Division  cannot 
bear  anything  quiet.  Of  course,  our  artillery  had  to  start  again  to  increase  its  activity.  Besides  that  every  evening 
strong  patrols  are  sent  out  to  bring  in  prisoners  but  they  are  always  driven  off  by  the  Americans.  The  talk  around 
here  was  that  Schangel  (perhaps  a  nickname  for  the  Allies)  wanted  to  attack  here  from  the  14th  to  the  15th,  but  no 
one  can  depend  on  that  rumor.  We  are  only  five  kilometers  from  your  old  position,  measuring  as  the  crow  flies. 
(Combres  Heights.) 

"We  are  in  the  Sonnard  Woods.  A  short  time  ago  I  saw  Fr.  Joseph  and  he  said  that  we  would  not  stay  here  long. 
I  hope  we  do  not  go  into  our  old  haunts  again  where  we  made  the  first  offensives  for  the  Englishman  is  giving  us 
some  heavy  licks  up  there.  He  has  won  back  almost  all  the  territory  that  we  won  then.  Kuhnert  P.  wrote  that  he 
was  already  at  Ham.  He  wrote  me  lately  everything  was  falling  up  there.  I  am  for  the  present  time  in  reserve  and 
from  here  I  go  for  ten  days  to  the  S.  O.  S " 

The  Americans  were  beginning  to  loom  large  on  the  German  horizon  even  before  the  St.  Mihiel 
offensive  according  to  this  letter: 

"From  Heinrich  Kirschke,  47th  Infantry.  "Pannes  (six),  September  11,  1918. 

" When  will  that  time  come  again  that  we  can  live  together  again  so  comfortably  in  Berlin?   It  looks  very 

sad  for  our  beautiful  Germany.  Who  knows  whether  the  Americans  will  not  even  yet  break  through?  This  morning 
at  3  o'clock  we  were  again  alerted  and  thought  the  Americans  were  going  to  attack,  but  nothing  as  yet.  However, 
we  captured  a  couple  of  prisoners  who  said  that  they  would  be  in  Germany  in  eight  days.   This  place  is  not  far  from 


226  Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 

Alsace  Lorraine  where  Metz  is  soon  reached.  We  few  fellows  cannot  hold  up  this  superior  might  and  must  all  go 
helplessly  into  captivity  and,  of  course,  most  of  the  prisoners  are  murdered.  But  then  we  have  to  be  satisfied  with 
our  fate  whatever  happens.  I  shouldn't  like  at  all  to  be  taken  prisoner  for  one  is  then  entirely  cut  off  from  the  dear 
home.  Still  worse  than  that  is  to  be  severely  wounded.  Better  dead  than  that.  Well,  I  have  always  had  luck  up  to 
now  and  guess  I'll  get  through  somehow. 

"According  to  all  appearances  we  are  approaching  turbulent  days.  We  are  constantly  alerted  and  it  is  feared  that 
the  Americans  are  going  to  attack  in  this  sector.  They  are  said  to  have  assembled  tremendous  numbers  of  tanks 
and  troops  on  the  other  side.  In  that  case  we  are  lost.  But  everything  in  our  front  line  is  balled  up,  so  don't  be 
surprised  if  you  don't  hear  from  me  for  several  weeks.  I  am  finally  convinced  that  I  couldn't  be  any  worse  off  over 
there  than  I  am  here " 

The  salient  was  reduced  one-half  by  the  first  day's  effort,  and,  while  the  opposition  grew  as 
the  American  Army  advanced,  the  lines  of  the  salient  were  quickly  straightened  out. 

Subsequent  to  this  operation  a  German  military  report  on  the  American  troops  of  which  the 
following  is  a  verbatim  extract,  came  into  the  possession  of  the  First  Army  Corps: 

"At  least  nine  American  divisions  took  part  under  the  command  of  General  Pershing.  Of  these  nine  divisions 
there  were  three — the  1st,  2d  and  42d — first-class  attacking  divisions:  two,  the  4th  and  the  26th,  good  fighting 
divisions  which  had  already  shown  their  work  in  other  large  attacks.  The  attack  was  preceded  by  a  f  qui -hour 
artillery  preparation,  in  addition  to  a  short  trench  mortar  bombardment.  The  shooting  of  the  batteries  was  very 
good,  not  only  on  the  front  trenches  but  also  on  all  the  communications  and  rear  areas.  The  initial  attack  was 
carried  out  according  to  schedules,  but  the  successive  waves  showed  great  inaptitude  in  following  up  the  advance. 
Officers  as  well  as  men  did  not  understand  how  to  make  use  of  the  terrain.  Instead  of  seeking  protection  when  they 
encountered  opposition  they  merely  fell  back.  To  crawl  backward  or  forward  on  the  ground,  or  to  advance  in  quick 
jumps,  does  not  seem  to  be  understood  by  the  Americans.  They  remain  lying  on  the  ground  for  the  time  being 
and  then  just  stand  up  again  and  try  to  advance.  Neither  in  mass  formation  nor  individually  do  the  Americans 
know  how  to  conduct  themselves  in  an  attack.  They  are  unquestionably  brave.  They  are  evidently  afraid  of  being 
captured.    When  capture  impends,  however,  They  Fight  to  the  Last  and  Do  Not  Put  Up  Their  Hands. 

"The  Americans  showed  themselves  skilled  in  the  use  of  machine  guns.  In  defense  they  are  very  tenacious.  The 
conduct  of  the  infantry  seems  to  show  a  lack  of  military  training.     The  artillery  preparation  was  well  carried  out. 

"The  leadership  was  unskilled  and  awkward.  The  enemy  apparently  has  many  officers  at  his  disposal,  but  the 
elements  of  leadership  are  lacking.  Their  embarrassment  was  unmistakable  after  obtaining  their  initial  success. 
They  remained  helpless  on  their  new  line  and  were  unable  to  take  full  advantage  of  their  victory.  The  French,  in 
the  same  position,  would  have  been  much  more  dangerous.  After  the  infantry  had  reached  its  objective  the  higher 
command  failed.  It  was  therefore  possible  for  the  army  detachment  (the  Germans),  under  the  most  difficult  con- 
ditions, to  extricate  itself  from  its  precarious  situation  in  one  night.  The  American  is  very  amateurish,  and  there- 
fore not  to  be  feared  in  a  large  attack." 

On  September  14th  the  78th  Division  was  moved  up  on  the  St.  Mihiel  front  and  saw  con- 
tinuous action  from  then  until  October  9th.  They  took  the  towns  of  Jaulny  and  Rimicourt. 
Captain  Samuel  H.  Piatt,  Company  E,  309th  Infantry,  of  Buffalo,  was  killed  on  the  second  day 
of  the  drive.   Private  Henry  C.  Stief  describing  his  death  says: 

"Captain  Piatt  had  been  advanced  to  the  rank  of  Major,  his  commission  arriving  at  Regi- 
mental Headquarters  a  short  time  after  his  death. 

"It  was  the  second  day  of  the  St.  Mihiel  Drive.  Several  of  our  officers  were  gathered  in  the 
post  command,  or  officers'  hut,  mapping  out  the  work  and  consulting  about  the  coming  fighting. 
Just  then,  whether  accidentally  or  otherwise,  the  German  artillery  made  a  direct  hit.  A  heavy 
shell  dropped  squarely  in  the  quarters  killing  three  captains  and  one  lieutenant  and  wounding 
two  lieutenants.  Captain  Piatt  was  one  of  the  men  killed.  His  death  was  a  great  shock  to  us 
Buffalo  boys  and  to  others  who  had  grown  to  love  him  as  a  leader. " 

In  the  St.  Mihiel  engagement  Lieutenant  John  A.  Bachman,  248  Scheule  Avenue,  put  his 
name  on  the  scroll  of  honor  by  a  diligent  effort  to  protect  his  men  during  a  heavy  barrage.  He 
gave  his  life  for  his  men  and  his  country  and  won  the  Distinguished  Service  Cross,  being  partic- 
ularly commended  in  the  following  citation : 

"Second  Lieutenant  John  A.  Bachman  (deceased)  308th  Machine  Gun  Battalion.  For  extraordinary  heroism  near  Jaulny,  France,  on  Sep- 
tember 26,  1918.  During  an  early  morning  raid  Lieutenant  Bachman  attempted  to  place  two  guns  in  position  when  the  enemy  opened  a  terrific 
barrage.  He  was  ordered  to  shelter  on  the  slope  of  the  hill  and  after  his  men  had  taken  refuge  there  he  went  back  to  determine  whether  all  of 
his  men  had  reached  safety.    In  passing  through  the  barrage  he  was  struck  by  a  shell  and  instantly  killed." 

Another  Buffalo  boy  who  fell  while  gallantly  discharging  his  duty  in  the  St.  Mihiel  attack  was 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War  227 

Lieutenant  Allan  Wilkins  Douglass,  113th  F.  A.,  30th  Division.  At  the  time  war  was  declared 
young  Douglass  was  a  sophomore  at  Yale,  and,  while  the  news  of  America's  entrance  into  the 
war  flashed  over  the  wires,  Douglass,  like  many  other  American  boys,  had  his  application  for 
military  service  on  the  way  to  army  headquarters.  He  was  assigned  in  May  to  the  first  officers ' 
training  camp  at  Madison  Barracks.  Late  that  year  he  received  his  commission;  was  married 
in  March,  1918,  prior  to  his  departure  for  overseas.  While  advancing  with  his  battery  on  Sep- 
tember 12th  he  met  his  death.  A  division  citation  commends  Lieutenant  Douglass  for  his  meri- 
torious service  as  follows: 

"First  Lieutenant  Allan  W.  Douglass,  Deceased.  Battery  E.,  113th  Field  Artillery.  During  the  engagement  near  LiMEY,  12th  September.  1918, 
after  being  struck  by  a  shell  splinter  he  continued  the  work  of  removing  the  dead  and  wounded  horses  and  moving  the  carriages  to  a  place  of 
safety.  Later  he  was  again  struck  by  a  shell  and  killed  while  in  the  performance  of  his  duty.  His  courage  and  utter  disregard  for  personal  safety 
inspired  the  men  of  his  section  to  continue  their  work  successfully." 

The  78th  Division  suffered  many  losses  after  relieving  the  2d  Division  during  the  latter  part 
of  the  St.  Mihiel  Drive.  Steve  Yaschuk  of  G  Company,  311th  Infantry,  141  Selkirk  Street,  was 
hit  in  the  neck  by  a  piece  of  shrapnel,  killing  him  instantly.  His  company  was  then  holding  the 
front  line,  and  Yaschuk  was  out  on  a  wiring  party  at  the  time  he  was  hit.  He  was  buried  in  a 
churchyard  at  Vieville-en-Haye,  France. 

During  the  general  attack  on  September  26th,  .John  F.  Burke  of  B  Company,  311th  Infan- 
try, whose  brother  lived  at  2000  Seneca  Street  was  wounded  by  shrapnel  in  the  arm,  back 
and  hips.  He  was  evacuated  to  Hospital  No.  12,  but  died  from  his  wounds  on  the  following 
day. 

Sergeant  Major  Louis  Blase,  Headquarters  Company,  309th  Infantry,  of  48  Welmont  Place 
was  hit  early  on  the  morning  of  September  17th  at  the  time  Captain  Piatt  was  killed.  Head- 
quarters of  the  regiment  was  occupied  by  various  oflScers  and  men,  including  Sergeant  Blase, 
when  it  was  hit  by  a  high  explosive  shell.  Every  man  in  the  building  was  more  or  less  severely 
injured.   Sergeant  Blase  died  before  first  aid  could  be  administered. 

Norbert  B.  Dorscheid,  Private,  311th  Machine  Gun  Company,  was  conveying  a  message  from 
platoon  position  in  front  line  on  the  St.  Mihiel  sector  to  Headquarters  when  an  enemy  shell 
exploded  near  him,  wounding  him  fatally.  He  died  while  at  the  first  aid  station. 

John  V.  Earl,  162  16th  Street,  Buffalo,  Private  in  M  Company,  310th  Infantry,  while  return- 
ing to  Brigade  Reserve  was  struck  by  a  high  explosive  shell  on  September  28th  and  killed  instantly. 
This  happened  on  a  road  between  Thiacourt  and  Jaulny.  Rocco  Frazzoli,  a  Private  in  Company 
A,  310th  Infantry  had  been  killed  instantly  by  a  high  explosive  shell  near  the  same  point  just 
as  his  Company  was  going  into  action  two  days  before. 

Edward  W.  Kindt,  311th  Infantry,  B  Company,  whose  mother  resided  at  257  Howard  Street, 
was  killed  on  September  24th  at  Bois  St.  Claude  by  a  direct  hit  of  an  enemy  shell  while  on  out- 
post duty.  He  was  buried  by  his  comrades  where  he  fell.  Christ  .1.  Klaiber,  Corporal,  Company 
H,  311th  Infantry,  456  Jefferson  Street,  was  killed  on  September  21st  while  on  patrol  duty, 
attacking  a  German  machine  gun  nest.  Just  as  he  pulled  out  from  a  clump  of  brush  and  led  his 
automatic  rifle  squad  into  action  he  was  struck  in  the  stomach  by  a  machine  gun  bullet  and 
died  almost  instantly.  Sergeant  John  Lundquist  also  of  H  Company,  said  that  he  never  saw 
anyone  display  greater  courage  than  Corporal  Klaiber,  in  cleaning  out  machine  gun  nests  that 
day,  until,  finally,  he  was  called  upon  to  make  the  supreme  sacrifice.  Another  Buffalo  boy  to 
die  that  day  was  Alexander  Kuczkowski,  a  Private  in  B  Company,  311th  Infantry,  70  Woltz 
Avenue.  He  received  a  bad  wound  from  shrapnel  in  chest  and  right  side  during  the  general  advance 
and  died  in  Evacuation  Hospital  No.  12  on  the  following  day. 

Private  H.  J.  Laurencell,  342  South  Park  Avenue,  Company  B,  311th  Infantry,  was  killed  by 
shell  fire  on  the  24th,  being  the  victim  of  a  direct  hit  on  outpost  duty.  Boleslau  Makowiecki, 
Private  in  B  Company,  311th  Infantry,  205  Weimar  Street,  was  killed  by  shell  fire  same  day. 
Daniel  J.  Murray,  G  Company,  311th  Infantry,  255  Fulton  Street,  was  killed  by  shell  fire  during 
the  afternoon  attack.    Private  Markey,  who  was  beside  him  stated  that  a  shell  exploded  near 


228  Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 

them  and  a  piece  of  shrapnel  hit  Murray  on  the  right  side  of  the  head.  His  death  was  immediate. 
Jacob  C.  Moritz,  Private,  Company  M,  311th  Infantry,  was  killed  a  few  days  prior  to  that  by 
the  accidental  discharge  of  a  hand  grenade.  Sergeant  Arthur  Nelson  of  G  Company,  309th  Infan- 
try, was  killed  by  shell  fire  the  same  day  that  Moritz  was  killed. 

Martin  Saar,  Private,  Company  B,  308th  Machine  Gun  Battalion,  was  killed  by  shrapnel  on 
September  25th  at  about  5.10  A.  M.  near  Jaulny.  Saar  was  asleep  in  his  shelter  after  being  relieved 
from  his  gun  position,  when  a  shell  exploded  in  his  immediate  vicinity,  killing  him  instantly. 

On  September  26th  the  Germans  accounted  for  a  good  many  Buffalo  boys  of  the  78th  Divi- 
sion, for  after  relieving  the  Second,  the  enemy  counter-attacked  severely.  During  one  of  these 
counter-attacks  Private  Walter  Schultz,  B  Company,  311th  Infantry  was  hit  several  times.  He 
was  dead  when  first  aid  reached  him.  Leo  Schweitzer  of  Headquarters  Company,  311th  Infantry 
received  wounds  from  which  he  died  while  engaged  in  fixing  an  abandoned  German  dugout. 
•Just  a  small  piece  of  shrapnel  entered  Schweitzer's  groin,  but  it  severed  an  artery  and  he  bled  to 
death  within  ten  minutes.   He  was  hit  about  4  o'clock  in  the  afternoon. 

On  September  24th,  John  C.  Weidman,  364  Watson  Street  was  on  his  way  to  outpost  duty 
when  he  was  hit  by  a  shell,  killing  him  instantly.  Another  Buffalo  boy,  Henry  J.  Wolf,  who 
was  well  known  in  his  locality,  440  Humboldt  Parkway,  was  killed  in  the  St.  Mihiel  sector.  He 
had  been  out  repairing  telephone  lines  all  day  and  part  of  the  previous  night  and  he  returned  to 
his  station  to  get  a  little  sleep.  About  4  A.  M.  the  enemy  laid  down  a  heavy  barrage  on  the  front 
area.  Private  Heider  who  accompanied  Wolf  heard  a  gas  alarm  and  they  put  on  their  masks 
and  laid  down  again.  They  had  scarcely  reached  the  ground  when  a  large  shell  struck  a  tree 
directly  above  their  dugout.  As  soon  as  Private  Heider  removed  his  mask  when  the  all-clear 
alarm  had  been  given  he  turned  to  Wolf  and  found  that  he  had  been  hit  in  the  neck  by  a  piece 
of  shrapnel  which  killed  him  instantly.  He  was  buried  on  September  22d  in  Thiacourt  Cemetery 
by  Chaplains  King  and  Gearhart. 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War  229 


CHAPTER   LXVI 

PLANNING   THE   DECISIVE   BATTLE   OF   THE   WAR 

A  s  early  as  July,  1917,  General  Pershing  had  decided  that  the  first  offensive  of  the  American 
/\  Army  would  be  against  the  St.  Mihiel  salient.  At  that  time,  however,  he  anticipated  hav- 
-^  -*-  ing  an  American  sector  much  earlier  than  was  finally  the  case.  But  in  any  event  it  can 
readily  be  seen  that  the  St.  Mihiel  attack  was  a  well-thought  out  operation.  A  few  days  before 
the  drive,  according  to  Major  Palmer  of  Pershing's  Staff,  Marshal  Foch  came  down  to  see  General 
Pershing  and  they  had  a  talk.  Palmer  says  the  upshot  of  this  was  that  before  Pershing  had  even 
struck  at  St.  Mihiel  he  began  preparing  for  the  Argonne  battle.  Indeed,  that  talk  resulted  in 
the  most  daring  campaign  of  the  whole  war,  and  the  decisive  one  of  the  war.  The  original  idea 
of  the  St.  Mihiel  drive  was  to  move  clear  to  Etain  and  Mars-la-Tour,  seriously  threatening  Metz. 
Pershing  kept  up  that  impression,  and  it  will  be  recalled,  said  Palmer,  that  Hindenburg  went  to 
Metz  in  person  to  look  after  the  fortifications. 

Meanwhile  Marshal  Foch  had  decided  to  develop  the  whole  line  of  attack  from  Flanders  to 
the  Meuse,  aiming  by  a  system  of  alternate  blows  in  rapid  succession,  to  confuse  Ludendorff's 
disposition  of  his  reserves,  to  break  through  the  old  fortifications  at  every  point,  and  to  force 
future  operations  in  the  open.  American  divisions  helped  to  break  the  line  northwest  of  Soissons, 
and  that  east  of  Rheims.   "Marshal  Foch  seemed  to  think  well  of  us  as  hne  breakers." 

According  to  Major  Palmer,  no  one  had  ever  conceived  of  any  offensive  from  the  Meuse  River 
to  the  Argonne  Forest.  It  was  striking  straight  at  the  German  line  of  communication.  But  the 
natural  defenses  back  of  the  first  line  enemy  intrenchments  were  indescribably  difficult.  Reading 
the  reports  of  the  time,  it  looked  as  though  we  went  into  that  battle  well  prepared.  "As  a  matter 
of  fact"  continues  Palmer  "the  American  attack  appeared  to  be  defying  all  the  rules  and  prec- 
edents which  war  on  the  Western  Front  had  established.  In  order  to  make  sure  of  a  surprise 
Pershing  avoided  many  details  of  preparation  which  hitherto  had  been  considered  essential.  It 
was  the  kind  of  manoeuver  which  makes  or  breaks  commanders.  He  dared  all  for  immediate 
victory  instead  of  waiting  all  Winter  on  the  supplies  and  the  training  which  he  needed  for  a  Spring 
offensive." 

Concluding  his  comments  in  a  satisfied  way,  though  clearly  showing  the  looseness  of  that  opera- 
tion, which  in  itself  accounted  for  many  hves  needlessly  sacrificed,  Major  Palmer  said:  "We 
sent  in  divisions  which  had  never  been  under  fire  before,  divisions  which  had  never  operated  with 
their  artillery  brigades,  divisions  short  of  transport.  We  wore  down  forty  German  divisions. 
Ludendorff  brought  more  and  more  reserves  of  artillery  and  machine  guns  against  us,  but  we 
kept  at  it — kept  hammering.  It  was  the  Somme  and  Passchendaele  over  again,  with  the  hope  of 
victory  the  wine  to  exhausted  officers  and  men.  Drive,  drive,  drive — with  the  Germans  slowly 
weakening.  I  had  seen  many  battles — but  nothing  like  this.  We  captured  one  lot  of  three  hun- 
dred prisoners  in  which  every  man  was  a  machine-gunner.  Proportionate  to  prisoners  we  took 
three  times  as  many  guns  as  the  Allies — which  showed  how  the  Germans  were  pressing  their  guns 
to  the  front  in  the  Argonne  battle. 

"At  intervals  between  October  1st  and  November  11th  we  had  as  many  troops  in  the  front  line 
as  the  British  and  French  together.   We  were  holding  up  our  end — even  our  green  divisions  were. 

"On  November  11th  we  had  only  two  fresh  divisions  in  reserve,  and  the  French  had  fourteen 
and  the  British  seven,  as  I  remember.  We  had  offered  ourselves  without  stint.  Individuals  did 
not  count.   Nothing  counted  but  victory." 

The  Meuse-Argonne  offensive  which  quickly  followed  St.  Mihiel  was  the  solar-plexus  blow  of 
the  war.  Though  Major  Palmer  has  said  enough  to  show  the  incompleteness  of  the  American 
preparation,  the  fact  that  it  concluded  in  a  decisive  victory  virtually  ending  the  war,  perhaps 
should  be  sufficient  for  the  arm-chair  critic. 


230  Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 

The  all-important  hinge  of  the  Allied  drive  was  assigned  to  the  United  States  Army  in  the 
American  sector,  they  having  been  given  the  task  of  breaking  the  German  lines  of  communication 
through  Mezieres  and  Sedan.  Simultaneously  with  the  swing  through  the  Argonne  the  Second 
Division  with  the  French  were  to  attack  Blanc  Mont  drawing  the  Boche  forces  away  from  St. 
Quentin,  while  co-operating  with  the  British,  the  American  27th  and  30th  Divisions  were  to 
strike  the  Hindenburg  Line,  between  Cambrai  and  St.  Quentin,  at  a  supposedly  invulnerable 
point.  The  27th  Division  had  been  withdrawn  from  the  Mt.  Kemmel  sector  a  short  time  before 
in  preparation  for  the  attack  conditional  upon  the  success  of  the  St.  Mihiel  drive,  complete  as 
the  Allied  High  Command  hoped  it  to  become,  and  as  it  subsequently  proved  to  be. 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War  231 


CHAPTER  LXVII 

GENERAL    NOLAN    OF    AKRON— HERO    OF    APREMONT. 

EARLY  in  1899  a  young  Lieutenant,  not  long  out  of  West  Point,  came  to  Fort  Porter  as  a 
member  of  the  13th  Infantry,  and  left  Buffalo  with  that  regiment  for  the  Philippines. 
That  young  man  was  Lieutenant  Dennis  E.  Nolan,  a  graduate  of  West  Point  in  1896,  who 
had  served  through  the  Spanish-American  war  as  aide-de-camp  to  General  Miles,  1st  Infantry, 
U.  S.  Regulars.  Lieutenant  Nolan's  folks  then  lived  in  Akron,  and  the  young  officer  was  a  product 
of  the  high  school  of  that  town.  He  had  entered  into  competition  for  a  cadetship  at  West  Point, 
stood  highest  among  the  school  boy  competitors  and  was  named  by  the  congressman  of  his  dis- 
trict to  the  first  vacancy  at  the  military  academy,  which  occurred  in  1892. 

When  America  entered  the  World  War  in  1917,  General  Pershing  found  Major  Dennis  E.  Nolan 
serving  in  the  War  Department  at  Washington.  He  had  gone  to  the  Philippines  a  Lieutenant 
in  the  13th  Infantry  and  came  out  of  there  a  Major  in  the  11th  Cavalry.  He  had  served  later 
as  an  instructor  at  West  Point,  and  in  1910  was  returned  to  the  Philippines  as  Director  of  the 
District  of  Luzon  and  came  back  in  1915.  When  General  Pershing  received  his  order  to  go  abroad. 
Major  Nolan  was  occupying  uneasily  a  War  Department  chair. 

Picking  out  a  small  staff  of  officers,  the  American  Commander  left  for  overseas,  arriving  in 
France  in  June,  1917.  A  well  organized  staff,  in  the  opinion  of  General  Pershing,  through  which 
the  commander  could  exercise  his  functions  was  essential  to  a  successful  modern  army.  And, 
unquestionably,  the  American  Army  about  to  go  overseas  had  to  be  primarily  a  successful  army, 
and  necessarily,  a  modern  army.  A  new  modernized  railroad  engine,  a  completely  equipped 
tender,  and  splendid  new  coaches,  no  matter  how  thorough  their  manufacture  and  how  efficient 
their  construction,  would  be  useless  for  practical  purposes  unless  hitched  together  by  a  proper 
coupling.  Accordingly,  it  is  well  estabhshed  that  no  matter  how  capable  divisions,  regiments 
and  companies  might  be,  success  for  the  army  would  not  be  possible  without  thorough  co-ordina- 
tion.  Hence,  the  General  Staff. 

Up  to  that  time,  however,  the  American  Army  had  possessed  no  General  Staff  broadly  con- 
structed and  trained  for  war.  The  building  of  this  Army,  therefore,  had  to  begin  at  the  top. 
The  staff  when  completed  had  the  task  of  carrying  out  the  policy  of  the  Army,  directing  the 
details  of  administration,  supply,  preparation  and  operations  of  the  Army  as  a  whole,  with  all 
special  branches  and  bureaus  subject  to  its  control.  General  Pershing  obtained  complete  informa- 
tion as  to  the  organization  of  the  veteran  French  staff,  and  also  reviewed  the  experience  of  the 
British  who  had  similarly  formed  an  organization  to  meet  the  demands  of  their  enlarged  and 
newly  constructed  army.  The  American  Commander  says  in  his  report:  "  By  selecting  from  each 
the  features  best  adapted  to  our  basic  organization,  fortified  by  our  own  early  experiences  in  the 
war,  the  development  of  our  great  General  Staff  system  was  completed." 

The  Staff  was  divided  into  five  groups,  and  the  chief  of  each  group  was  an  assistant  to  the 
Chief  of  the  General  Staff.  Group  2  of  the  staff  had  charge  of  the  censorship,  the  secret  service, 
enemy  intelligence,  gathering  and  disseminating  information,  the  preparation  of  maps,  and  all 
similar  duties.  In  looking  around  for  a  head  for  that  division,  the  boy  who  26  years  before 
had  gone  out  from  the  Akron  high  school  to  West  Point,  was  the  choice  of  General  Pershing  and 
the  other  American  officers  in  France  as  an  ideal  selection  for  the  post.  Accordingly,  Brigadier 
General  Dennis  E.  Nolan  became  G.  2  of  the  American  Expeditionary  Forces;  and  thus,  an  Erie 
County  man  appeared  in  France  with  the  first  American  force  and  as  one  of  the  chief  advisers 
to  the  Commanding  General.   He  was  then  46  years  of  age. 

At  that  time  Brigadier  General  Nolan's  family  had  moved  to  Tonawanda,  leaving  their  home 
in  Akron  for  a  wider  field,  where  a  younger  brother  who  had  stepped  from  the  University  doors 
a  short  time  before,  might  enter  the  practice  of  medicine. 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War  233 

Having  completed  his  General  Staff,  General  Pershing  established  the  American  headquarters 
at  Chaumont,  decided  upon  the  size  and  make  up  of  the  American  divisions,  and  planned  the 
method  of  organization  to  be  followed  upon  the  arrival  of  troops.  General  Nolan  immediately 
turned  his  attention  to  the  immense  task  ahead  of  him,  and  built  from  the  ground  up  the  entire 
intelligence  system  of  the  United  States  Army  in  France;  organized,  and  from  then  on  adminis- 
tered the  secret  service  work  among  the  American  forces.  Upon  General  Nolan  rested  the  respon- 
sibility of  giving  the  American  commanders  information  of  the  movements  of  the  German  forces. 
That  he  achieved  remarkable  success  in  his  work  was  attested  by  many  officers;  General  Pershing 
having  cited  him*  personally  for  distinguished  service. 

However  successful  he  was  in  obtaining  information  as  to  the  enemy  movements,  and  no  matter 
how  valuable  that  service  was  to  the  country  and  the  success  of  the  American  arms,  General 
Nolan  won  his  greatest  distinction,  and  will  be  longest  remembered  by  the  men  of  the  Arr  erican 
Expeditionary  Forces,  for  his  work  in  the  Argonne  Forest  in  command  of  the  55th  Infantry  Brigade 
of  the  28th  Division,  Pennsylvania  national  guardsmen. 

Knowing  that  the  effort  in  the  Argonne  would  be  a  mighty  difficult  one.  General  Pershing  did 
not  hesitate  to  use  the  most  experienced  men  he  had  whenever  and  wherever  he  deemed  their 
services  more  advantageous  to  the  cause  than  the  officers  theretofore  in  command.  To  make 
certain  the  taking  and  holding  of  Apremont,  General  Pershing  directed  General  Nolan  late  in 
September  to  proceed  to  the  Argonne  and  take  command  of  the  55th  Brigade.  In  company  with 
Colonel  Walter  Sweeney  of  Wheeling,  W.  Va.,  Nolan  commanding  the  center  column  planned 
a  defense  of  deep  shell  holes,  in  which  he  hid  a  number  of  machine  gunners,  on  the  outskirts  of 
Apremont  far  in  advance  of  his  supporting  brigades  on  the  right  and  left.  The  Germans  centered 
their  attack  on  this  advanced  position  and  soon  reached  the  shell  holes  containing  the  pick  of  Penn- 
sylvania's guardsmen.  Those  brave  boys  in  the  shell  holes  armed  with  machine  guns  caught 
the  German  horde  coming  forward  and  mowed  them  down  like  grass.  The  two  regiments  of  Nol- 
an's brigade  then  going  forward  wiped  out  the  remainder  of  the  German  force  in  that  immediate 
locality  and  made  the  capture  of  Apremont  complete  and  lasting.  Returning  soldiers  state  that 
neither  "  Colonel  Sweeney  nor  Brigadier  General  Nolan  commanding  had  any  sleep  for  three  days. " 

"  I  never  knew  that  generals  like  that  were  right  up  there  with  us  doughboys.  Of  course,  we 
went  forward. " 

This  was  the  opinion  expressed  by  a  muddy,  unshaven  Pennsylvanian  soldier  who  had  just  re- 
turned from  the  death-stalking  heights  above  the  Aire  valley,  speaking  to  another  who  personally 
knew  the  Brigadier  General  who  was  referred  to. 

"General  Nolan  worked  out  the  defense  of  Apremont  before  the  German  counter  attack," 
said  Lieutenant  Davis  of  Philadelphia.  "Then  in  the  thickest  of  the  fight  he  came  out  and  joined 
us.  We  had  300  men  and  sixty  machine  guns.  A  Prussian  regiment  came  over  in  the  fog.  We 
scattered  into  shell  holes,  ten  men  to  each,  and  practically  wiped  them  out.  Those  we  did  not 
wipe  out  our  tanks  coming  up  at  dawn  finished.   He  is  every  inch  a  man. 

"While  we  were  up  there  fighting  we  saw  him  going  from  shell  hole  to  shell  hole,  never  bend- 
ing his  head.  That  is  what  gives  men  grit.  I  never  saw  the  general  we  had  before  outside  of  a 
dugout,  the  new  one  was  always  leading  us." 

For  his  sei-vices  with  the  Pennsylvania  boys  at  Apremont,  Major  General  Hay,  commanding 
the  Division,  cited  t  him  for  extraordinary  heroism  in  action. 

When  the  American  advance  through  the  Argonne  became  a  certainty,  General  Nolan  was 
returned  to  his  duties  at  headquarters. 


*"  Brigadier  General  Dennis  E.  Nolan,  U.  S.  Army 
"For  exceptionally  meritorious  and  distinguished  services 
"He  organized  and  administered,  with   marked   ability,  the  Intelligence  Section  of  the  General  Staff  of  the  American  Expeditionary  Forces. 
His  estimates  of  the  complex  and  everchanging  military  and  political  situations,  his  sound  judgment  and  accurate  discrimination  were  invaluable 
to  the  Government,  and  influenced  greatly  the  success  that  attended  the  operations  of  the  American  Armies  in  Europe. 

"By  command  of  General  Pershing.  "J.  A.  Ulio,  Adjutant  General." 

t  "Brigadier  General  Dennis  E.  Nolan,  55th  Infantry  Brigade 
"For  extraordinary  heroism  in  action  near  Apremont,  France,  October  1,  1918 
"While  the  enemy  was  preparing  a  counter-attack,  which  they  preceded  by  a  terrific  barrage,  General  Nolan  made  his  way  into  the  town  of 
Apremont,  and  personally  directed  the  movements  of  his  tanks,  under  a  most  harassing  fire  of  enemy  machine  guns,  rifles  and  artillery.   His  indomi- 
table courage  and  coolness  so  inspired  his  forces,  that  about  400  of  our  troops  repulsed  an  enemy  attack  of  two  German  regiments." 


234 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 


Despite  the  fact  that  National  Guard  soldiers  resent  the  promotion  of  regulars  over  State  officers, 
in  the  short  time  that  General  Nolan  was  with  the  Pennsylvania  brigade  he  so  won  his  men  by 
his  soldierly  qualities  and  personal  courage  that  when  he  left  he  was  the  most  beloved  officer  in 
the  division — [Information  given  to  the  editor  by  National  Guard  officers  of  the  Twenty-eighth.] 

North  Tonawanda  furnished  two  other  members  of  the  Nolan  family  to  the  service  of  Uncle 
Sam  in  France.  Captain  Daniel  A.  Nolan  was  adjutant  of  the  Fifth  Infantry,  stationed  in  the 
Canal  Zone,  Panama,  when  war  was  declared.  He  was  detailed  for  duty  at  the  Plattsburg  train- 
ing camp  during  June,  July  and  August  of  1917,  promoted  Major  National  Army  August  22, 
1917,  and  assigned  to  duty  as  adjutant  of  the  Depot  Brigade  Camp  Upton,  N.  Y. ;  transferred 
to  the  77th  Division,  National  Army,  on  its  departure  for  France  in  March,  1918,  and  assigned 
to  command  the  305th  Machine  Gun  Battalion.  He  was  the  first  officer  of  the  National  Army 
commanding  a  fighting  unit  to  land  in  France.  In  June,  1918,  he  was  ordered  to  the  General 
Staff  College  at  Langres;  promoted  to  Lieutenant  Colonel,  National  Army,  in  July,  1918. 

In  the  organization  of  the  Sixth  Corps  in  August  Lieutenant  Colonel  Nolan  was  assigned  to 
duty  as  Assistant  G-1,  the  branch  of  the  General  Staff  devoted  to  administration.  He  served 
with  the  Sixth  Corps  in  the  Marbache  sector  and  in  the  Second  Army  Moselle  offensive  up  to 
the  date  of  the  Armistice.  He  was  recommended  to  the  grade  of  colonel  on  merit  while  serving 
with  the  Sixth  Army  Corps. 

Another  brother,  Lieutenant  Martin  F.  Nolan,  a  practicing  physician  in  North  Tonawanda, 
realized  the  pressing  need  in  the  army  for  medical  men ;  and  the  need  was  pressing,  for  the  expedi- 
tionary force  in  the  early  days  of  the  war  was  far  short  of  its  medical  quota.  Leaving  his  practice, 
young  Nolan  tendered  his  service  to  the  Government  and  was  sent  to  Base  Hospital,  No.  41, 
St.  Denis,  France. 

While  the  services  of  General  Nolan  at  Chaumont  and  in  the  Argonne  were  exceptionally  valu- 
able and  valorous,  and  while  Colonel  Nolan  rendered  commendable  service  on  the  corps  and 
divisional  staffs,  it  was  reserved  for  the  youngest  of  this  trio  of  splendid  soldiers  to  crown  the 
efforts  of  all  with  the  noblest  sacrifice  that  a  man  can  make  for  his  country.  Lieutenant  Martin 
F.  Nolan,  died  October  9th,  in  a  hospital  adjacent  to  the  one  in  which  Don  Martin,  the  Silver 
Creek  war  correspondent,  died. 


^ 


Ruins  cif  a  liiurcli  al   Monllaui'im 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War  235 

Lieutenant  Nolan's  services  and  death  are  very  clearly  recounted  in  a  letter  to  Mrs.  Honora 
Nolan,  heroic  mother  of  the  three  soldiers,  at  213  Goundry  Street,  North  Tonawanda.  The  letter 
was  sent  by  Captain  Miller  of  Base  Hospital  No.  41 : 

"St.  Denis,  France,  December  3,  1918. 

"Lieutenant  Nolan's  death  was  a  great  shock  to  us.  He  was  sick  only  about  five  days.  About  two  o'clock  in  the 
afternoon  of  October  9th  the  Lieutenant  died  in  the  presence  of  Abbe  Nozais,  English  speaking  Priest  of  the 
Cathedral  of  St.  Denis,  and  a  few  friends. 

"His  brother.  General  Nolan,  was  notified  as  soon  as  the  diagnosis  of  pneumonia  was  made,  but  did  not  reach 
the  hospital  until  the  evening  of  the  day  on  which  he  died.  After  death,  his  body,  in  a  flag-draped  casket,  laid  in 
state  in  the  Chapelle  of  the  Legion  of  Honor,  which  was  at  one  time  the  worshipping  place  of  the  Benedictine  Order 
of  Monks.  The  casket  was  placed  directly  in  front  of  the  Altar,  under  a  constant  military  guard;  on  either  side  where 
the  floral  tributes  from  members  of  the  organization,  officers,  nurses  and  enlisted  men.  Funeral  services  were  con- 
ducted by  Abbe  Nozais,  who  spoke  beautifully  of  Lieutenant  Nolan's  fidelity  and  devotion  to  work  among  the  sick 
and  wounded.  The  casket  was  borne  from  the  Chapel  by  six  officers,  placed  in  an  automobile  and  escorted  by  the 
entire  organization,  led  by  the  officers,  to  the  gate.  As  the  car  passed  out  of  the  grounds,  between  the  column  of 
officers  on  either  side,  taps  was  sounded. 

"The  death  of  Lieutenant  Nolan  struck  a  deep  blow  in  our  hearts,  although  we  had  known  him  only  a  short  time. 
He  had  under  his  care  at  least  two  hundred  patients — all  of  the  most  serious  cases,  such  as  pneumonia  and  gassed 
patients.  It  was  probably  due  to  his  untiring  efforts  and  long  hours  of  work  that  he  contracted  pneumonia.  No 
man  ever  labored  more  faithfully  than  did  Martin  Nolan. 

"Try  hard  as  we  may  it  is  impossible  not  to  meditate  over  the  swiftness  and  tragedy  of  the  death  of  such  a  man 
so  far  from  home.  To  his  loved  ones  at  home  this  thought  must  strike  all  the  deeper.  Lieutenant  Nolan  was  not 
permitted — though  he  tried  hard — to  serve  his  country  on  the  battlefield.  But  his  death  here  was  none  the  less  the 
Supreme  Sacrifice.  His  life  was  filled  with  rare  possibilities,  but  he  sacrificed  all  to  serve  his  country.  Martin  Nolan 
has  played  his  part  and  proved  himself  a  man. 

"Walter  E.  Miller, 
CaptainD.C.,B.H.U,A.P.0.702,  A.E.F." 


238  Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 


CHAPTER   LXVIII 
77th  division   ENTERS   ARGONNE— COLONEL  JEWETT   DECORATED 

WHILE  many  Buffalo  men  had  rendered  splendid  service  to  their  country,  and  not  a  few 
had  made  the  Supreme  Sacrifice  in  Belleau  Wood  and  in  the  Second  Battle  of  the  Marne 
and  at  Soissons,  at  the  Ourcq  and  at  the  Vesle,  the  widest  range  of  Buffalo's  participa- 
tion on  the  battlefields  of  France  must  be  written  in  the  Meuse-Argonne  offensive  and  in  the 
breaking  of  the  Hindenburg  Line.  Up  to  that  time  Buffalo's  banner  had  been  carried  gloriously, 
untarnished  and  with  added  lustre  through  each  new  engagement,  by  Buffalo  men  in  the  Regu- 
lars, in  the  Marines,  and  by  those  who  fought  with  Donovan  in  the  Rainbow  Division,  by  those 
engaged  in  the  brief,  and  valorous,  but  sad,  experience  of  the  77th  Division  on  the  Vesle. 

To  the  77th  belongs  the  peculiarly  dramatic  credit,  after  its  discouraging  debut  in  battle,  of 
graduating  into  an  efficient  combat  division.  It  never  had  the  advantages  of  leadership  that  fell 
to  some  of  the  other  divisions ;  it  never  had  the  transport  equipment  attached  to  other  divisions 
and  the  task  assigned  it  was  one  of  sustained  difficulties  through  the  heart  of  the  impenetrable 
Argonne.  Its  wounded  frequently  died  of  exposure  through  failure  of  the  proper  functioning  of 
divisional  units,  but  its  courage  never  lessened  and  it  performed  its  assigned  duty  courageously 
and  completely. 

Perhaps  it  was  stung  into  fighting  efficiency  by  the  bad  mauling  it  received  on  the  Vesle,  or 
its  new  commander.  Major  General  Robert  Alexander,  may  have  given  it  a  new  divisional  spirit. 
In  any  event  he  aided  tremendously  in  swinging  the  division  into  fighting  form.  When  it  left 
the  Vesle  sector  on  the  night  of  September  16th,  it  was  a  new  77th  Division  in  everything  but 
a  name.  The  Division  was  moved  up  in  camions  to  the  vicinity  of  Civry-en- Argonne  and  attached 
to  the  First  Army  Corps.  Buffalo  officers  were  not  too  numerous  in  the  Division.  Karl  E.  Wil- 
helm,  noted  Cornell  athlete  and  prominent  Buffalonian,  destined  to  play  an  important  part  in 
the  Argonne  offensive,  had  been  assigned  to  Company  E,  308th  Infantry,  under  Captain  George 
M'Murtry.  The  only  other  Buffalo  officer  in  that  regiment  was  Lieutenant  Cook  of  Lackawanna. 
They  had  won  their  commissions  at  Fort  Niagara,  at  the  Officers'  Training  Camp,  getting  the 
documents  in  November,  1917,  and  were  then  detailed  to  Camp  LTpton,  sailing  for  overseas  with 
the  Division  and  eventually  reaching  the  Argonne  Forest. 

Every  Buffalo  man  in  a  combat  division  in  France,  not  then  in  the  hospital,  participated  in 
that  giant  offensive.  Buffalo's  national  guardsmen,  in  the  27th  Division,  still  co-operating  with 
the  British  Army,  were  given  the  mighty  task  of  breaking  the  famous  Hindenburg  Line  at  a  point 
near  Bony.  The  artillery  of  the  27th  Division,  including  the  102d  Trench  Mortar  Battery  and 
the  106th  Field  Artillery,  still  separated  from  the  division,  and  assigned  to  support  the  33d  Divi- 
sion formed  the  base  of  the  Argonne  hinge.  The  106th  took  a  position  on  September  25th  on 
the  historic  "Dead  Man's  Hill."  Next,  to  the  left  of  the  33d,  was  the  80th  Division,  then  came 
the  4th  Division  of  regulars,  and  besides  the  latter  the  79th;  then  the  37th,  91st,  35th,  28th, 
and  on  the  extreme  right  of  the  American  Army,  the  end  of  the  whip  which  was  to  slash  through 
the  Argonne  Forest,  came  the  New  York  77th  Division,  with  its  many  hundreds  of  Buffalo  boys. 
Beyond  the  77th  was  the  French  Fourth  Army  its  right  of  line  at  Vienne-le-Chateau.  The  78th 
Division  had  orders  to  move  into  a  reserve  position.  Thus  the  two  divisions,  containing  the  bulk  of 
the  Buffalo  selective  service  men,  then  overseas  and  in  combat  service,  were  relatively  close  together 
on  September  25th  when  the  hour  of  attack  was  announced  to  the  regimental  leaders.  The  artil- 
lery of  the  78th  Division,  operating  with  the  90th  Division  up  to  that  time,  was  attached  to  its 
own  division  and  went  to  the  Argonne  front  reserve  line  along  with  the  remainder  of  the  78th 
Division. 

The  Argonne  Forest  is  about  20  miles  long  and  seven  miles  wide.  The  line  of  attack  extended 
from  the  Meuse  to  the  Aisne  on  the  start  off.   The  thin  line  of  French  that  had  been  holding  the 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 


239 


line  was  withdrawn  on  the  25th,  and  used  with  the  Fourth  French  Army  on  the  extreme  left 
along  the  Aisne;   French  were  also  holding  the  lines  southeast  of  the  American  sector. 

Although  the  American  line  had  moved  up  the  23d  of  September,  the  French  line  was  not  with- 
drawn until  late  on  the  25th  to  mask  the  arrival  of  the  Americans.  The  attack  on  the  26th  was 
a  surprise  attack. 

The  Argonne  is  a  region  of  continuous  dense  woodland  and  thickest  underbrush,  a  succession 
of  hills  and  ravines,  of  brooks  and  swamps,  with  few  roads,  and  those  few  invariably  commanded 
by  the  wooded  heights.  The  Germans  held  all  of  the  Argonne  except  the  open  woods  in  the  south, 
and  in  four  years  they  had  fortified  the  Forest  by  every  means  known  to  scientific  ingenuity  into 
an  impregnable  fortress  which,  perhaps,  only  Americans  would  have  been  daring  enough  to  tackle. 

German  artillery  commanded  the  few  roads  of  approach  and  every  treacherous  ravine.  Ger- 
man machine  guns  swept  every  forest  path  and  insignificant  trail  and  every  hill  slope.  German 
machine  guns  were  further  posted  thickly  in  echelon,  so  as  to  form  interlocking  bands  of  fire, 
long  chains  of  machine  gun  barrages.  The  trees  were  interlaced  with  barbed  wire,  with  succes- 
sive defensive  systems  running  miles  back.  The  Germans,  too,  had  been  prolific  in  their  use  of 
cement.  In  four  years  they  had  constructed  systems  of  reinforced  concrete  trenches;  the  terrain 
was  dotted  with  cement  "pill-boxes."   There  were  blockhouses  and  tree  top  "fortresses." 

Above  all,  the  Germans  had  four  years  of  experience  in  Argonne  Forest  guerilla  warfare  and  a 
perfect  knowledge  of  the  terrain,  reinforced  by  lookout  towers,  concealed  observation  posts,  an 


Outside  a  Dugout  in  the  Argonne  Forest 

Members  of  the  307th  Infantry,  77th  Division,  at  a  dugout  south  of  Charlevuix  Mills 
in  the  thickest  part  of  the  forest 


240  Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 

elaborate  telephone  system  and  a  narrow  gauge  railway  system  for  bringing  up  troops,  ammuni- 
tion and  supplies. 

No  German  soldier  had  ever  dreamed  of  an  attack  through  this  Forest,  and  everything  was 
done  to  conceal  the  nature  of  the  operation  from  them.  The  American  artillery  observers  during 
the  period  of  preparation  wore  French  uniforms.  On  the  night  of  the  25th,  the  77th  and  other 
divisions  in  the  reserve  line  moved  up  and  the  French  came  back.  Owing  to  the  vast  amount  of 
territory  covered  by  the  77th,  the  four  infantry  divisions  were  necessarily  in  the  line,  the  305th 
on  the  extreme  right  and  the  others,  in  numerical  order,  stretched  to  the  left  until  they  met  up 
with  the  1st  French  Division. 

That,  at  least,  had  been  the  arrangement.  On  the  left  flank  for  service  between  the  77th  and 
the  French,  a  Franco-American  force  had  been  organized  which  was  to  act  as  a  combat  liaison 
group.  It  was  made  up  of  the  368th  Infantry  of  the  92d  Division.  A  barrage  was  laid  down 
for  the  368th,  but  it  did  not  advance,  and  the  77th  went  away  on  the  morning  of  the  26th  with 
its  left  flank  exposed  and  continued  so  through  the  entire  Argonne  drive.  Owing  to  a  misunder- 
standing, or  failure  of  leadership,  the  368th  Infantry  did  not  take  its  appointed  place. 

After  the  first  two  days  of  the  attack,  surprise  days  for  the  enemy,  the  German  defense  began 
to  stiffen  as  fresh  divisions  were  rushed  into  the  strongly  fortified  forest,  but  the  driving  power 
of  the  Americans  was  not  to  be  denied.  On  the  right  of  the  line  from  the  Aire  to  the  Meuse,  the 
troops  moved  forward  rapidly.  The  37th  Ohio  Division,  the  79th  drafted  men  from  Pennsylvania 
and  Maryland,  the  veteran  4th,  the  91st,  80th  and  the  33d  moved  up  in  unison;  the  last  named 
division,  supported  by  the  106th  Field  Artillery  and  the  102d  Trench  Mortar  Battery,  two  Buff'alo 
units,  followed  the  Meuse,  and  cleaned  up  the  territory  from  Forges  to  Dannevoux.  Charpentry 
and  Montfaucon  had  also  been  taken  before  night  of  the  27th  and,  on  the  following  day,  Cierges 
fell.  The  American  Army  had  taken  10,000  prisoners  on  the  first  day. 

As  the  91st  Division  moved  forward  behind  its  thundering  barrage  that  morning  and  encountered 
the  first  line  of  resistance,  it  was  quickly  discovered  that  one  of  the  infantry  brigades  was  badly 
disorganized.  They  were  in  the  line  just  west  of  the  Aire  River  in  contact  with  the  35th  Divi- 
sion on  the  left  and  the  37th  on  the  right,  the  three  divisions  moving  ofl^  together  from  the  Boure- 
villes-Avocourt  Road  and  headed  through  Cheppy  and  Very  to  take  Charpentry  and  Epinonville. 

Colonel  Henry  C.  Jewett,  a  brother  of  Sherman  S.  Jewett  and  Mrs.  Fred  H.  Williams  of  Buf- 
falo— a  Buffalonian  himself  until  he  entered  the  military  service  from  West  Point  in  1901 — was 
in  command  of  the  316th  Engineers,  attached  to  the  91st  Division,  when  his  division  went  over 
the  top  that  morning.  Colonel  Jewett's  men  had  cut  the  first  wires  in  the  forest.  He  was  work- 
ing at  that  task  when  Major  General  W.  H.  .Johnston,  in  command  of  the  Division,  sent  for 
and  directed  him  to  proceed  forward  as  commander  of  the  disorganized  infantry  brigade,  the 
182d  Brigade,  at  that  moment  virtually  demoralized.  The  General  in  command  of  the  Brigade 
had  been  removed  a  few  minutes  before.  Colonel  Jewett,  from  reports  which  have  since 
come  through  from  officers  and  men,  quickly  reorganized  the  brigade,  took  up  his  position  in 
the  line,  and  went  into  Charpentry  that  night  having  cleared  the  Apremont-Montfaucon  Road. 
They  were  then  right  in  step  and  on  time  with  the  37th  Division.  For  courageous  leadership  and 
intelligent  handling  of  the  brigade,  Colonel  Jewett  was  awarded  the  Distinguished  Service  Cross, 
the  order  reading:  u 

"Colonel  Henry  C.  Jewett,  316th  Engineers,  for  extraordinary  heroism  in  action  during  the  Argonne-Meuse  offensive,  September  25th  to  Octo- 
ber 4,  1918.  Assigned  to  the  command  of  an  Infantry  brigade.  Colonel  Jewett  was  directed  to  go  forward,  find  his  brigade,  and  consolidate  his 
regiments,  which  had  become  separated.  He  crossed  territory  under  terrific  fire  and  pulled  his  rear  regiment  to  the  aid  of  the  regiment  in  the  front 
which  was  seriously  engaged,  thereafter  commanding  the  movements  of  both  regiments  in  a  highly  creditable  manner." 

After  the  first  phase  of  the  Argonne,  a  Brigadier-General  was  given  command  of  the  182d 
Brigade  and  Colonel  Jewett  returned  to  his  own  work,  the  engineering  regiment  having  a  most 
difficult  part  to  play  from  that  point  forward  in  the  Argonne  attack.  Later  on  Colonel  Jewett 
acted  as  Chief  of  Staff"  of  the  91st  Division. 

While  a  Buffalo  Colonel  was  thus  distinguishing  himself  by  heroic  effort,  a  Buffalo  private  in 
the  147th  Infantry  of  the  37th  Division,  fighting  by  the  side  of  Colonel  Jewett,  likewise  showed 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War  241 

his  valor.  Charles  Frueh,  of  1694  William  Street,  the  chap  who  had  failed  to  pass  the  Buffalo 
doctors,  but  who  effected  an  enlistment  in  the  Ohio  Division  was  shot  down  by  a  machine  gun- 
ner early  in  the  day.  Frueh's  company,  along  with  others  of  the  147th  Regiment,  was  halted  by  a 
severe  machine  gun  action  from  the  crest  of  a  hill.  His  company  was  compelled  to  fall  back, 
leaving  a  number  of  wounded  on  the  ground,  among  them  the  Buffalo  private  wi'ithing  with  a 
bullet  through  his  thigh.  A  German  lieutenant  with  a  detachment  of  seven  men  hurrying  forward, 
searching  the  ground,  came  across  Frueh  and  directed  him  to  go  to  the  rear  a  prisoner. 

"I  can't  walk,"  said  the  Buffalo  man,  speaking  in  German.  The  Lieutenant  told  him  he  would 
have  to  go  back,  but  the  lad  replied  he  would  rather  die  where  he  was  than  become  a  prisoner. 

The  angry  Lieutenant  grabbing  a  riffe  from  the  nearest  soldier,  fired  six  times  from  his  hip 
at  the  prostrate  boy  on  the  ground.  Five  of  the  bullets  took  effect  in  the  boy's  side  and  arm, 
but  none  fatally.  The  return  of  the  reorganized  American  company  put  the  Germans  to  flight, 
but  the  German  Lieutenant  and  five  of  his  men  were  brought  down  before  they  could  get  out  of 
harm's  way.    Frueh  finally  recovered. 

The  gallant  77th  Division  during  that  time  was  in  the  center  of  the  forest,  ploughing  its  way 
through.  Many  of  the  Divisions  in  the  territory  between  the  Aire  and  Meuse  had  fairly  open 
going,  but  the  77th  was  in  the  heart  of  dense  wood,  and  had  been  slowed  up  until,  on  the  29th, 
the  center  of  the  line  was  stopped.  On  October  1st  an  attack  made  along  the  entire  front  by 
the  77th  was  checked  at  every  point  and  the  77th  found  itself  anchored.  Orders  came  that  night 
to  attack  again  in  the  morning. 


242  Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 


CHAPTER   LXIX 
MAJOR    WHITTLESEY'S    BATTALION,    77th    DIVISION 

THE  morning  attack  came  on  time.  Cyril  Brown,  New  York  World  staff  correspondent,  in 
his  account  of  the  77th's  advance,  pursuant  to  orders,  on  the  following  morning,  October 
2d,  tells  picturesquely  and  accurately  the  story  which  constitutes  the  history  of  the  "Lost 
Battalion. "  Lieutenant  Karl  Wilhelm,  commanded  Company  E,  308th  Infantry,  of  that  Battal- 
ion, and  thus,  in  that  most  hidden  spot  in  the  black  heart  of  the  Argonne,  Buffalo  was  again 
faithfully  and  courageously  repi'esented. 

The  division  was  ordered  to  attack  at  12.50  P.  M.  on  its  entire  front  regardless  of  losses.  The 
elements  of  the  division  were  further  ordered,  if  successful  in  breaking  through  the  German  line, 
to  advance  regardless  of  flank  protection  and  to  hold  their  objectives  until  the  rest  of  the  line 
caught  up  with  them.  The  Division  attacked  on  schedule  time,  supported  by  a  barrage  and  by 
a  simultaneous  attack  by  the  French  holding  the  Binarville  sector  west  of  the  77th.  But  the 
attack  ran  into  murderous  enfilading  fire  from  cleverly  concealed  machine  guns  which  apparently 
left  not  a  loophole  in  the  entire  front.  The  Germans  held  all  along  the  line  and  the  American 
attack  seemed  to  be  a  complete  failure. 

When  the  situation  cleared  a  slender  ray  of  success  appeared.  One  battalion  alone  had  suc- 
ceeded in  breaking  through  the  German  line.  At  all  other  points  the  Division  had  been  held  up. 
Elements  of  the  1st  and  2d  Battalions  of  the  308th  Infantry,  reinforced  by  sections  of  Companies 
C  and  D  of  the  306th  Machine  Gun  Battalion,  all  under  the  command  of  Major  Charles  S.  Whit- 
tlesey had  found  Achilles's  Heel  of  the  impregnable  German  line — its  one  vulnerable  spot.  This 
was  the  Ravine  de  Charlevaux,  on  the  extreme  left  of  the  Division's  line  and  running  through 
the  center  of  the  308th  Infantry's  sector.  The  one  undefended  spot  of  the  German  line  was  in 
the  bed  of  this  ravine,  and  by  a  process  of  infiltration  through  the  underbrush  along  the  eastern 
bank  of  its  slender  stream  Major  Whittlesey's  force,  now  comprising  Companies  A,  B,  C,  E,  G 
and  H  of  the  308th  Infantry,  with  the  added  machine  gun  detachments,  succeeded  in  breaking 
through  the  German  line  and  alone  reaching  its  objective,  the  so-called  Charlevaux  Mills. 

Without  support  of  any  kind  on  either  flank  this  solitaiy  band  of  unconscious  heroes  had 
reached — and  intended  to  hold — a  position  deep  within  the  enemy's  lines.  On  the  left  the  French 
attack  had  made  no  progress  and  had  been  held  up  in  front  of  La  Palette  Pavilion.  On  the  right 
the  307th  Infantry  had  been  unable  to  make  progress  and  had  been  checked. 

At  that  time  the  "Lost  Battalion"  had  no  way  of  knowing  that  it  was  far  in  advance  of  the 
checked  elements  on  both  its  flanks.  It  only  knew  that  it  had  broken  through  the  German  trench 
and  wire  system,  losing  about  ninety  men,  but  capturing  two  officers,  twenty-eight  privates  and 
three  machine  guns.  It  confidently  expected  support  in  the  form  of  reinforcements;  and,  as  a 
matter  of  fact,  the  3d  Battalion  of  the  307th  Infantry  actually  did  attempt  to  follow  it  that  same 
night,  but  only  Company  K  succeeded  in  slipping  through  and  reinforcing  Major  Whittlesey  in 
the  morning. 

To  the  layman  it  might  look  as  if  Major  Whittlesey's  band  of  heroes  had  blundered  with  their 
eyes  open  into  a  man-trap.  But  nobody  had  blundered.  Major  Whittlesey  had  specific  orders 
to  break  through  the  Charlevaux  Mills  and  hold  it  until  the  rest  of  the  line  came  up,  which  left 
him  no  discretion  for  avoiding  a  possible  man-traj)  by  retreating,  or,  once  in.  trying  to  fight  his 
way  back. 

That  night  Major  Whittlesey  took  up  a  position  near  the  crest  of  the  hill  south  of  La  Viergette- 
Binarville,  about  500  meters  east  of  the  Charlevaux  Mills.  He  and  his  band  did  not  know  until 
morning  that  in  the  night  the  Germans  had  been  supei'-active,  digging  trenches,  running  barbed 
wire  entanglements  and  posting  machine  guns  in  his  rear,  across  the  path  of  his  advance,  and 
thus  repairing  the  break  in  the  German  line  which  his  force  had  made. 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War  243 

Casualties  had  reduced  his  command  to  600  effectives,  including  the  machine  gunners.  These 
"babes  in  the  Argonne  woods"  were  now  hopelessly  "lost"  in  a  deep  "pocket"  formed  by  the 
junction  of  two  steep  ravines,  with  slender  streams,  meeting  at  right  angles.  On  four  sides  they 
were  hemmed  in  by  steep,  densely  wooded  slopes.  In  the  darkness  Major  Whittlesey  led  his  men, 
struggling  through  the  morass,  across  the  brook  and  junction  of  the  two  ravines  and  up  the 
tangled  slope  almost  to  the  crest.  In  front,  and  about  100  yards  from  the  crest,  the  Binarville- 
La  Viergette  road  hugged  the  slope.  With  the  utmost  difficulty,  funk  holes  were  dug  in  the  stony 
ground  of  the  hill  slope.  Also,  the  men  had  no  blankets  or  overcoats.  And  lastly,  they  had  already 
eaten  up  their  reserve  I'ations  in  the  course  of  their  advance.  But  this  night  they  were  to  enjoy 
their  last  quiet,  restful  night.  Not  until  morning  did  they  discover  the  true  character  of  their 
desperate  position.  At  daybreak  October  2d  details  were  sent  to  the  rear  for  rations.  At  the 
same  time.  Company  E,  under  Lieutenant  Wilhelm,  was  sent  back  to  attack  from  the  west  of 
the  ravine  from  which  the  original  attack  had  been  launched,  in  order  to  assist  reinforcements 
in  getting  through  and  up. 


244  Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 


CHAPTER   LXX 
LIEUTENANT    WILHELM,    BUFFALO,    IN    "LOST   BATTALION." 

THE  situation  was  a  desperate  one,  but  the  uncertainty  as  to  the  location  of  the  others,  Amer- 
ican and  German,  did  not  force  home  the  idea  on  the  Lost  Battalion,  that  conditions  were 
any  different  that  day  from  what  they  had  been  on  each  preceding  day.  The  state  of  affairs 
is  best  gleaned  from  Lieutenant  Wilhelm's  account  of  his  experiences  just  before  and  after  he 
was  sent  back  to  make  an  opening  for  reinforcements.  He  had  been  away  from  his  company 
from  the  15th  of  August  until  the  beginning  of  the  Argonne  drive  on  September  26th,  on  account 
of  a  severe  gassing  which  had  closed  both  his  eyes  while  the  Division  was  on  the  Vesle  River 
front.  He  did  not  consider  the  position  of  the  Lost  Battalion  as  seriously  then  as  some  others 
did,  for  the  reason  that  many  small  detachments  of  different  companies  were  isolated  from  their 
companions  during  the  "gang  fighting"  through  the  woods.  Whittlesey's  force  had  been  twice 
cut  oft'  within  a  few  days;  it  was  large  in  numbers  and  many  of  the  men  came  back,  while,  in 
the  cases  of  small  numbers,  frequently  none  returned.  Lieutenant  Wilhelm  explaining  the  situa- 
tion said: 

"The  Argonne  Forest  is  very  similar  to  the  Adirondacks,  with  the  exception  that  the  under- 
brush is  much  thicker  than  in  the  Adirondacks.  Our  daily  progress  had  varied  little.  Each  morn- 
ing at  about  4  o'clock  our  barrage  would  start  and  at  4.30  the  troops  would  go  forward  until 
they  encountered  the  Germans,  when  the  action  would  be  fought  out.  Due  to  the  thick  shrubbery 
and  new  formation  known  as  "gang  formation,"  which  merely  meant  that  each  non-commis- 
sioned officer  took  from  six  to  eight  men  and  proceeded  in  the  general  direction  of  the  German 
lines,  keeping  in  touch  as  best  he  could,  with  the  small  units  on  his  right  and  left,  and  because  of 
the  nature  of  the  ground,  the  utmost  confusion  at  times  prevailed.  It  was  almost  impossible  to 
tell  where  the  various  gangs  were  operating  or  where  the  Germans  were  located. 

"The  third  or  fourth  day  out,  my  company  was  with  two  companies  from  the  1st  Battalion. 
We  figured  that  we  had  gone  a  mile  or  so  in  advance  of  the  main  body  when  we  ran  into  stiff 
machine  gun  and  rifle  fire  and  dug  in  on  the  slope  of  a  hill.  Major  Whittlesey  commanding  the 
composite  battalion  sent  me  back  to  the  main  body  to  tell  of  the  situation  and  give  them  our 
location.  In  our  advance  before  the  main  body  we  had  dropped  oft"  runner  posts  consisting  of 
two  or  three  men  at  intervals  of  a  few  hundred  yards  so  that  messages  could  be  conveyed  forward 
and  back  as  easily  as  possible.  On  my  way  back  I  met  Lieutenant  Colonel  Smith  of  New  York 
City,  who  was  commanding  two  companies  which  had  dug  in  alongside  a  narrow  gauge  railway 
about  half  a  mile  behind  the  advanced  battalion.  I  reported  to  him,  and,  as  it  was  raining  and 
there  was  no  shelter,  I  suggested  to  the  Colonel  that  we  go  to  the  first-aid  station  which  had 
been  established  in  a  little  shanty  a  few  hundred  yards  away,  where  we  might  get  a  bite  to  eat. 

"We  had  just  arrived  at  the  first  aid  station  when  Regimental  Headquarters  called  upon  the 
field  telephone  and  informed  Lieutenant  Colonel  Smith  that  the  runner  service  had  broken  down 
and  it  was  the  Colonel's  order  that  he  re-establish  it  immediately.  It  was  then  one  or  two  o'clock 
in  the  morning  and  pitch  dark,  so  the  Colonel  and  myself  worked  back  to  Regimental  Head- 
quarters, arriving  there  an  hour  before  daylight. 

"As  soon  as  daylight  came  we  started  for  the  advanced  Battalion  with  a  guide  leading.  After 
the  guide  came  Lieutenant  Colonel  Smith,  then  myself,  then  the  Colonel's  Adjutant,  a  second 
lieutenant  and  two  or  three  runners.  We  went  forward  from  post  to  post  without  difficulty  until 
we  had  gone  within  approximately  a  quarter  of  a  mile  of  the  advanced  Battalion.  Suddenly  we 
ran  into  a  group  of  Germans  with  a  light  machine  gun  who  had  been  practically  concealed  in  the 
thick  underbrush.  One  of  the  runners  and  myself  flopped  down  on  the  right  of  the  little  path 
we  had  been  following,  while  the  Colonel  and  the  rest  of  the  party  threw  themselves  to  the  left 
of  the  path  and  we  fired  with  our  revolvers  as  rapidly  as  possible  at  this  little  German  group. 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 


245 


The  Home  of  Bismarck  in  1870 

House  on  the  road  to  Grand  Pre,  said  to  have  been  occupied  by  the  "Blood  and  Iron  Chancellor"  while  on  his  way  to  Paris. 
The  youth  in  the  window  is  Private  Charles  Mader,  312th  Machine  Gun  Company 

Unfortunately,  a  revolver  had  little  chance  against  a  machine  gun  and  in  20  or  30  seconds  the 
regular  patt-patt-patt-patt-patt  of  the  gun  told  us  they  were  scouring  the  woods.  The  German 
gun  fired  for  a  few  moments  and  then  was  silent.  As  soon  as  it  ceased,  I  crawled  to  the  path  and 
ran  back  towards  our  own  line  as  fast  as  possible.  After  going  back  some  200  yards  I  found  the 
Colonel's  Adjutant  lying  on  the  ground  with  a  very  nasty  wound  through  his  thigh.  He  told 
me  that  the  party  had  scattered  and  that  he  thought  the  Lieutenant  Colonel  and  two  others 
were  killed,  which  fact  was  afterwards  verified.  After  bandaging  him  as  well  as  possible  with 
our  first  aid  kits,  I  started  to  drag  him  back,  but  found  it  was  almost  impossible  to  make  progress, 
as  he  was  rapidly  losing  strength.  I  called  for  help,  and.  though  this  drew  a  couple  of  snipers' 
bullets,  it  resulted  in  one  of  the  runners  who  had  gone  out  with  us  coming  to  my  assistance  and 
we  got  back  without  difficulty  after  that. 

"The  Division  was  moving  forward  against  very  determined  opposition,  but  in  two  days  the 
Germans  were  cleared  out  of  the  territory  intervening  between  the  main  forces  and  the  advanced 
Battalion.  I  was  then  given  command  of  E  Company,  as  Major  Budd  was  sent  to  Staff  School 
and  Captain  McMurtry  was  made  acting  Major  of  the  2d  Battalion. 

"Now  all  this  occurred  prior  to  October  2d  when  the  Battalion  was  finally  cut  off. 

"In  advancing  I  found  that  two  platoons  of  my  Company  which  were  ahead  of  me  had  gone 
into  action  with  some  German  posts  and  went  up  towards  them  to  find  out  what  the  conditions 
were,  accompanied  by  my  orderly,  a  little  Italian  from  New  York.  While  short,  he  was  very 
broad  and  powerful  and  a  fine  soldier.  The  orderly  was  preceding  me  by  15  or  20  yards  when  I 
suddenly  heard  him  shout  and  lunge  with  his  bayonet  behind  a  group  of  bushes.  Much  to  my 
amazement  a  six-foot  German  was  partially  hidden  there  and  in  a  moment  the  German  and  the 
orderly  were  hot  at  it  with  their  bayonets.  The  sight  was  so  unexpected  that  for  some  half  minute 
I  forgot  entirely  that  I  was  supposed  to  participate  and  watched  anxiously  to  see  how  the  fight 
would  come  out.   Suddenly  I  realized  that  I  was  supposed  to  be  doing  a  little  scrapping  myself 


246  Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 

about  that  time,  so  I  managed  to  get  within  six  or  eight  feet  of  the  German  and  shot  him.  I 
rather  expected  to  be  at  least  thanked  for  this  action  by  my  orderly,  but  he  turned  around  with 
an  expression  of  disgust  on  his  face  and  said: 

"'Oh!  hell,  Lieutenant,  what  did  you  want  to  do  that  for?  I'd  have  got  him  in  a  minute  my- 
self.' 

"On  the  morning  of  October  2d  we  had  camped  on  a  hillside  and  I  had  put  two  or  three  auto- 
matic rifle  outposts  over  the  brow  of  the  hill.  Just  before  the  time  to  start  and  while  our  barrage 
was  still  going  on,  my  Sergeant  reported  that  one  of  these  outposts  could  not  be  found.  As  I 
had  helped  place  them  the  night  before  I  thought  I  knew  their  exact  location  and  walked  over 
the  brow  of  the  hill  to  call  them  in  personally.  I  came  upon  a  group  of  five  figures  who  were 
looking  at  right  angles  to  me  and  who,  of  course,  could  not  hear  of  my  approach  because  of  the 
noise  of  the  barrage.  Never  doubting  but  what  they  were  my  post  I  advanced  to  within  some 
15  or  20  yards  of  them  when  suddenly  one  of  the  figures  saw  me  approaching  and  without  getting 
up,  fired  at  me  with  a  revolver  over  his  shoulder.  Luckily  the  bullets  merely  struck  the  little 
finger  of  my  left  hand  and  as  a  matter  of  fact  I  did  not  know  for  some  time  that  he  had  wounded 
me,  being  too  much  plain  scared.  I  fired  at  them  while  retreating  at  which  they  threw  one  or 
two  hand  gi-enades  in  my  general  direction,  and,  while  these  did  not  injure  me,  they  added  suffi- 
ciently to  my  fright,  so  as  to  send  me  back  to  the  company  immediately.  I  rounded  up  a  squad 
and  went  back  to  clean  out  this  nest,  but,  as  usual  found  that  they  had  left  for  parts  unknown. 

"The  advance  that  day  continued  according  to  schedule.  Late  that  afternoon  I  came  through 
a  ravine  and  found  myself  with  the  forty-five  or  fifty  men  left  in  my  company  (the  others  had 
been  wounded  or  killed  during  the  previous  fighting)  and  with  four  or  five  other  companies  dug 
in  on  the  side  of  a  hill.  Major  Whittlesey  was  in  command  and  Captain  McMurtry  second  in 
command.  This  eventually  became  the  site  of  the  famous  so-called  "Lost  Battalion."  Properly 
speaking  the  Battalion  was  not  lost  at  all.  Its  location  was  well  known  but  the  German  resistance 
between  it  and  the  main  body  was  so  powerful  that  all  attempts  to  relieve  it  for  six  or  seven 
days  proved  vain.   The  307th  Infantry  tried  hard  but  lost  many  men.* 

"On  digging  ourselves  in  we  immediately  encountered  machine  gun  and  rifle  fire  from  the 
north,  east  and  west.  The  second  morning  after  arriving  here  I  was  ordered  by  Major  Whittlesey 
to  take  my  company  and  work  back  along  the  side  of  a  hill  to  connect  with  two  companies  who 
were  supposed  to  work  forward  from  the  main  body  and  toward  us.  I  started  out  soon  after 
daylight  but  after  getting  a  half  mile  away  from  the  Lost  Battalion,  was  startled  by  a  voice  on 
the  hill  top  above  us  saying: 

"'What  Company  is  that?' 

"Three  or  four  men  immediately  answered:   'It  is  E  Company.' 

"Something  in  the  tones  of  the  voice  made  me  suspicious  and  I  sent  a  scout  up  the  hill  to  see 
if  he  could  get  any  definite  information.  At  the  end  of  ten  minutes  he  did  not  return,  so  I  crawled 
up  the  hill  a  short  distance  myself  and  again  heard  talking,  the  men  speaking  in  German  although 
I  could  not  distinguish  what  they  said.  Returning  to  the  Company  I  gave  the  order  to  move 
ahead  but  about  this  time  a  terrific  rifle  and  machine  gun  fire  commenced,  the  Germans  firing 
at  us  from  above  and  also  both  flanks — while  from  across  the  little  valley  snipers  started  working. 

"  I  took  ten  men  and  worked  for  a  hundred  and  fifty  yards  to  see  if  there  was  a  possible  chance 


*Ed. — A  popular  Buffalo  boy,  a  member  of  the  307th  Infantry,  Sergeant  Frank  Holtz,  whose  home  was  in  Humboldt  Parkway  near  Main  Street, 
gave  his  life  in  an  effort  to  relieve  the  "Lost  Battalion."  The  story  of  that  heroic  endeavor  is  told  in  a  letter  from  Captain  R.  M.  Shields  of  the 
307th  Infantry  to  the  boy's  father: 

"Sergeant  Holtz  took  part  in  a  battalion  attack  on  a  Boche  barbed  wire  position  in  difficult  woods  in  the  heart  of  the  Argonne  forest — in 
an  attack  aimed  to  relieve  the  battalion  of  the  308th  which  was  cut  off  by  the  Boche  and  had  been  marooned  a  kilo  ahead  of  us  in  a  valley  for 
two  or  three  days.  Undoubtedly  you  read  all  about  this  in  the  New  York  papers  about  that  time,  for  it  was  reported  faithfully  and  at  length. 
Sergeant  Holtz  was  wounded  about  October  4th.  We  relieved  the  battalion  of  the  ;108th  Infantry,  on,  I  believe,  the  6th,  after  it  had  held  on  five 
days  without  food — relieved  it  by  a  turning  attack  on  the  Boche  left  flank.  About  Holtz,  himself,  I  can  say  nothing  but  praise.  He  was  an  ex- 
cellent soldier  and  a  fearless  one.  He  was  promoted  Sergeant  from  private  and  later  made  platoon  sergeant.  Nothing  that  I  can  say,  of  course, 
can  relieve  your  grief  in  losing  him.    He  gave  up  his  life  like  a  soldier." 

Washington,  June  4,  1919 — Associated  Press. — The  distinguished  service  cross  has  been  awarded  by  General  Pershing  to  the  late  Sergeant 
Frank  F.  Holtz,  son  of  Mrs.  Henry  F.  Holtz  of  No.  207  Humboldt  Parkway,  Buffalo,  who  died  from  wounds  received  in  action.  The  award  was 
made  for  "extraordinary  heroism  in  action  near  Moulin  de  Charlavaux,  France,  October  4,  1918."  In  announcing  the  award  to-day  the  War 
Department  said:  "His  platoon  held  up  and  cut  off  from  the  remainder  of  the  company,  he  volunteered  to  establish  liaison  and  summon  reinforce- 
ments after  several  runners  had  been  killed  or  captured  in  the  attempt.  Passing  through  intense  artillery  and  machine  gun  fire,  he  carried  word 
to  his  company  commander,  but  was  mortally  wounded  while  returning  to  his  platoon." 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War  247 

for  the  Company  advancing  between  the  machine  gun  firing  from  the  foot  of  the  hill  and  the 
Infantry  Company  above  us  on  the  hill.  After  five  of  these  men  had  been  shot  I  determined  that 
this  was  not  feasible  and  started  back  toward  the  remainder  of  the  Company,  only  to  find  that 
the  Germans  had  swung  down  in  between  myself  and  the  rest  of  the  Company.  We  were  cut  oflf 
from  the  Company.  The  only  thing  left  for  us  was  to  head  straight  up  the  hill  and  back  into 
German  territory.  When  we  had  advanced  five  or  six  yards  we  found  that  there  were  Germans 
all  around  us.  They  were  shouting  to  one  another  and  evidently  had  some  idea  we  were  in  that 
vicinity,  so  we  crawled  into  thick  underbrush  and  lay  there  all  during  that  day. 

"A  little  path  some  fifteen  yards  away  from  us  evidently  led  to  a  German  gun  position  of 
some  sort,  for  all  during  the  day  the  Germans  were  passing  and  repassing  by  twos  and  threes — 
so  close  that  we  could  hear  what  they  said.  In  my  party  was  a  sergeant,  a  corporal  and  two 
privates,  and  after  dark  we  decided  that  it  would  be  much  safer  to  work  back  in  smaller  groups 
as  two  or  three  men  would  make  less  noise  than  would  five,  so  Sergeant  Callahan  and  myself 
started  out  working  along  this  little  path  which  led  in  the  general  direction  of  the  American  lines. 
It  took  us  from  8  P.  M.  to  12  P.  M.  that  night  to  go  an  eighth  of  a  mile,  and  we  had  to  be  exceed- 
ingly careful  about  noise.  Every  few  minutes  we  would  crouch  at  the  side  of  the  path  while 
Germans  would  go  by  talking,  unconscious  of  the  fact  that  we  were  hidden  there.  Finally,  near 
midnight  we  came  upon  an  open  plain  a  half  mile  across,  which  was  more  or  less  illuminated  by 
flares  which  the  Germans  were  throwing  up  every  few  minutes.  Directly  in  front  of  us  were 
three  stretches  of  barbed  wire  each  about  30  yards  wide  and  protected  by  machine  guns  located 
every  few  hundred  yards. 

"After  a  short  rest  we  started  working  through  this  bai'bed  wire — our  progress  being  neces- 
sarily slow  as  every  time  a  flare  went  up  we  would  have  to  stand  perfectly  rigid  until  it  had  died 
out.  They  fired  frequently  with  machine  guns — searching  the  wire  for  any  enemy  that  might 
be  there,  but  as  luck  would  have  it  we  got  through  safely  and  crawled  across  the  open  plain  to 
our  own  posts. 

"On  arriving  in  the  American  line  I  reported  and  then  went  to  the  rear  to  have  my  finger 
dressed  and  got  a  shot  of  anti-tetanus.  Four  or  five  days  later  the  " Lost  Battalion"  was  relieved. 
The  survivors  certainly  presented  a  hideous  spectacle,  due  to  lack  of  food  and  medical  attention. 
I  was  then  assigned  to  command  of  F  Company  and  went  forward  again  working  in  reserve." 


248  Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 


CHAPTER    LXXI 
LOST    BATTALION'S    DEAD    STILL    HOLD    THE    POSITION 

THE  four  or  five  days  intervening,  between  the  time  Lieutenant  Wilheim  got  through  and 
the  "  Lost  Battalion  "  was  finally  reached  by  the  onward  push  of  the  American  forces,  were 
bitterly  contested  days  for  the  men  on  the  hillside. 

George  F.  Speich,  798  Elk  Street,  Buffalo,  a  corporal  in  K  Company,  307th  Infantry,  fought 
heroically  all  that  day  in  the  bitter  drive  against  the  German  line.  The  Germans  were  holding 
at  virtually  every  point  as  they  did  on  the  preceding  day.  Speich  was  in  the  front  lines  by 
the  side  of  Eddie  Grant,  Captain  "D"  Company,  307th  Infantry,  a  former  popular  member  of 
the  New  York  baseball  team,  who  was  killed  the  following  day. 

Toward  evening,  the  eighty-six  members  of  "K"  Company  were  sent  back  to  the  kitchen  for 
mess  and  then  late  at  night,  were  returned  to  the  line.  Speich  says  Company  K,  apparently, 
hit  about  the  same  spot  Major  Whittlesey  had  penetrated  earlier  in  the  day,  for  as  they  fought 
on  through  the  night  they  suddenly,  as  dawn  was  breaking,  came  across  Whittlesey's  Battalion 
on  the  slope  of  a  hill  near  a  ravine,  and  pulled  in  alongside  of  them.  The  men  were  tired  out 
and  laid  down  for  a  little  nap.  They  were  awakened  by  shell  fire  and  discovered  the  Germans  were 
firing  at  them  from  all  sides  and  they  were  really  boxed  in. 

The  first  man  Speich  encountered  on  the  morning  of  October  2d  was  William  Wright,  Company 
"D",  306th  Machine  Gun  Battalion,  another  Buffalo  boy.  As  far  as  he  knew  they  were  the 
only  two  Buffalo  men,  apart  from  Lieutenant  Karl  Wilheim,  with  the  "Lost  Battalion,"  although 
there  may  have  been  others. 

Telling  his  story.  Corporal  Speich  said:  "W^e  were  on  the  extreme  right  flank;  the  308th  was 
on  the  left.  The  Germans  were  attacking  us  mostly  with  hand  grenades  and  minenwerfer,  but 
we  were  dug  in  under  a  road  half  way  up  the  hill.  That  road  was  swept  continuously,  as  was 
also  the  valley  below.  The  side  of  the  hill  was  thickly  wooded  and  contained,  where  we  dug  in, 
a  very  heavy  brush.   We  could  frequently  see  the  Germans  on  the  hill  above  us. 

"We  had  had  a  good  supper  the  previous  night,  but  did  not  have  any  food  with  us  when  we 
broke  through  and  joined  up  with  Whittlesey's  Battalion  on  the  morning  of  the  2d.  We  found 
that  the  308th,  also,  was  without  food.  They  did  not  have  even  a  bit  of  hardtack.  We  had 
plenty  of  rifle  ammunition,  but  were  short  on  hand  grenades.  Of  course,  if  a  fellow  was  wounded 
or  killed,  we  would  go  out  at  night  and  take  his  belt  off  and  use  his  ammunition.  A  number  of 
our  fellows  were  wounded  on  the  second  of  October,  the  first  day  that  we  were  in  the  brush, 
and  it  was  rather  pitiful  because  we  could  render  them  no  assistance  during  the  day.  At  night 
we  would  go  out  and  take  their  canteens,  fill  them  with  water  from  a  nearby  creek  and  give  them 
a  drink.  We  could  not  change  their  bandages,  because  we  had  but  two  bandages  apiece  and 
those  were  about  used  up.  Our  aeroplanes  soared  over  us  several  times,  but  they  could  not  see 
us  in  the  brush,  although  we  could  see  them.  We  put  out  towels  to  attract  their  attention,  but 
I  never  heard  whether  they  located  us  or  not.  I  do  not  think  they  did.  On  two  afternoons,  the 
Germans  came  after  us  with  liquid  fire,  but  they  were  too  far  distant  and  no  one  suffered  from 
tliat  attack.  Our  fellows  were  gradually  going  under,  however,  from  shrapnel  wounds  and  exhaus- 
tion. After  three  or  four  days  on  the  hill  they  began  to  feel  the  need  of  food.  I  got  a  slight  wound 
in  the  leg  caused  by  shrapnel,  but  was  not  very  badly  injured.  Some  of  the  boys  were  in  pretty 
bad  shape,  a  number  of  them  having  shrapnel  in  their  backs.  Of  course,  we  used  our  rifles  to  the 
best  advantage.  If  we  saw  a  movement  anywhere  in  range  we  would  take  a  crack  at  it,  primarily 
however,  to  keep  them  off  us  rather  than  with  any  hope  of  inflicting  very  serious  damage. 

"The  night  we  went  in  we  had  eighty-six  men  in  the  company,  but  when  the  relief  finally 
showed  up  on  October  7th  there  were  but  forty-two  men  able  to  go  on.  The  relief  battalion  of 
the  307th,  the  first  to  get  there,  came  up  to  us  on  the  night  of  the  7th,  but  the  fellows  who  came 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War  249 

up  had  only  their  iron  rations  and  they  gave  that  to  those  who  were  most  seriously  wounded 
and  in  greatest  need  of  sustenance.  The  next  morning,  however,  they  brought  up  coffee,  jam 
and  bread,  and  we  had  a  regular  feast.  They  had  a  large  number  of  ambulances  and  took  out 
the  seriously  wounded  first.  The  ambulances  were  busy  all  day  taking  the  men  away.  I  did  not 
get  out  until  about  4  o'clock  in  the  afternoon.  You  can  appreciate  the  suffering  of  some  of  the 
wounded  who  had  lain  there  for  five  and  six  days  with  nothing  to  eat.  I  went  to  Base  Hospital 
No.  15  at  Chaumont,  but  f  was  all  right  in  a  short  time  and  got  back  again  with  the  regiment 
for  the  final  drive." 

Private  Wright  was  not  seriously  hurt,  but  suffered  severely  for  the  want  of  food  and  from 
exposure  and  continuous  watching.  Being  a  member  of  the  machine  gun  battalion,  he  was  out 
firing  until  all  of  their  ammunition  was  gone. 

He  left  Buffalo  in  February,  1918,  and  went  overseas  with  the  77th  Division. 

The  77th  Division  had  been  in  traps  before;  in  fact,  had  just  previously  got  out  of  one  and 
were  far  from  being  unfamiliar  with  such  situations.  Whittlesey's  men,  as  Speich's  story  shows 
had  settled  themselves  in  a  small  wooded  patch  on  the  side  of  the  hill  where  Lieutenant  Wil- 
helm  had  left  them.  The  German  artillery  opened  fire  the  morning  after  their  arrival,  but  the 
shells  failed  to  reach.  They  whizzed  over  the  hill  and  over  the  heads  of  the  American  soldiers 
near  its  crest.  A  trench  mortar  battery  was  doing  more  effective  work.  A  detachment  sent  back 
to  stop  it  was  raked  with  a  withering  machine  gun  fire  which  compelled  retirement. 

Captain  McMurtry  was  convinced  that  Lieutenant  Wilhelm  had  been  killed  in  his  eft'ort  to 
reach  the  back  area.   The  Battalion,  however,  had  no  intention  of  going  backward. 

The  German  artillery  fire  had  opened  on  the  morning  of  October  2d,  but  its  failure  to  reach 
them  satisfied  the  leaders  of  the  Battalion  that  they  had  nothing  to  fear  up  in  front;  accordingly 
they  prepared  to  hold  their  position  until  the  balance  of  the  Division  came  through. 

Not  realizing  how  widely  scattered  were  the  forces  behind  them,  nor  what  difficulties  the  small 
detachments  were  encountering  in  their  endeavor  to  break  through  the  German  line,  they  expected 
help  to  arrive  the  following  day.  Several  German  attempts  during  the  night  to  close  in  on  the 
Americans  were  met  by  a  machine  gun  and  rifle  fire  that  withered  up  the  attacking  party,  and 
the  Boche  left  many  of  their  men  on  the  hillside. 

Each  day  after  that  was  much  like  the  preceding  one,  except  that  the  situation  gradually  grew 
worse.  The  American  wounded  were  without  proper  attention,  and  the  pangs  of  hunger  added 
a  new  element  of  danger.  By  Sunday,  October  6th,  Whittlesey's  force,  originally  close  to  700 
men,  had  been  reduced  to  less  than  300.  Both  machine  gun  officers.  Lieutenants  Noon  and  Peabody 
were  killed  that  day;  only  one  machine  gun  out  of  nine  was  still  working  and  ammunition  was 
almost  gone. 

Monday,  October  7,  saw  the  soul  crisis  of  the  "Lost  Battalion."  From  none  of  the  men  had 
come  a  suggestion  of  surrender.  The  subtle  temptation  now  came  from  the  enemy.  In  the  morn- 
ing a  patrol  of  nine,  went  into  the  woods  to  try  to  recover  a  food  parcel  dropped  by  one  of  our 
aeroplanes.  Outnumbered  and  overpowered  by  a  German  outpost,  five  were  killed,  four  wounded 
and  taken  prisoner. 

One  of  these  was  sent  back  to  the  Battalion  with  a  note  from  the  German  commanding  officer, 
reading: 

"Sir:  The  bearer  of  this  present  has  been  taken  prisoner  by  us.  He  refused  to  give  the  German  Intelligence  officer 
any  answer  to  his  question,  and  is  quite  an  honorable  fellow,  doing  honor  to  his  fatherland  in  the  strictest  sense  of 
the  word. 

"He  has  been  charged  against  his  will,  believing  that  he  is  doing  wrong  to  his  country,  to  carry  forward  this  present 
letter  to  the  officer  in  charge  of  the  battalion  of  the  77th  Division  with  the  purpose  to  recommend  the  commander 
to  surrender  with  his  forces,  as  it  would  be  quite  useless  to  resist  any  more,  in  view  of  the  present  conditions. 

"The  suffering  of  your  wounded  men  can  be  heard  over  here  in  the  German  lines  and  we  are  appealing  to  your 
humane  sentiments  to  stop.  A  white  flag  shown  by  one  of  your  men  will  tell  us  that  you  agree  with  these  conditions. 
Please  treat  the  bearer  as  an  honorable  man.    He  is  quite  a  soldier." 

Major  Whittlesey,  Captain  McMurtry  and  Captain  Holderman  read  the  note  in  turn.   Major 


250 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 


Montfaucon 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War  251 

Whittlesey  ordered  the  two  white  panels,  spread  on  the  ground  for  the  purpose  of  attracting  the 
attention  of  American  aeroplanes,  to  be  removed,  so  that  not  even  a  suspicion  of  a  white  flag 
of  surrender  might  show  on  that  hillside. 

The  news  of  the  German  note,  tempting  the  "Lost  Battalion"  to  surrender,  quickly  spread 
among  the  men;  but  not  a  man  was  in  favor  of  it.  Prostrate  on  the  ground,  in  many  cases  too 
weak  from  hunger  to  stir,  they  had  life  and  spirit  enough  left  in  them  to  call  to  the  Boche  to 
"come  over  and  get  us,"  amplified  with  other  choice  epithets,  "Tell  them  to  go  to  hell!"  being 
the  mildest  of  these. 

In  the  evening  unmistakable  American  rifle  and  machine  gun  fire,  unmistakably  coming  their 
way,  sounded  like  sweet  music  in  the  ears  of  the  "Lost  Battalion."  But  they  had  to  put  up 
one  last  and  hardest  fight  before  the  approaching  relief  became  effective.  The  Germans  tried 
a  final  farewell  desperate  assault,  this  time  with  liquid  fire.  But,  like  all  their  innumerable  attacks 
before,  this  one,  too,  was  frustrated  by  the  survivors  of  the  "  Lost  Battalion, "  and  as  the  last  Ger- 
mans were  beaten  back  and  disappeared,  men  of  the  307th  Infantry  were  coming  up  on  the  right 
while  patrols  of  the  308th  were  reported  advancing  from  the  south.  The  agony  of  the  "Lost  Bat- 
talion" was  over.  On  the  morning  of  October  8th,  252  survivors  of  the  original  679  returned 
from  the  "pocket,"  leaving  the  dead  to  hold  the  position. 

Corporal  Vincent  V.  Zielinski,  Company  I,  306th  Infantry,  who  had  figured  in  the  release  of 
the  Lost  Battalion  in  the  Argonne  performed  an  act  of  greater  heroism  at  St.  Juvin  in  the 
approach  to  Grand  Pre  on  October  15th.   The  official  citation  says: 

"Corporal  Vincent  V.  Zielinski,  I  Company,  306  Infantry,  For  extraordinary  heroism  in  action  at  Saint  Juvin,  France,  on  October  15,  1918. 
Corporal  Zielinski  volunteered  and  carried  a  message  of  vital  importance  in  connection  with  the  capture  of  Saint  Juvin  through  an  intense 
artillery  barrage,  displaying  courage  and  persistent  devotion  to  duty.  Home  address,  Mrs.  Eva  Zielinski,  Mother,  No.  1 12  Gorski  Street, 
Buffalo,  N.  Y." 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War  253 


CHAPTER   LXXII 

BUFFALO    ARTILLERYMEN    WRECK    FORCxES    ON    THE    MEUSE 

ONE  Battery  of  the  good  old  65th  Regiment,  now  converted  into  the  106th  Field  Artillery, 
got  into  action  on  the  St.  Mihiel  front,  but  the  regiment  did  not  get  its  real  christening 
until  the  Meuse-Argonne  Offensive  began.  Through  the  latter  part  of  September  they  were, 
however,  gradually  working  their  way  up  to  the  front  lines.  On  the  day  the  Marines  drove  the 
Boche  out  of  the  top  of  Belleau  Wood,  Buffalo's  old  "standby"  landed  in  France.  It  was  June 
18th,  1918.  Their  port  of  entry  was  St.  Nazaire.  They  had  crossed  the  Atlantic  on  the  "  Matsonia  ". 

Colonel  Hines,  who  had  been  in  command  of  the  regiment  at  Spartanburg,  did  not  make  the 
trip  across,  Lieutenant-Colonel  John  D.  Howland,  being  in  command  on  the  trip.  Shortly  after 
arriving  at  the  training  camp  in  France,  however,  Lieutenant-Colonel  Howland  was  succeeded 
by  Colonel  Emery  T.  Smith  as  commanding  oificer;  and  shortly  thereafter  detached  entirely 
from  the  regiment.  Lieutenant  Henri  Berteaux,  a  representative  of  the  French  Army,  was  assigned 
as  liaison  officer.  The  French  Lieutenant  became  popular  with  the  men  and  officers  of  the  regi- 
ment and  his  experience  and  help  were  a  constant  factor  in  the  development  of  the  efficiency  of 
the  regiment,  during  the  training  period  of  July  and  August. 

On  the  6th  and  7th  of  September,  the  regiment  left  its  training  camp  and  headed  up  toward 
the  St.  Mihiel  front,  where  Battery  "A,"  Captain  Burkhardt,  commanding,  got  into  action  for 
a  short  time  at  Balencourt. 

Lieutenant  Colonel  John  T.  Delaney  of  New  York  City  had  been  designated  as  second  in 
command  of  the  regiment,  when  Lieutenant-Colonel  Howland  was  detached,  and  Lieutenant 
Colonel  Verbeck  of  Manlius,  N.  Y.  was  also  added  to  the  Staff.  Major  Louis  H.  Eller  and  Major 
Bradley  Goodyear  were  the  ranking  Buffalo  officers  of  the  regiment.  Major  Eller  had  served 
many  years  with  the  old  guard  in  its  State  militia  days,  while  Major  Goodyear  was  comparatively 
a  new  comer  in  the  ranks.  In  the  early  period  of  the  war,  when  Buffalo  was  not  thoroughly  aroused 
to  the  importance  of  the  struggle  overseas,  Mr.  Goodyear  was  one  of  the  men  who  gave  his  time 
and  money  and  best  thought  to  the  preparedness  movement  and,  as  evidence  of  his  willingness 
to  serve,  enlisted  in  the  65th  Regiment,  N.  G.  S.  N.  Y. 

The  Buffalo  Captains  in  the  Regiment  included  Patrick  J.  Keeler,  a  Judge  of  the  City  Court; 
Chauncey  J.  Hamlin,  lawyer,  clubman,  and  like  Goodyear  and  Keeler,  an  earnest  worker  in  the 
development  of  the  Buffalo  regiment  in  the  days  when  the  people  did  not  believe  war  possible; 
Walter  D.  Parlour,  Harry  L.  Gilchriese,  John  C.  Grabau,  Medical;  Howard  H.  Burkhardt, 
George  Toomey,  John  J.  Curtin,  William  F.  Schohl,  Williamsville;  Lieutenants,  Douglas  P. 
Walker,  Edwin  S.  Burrows,  Marvin  W.  Marcus,  Joseph  R.  Hess  and  Carleton  B.  Briggs,  Lancaster. 

Captain  Harry  Gilchriese  writing  from  Verdun,  tells  the  story  of  the  activities  of  the  old  Regi- 
ment as  it  passed  from  the  St.  Mihiel  front  and  entered  into  its  arduous  task  in  the  Meuse-Argonne 
offensive : 

"Moving  forward  we  arrived  at  our  new  position  at  noon  on  September  20th.  And  where  do 
you  think  it  was?  Exactly  on  the  southern  slope  of  the  famous  Mort  Homme  (Dead  Man's 
Hill),  a  hill  on  which  we  are  told  more  lives  were  lost  in  one  battle  than  in  our  entire  civil  war. 

"A  cautious  reconnaissance  on  the  crest  of  the  hill  gave  us  a  beautiful  view  of  the  country 
held  by  the  Hun  from  the  Argonne  to  the  northwest  around  to  the  river  Meuse  on  our  east.  Directly 
below  us  lay  our  own  infantry  lines  and  across  the  shell-torn  ravine  of  Raffincourt  were  the  Ger- 
man front  lines.  The  Bois  de  Forges  which  was  soon  to  be  our  objective  loomed  up  as  an  insur- 
mountable barrier  to  the  heights  beyond.  Where  once  had  stood  a  prosperous  little  village,  the 
remains  of  Bethincourt,  marked  the  center  of  No  Man's  Land.  There  is  nothing  impressive 
about  a  battlefield.  It  is  the  most  desolate  looking  thing  imaginable.  Not  a  sign  of  life,  not  a 
creature  stirring.   It  was  a  beautiful  day,  but  even  the  birds  had  long  since  evacuated. 


254  Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War 

"But  behind  the  hill,  screened  from  enemy  eyes,  one  received  an  awful  shock,  by  contrast. 
Soldiers  and  officers  were  moving  about  everywhere,  with  instruments,  plotting  boards  and  chains. 
The  unmilitary  observer  would  think  the  army  had  suddenly  turned  to  surveying  or  some  such 
peaceful  pursuit.  Those  countless  men  were  the  advance  detachments  of  the  hundreds  of  batteries 
that  were  to  be  in  within  the  next  few  days.  They  were  laying  out  traverses,  orienting  lines  and 
locating  positions  on  the  map  for  the  computations  necessary  for  the  artillery.  Good  Lord,  what 
a  hot  time  was  in  store  for  Jerry! 

"That  night  it  rained.  We  knew  in  advance  it  was  going  to  rain,  because  our  batteries  were 
coming  forward.  We  had  selected  as  a  command  post  a  dugout  thirty  feet  under  ground,  damp 
and  unventilated,  but,  as  subsequent  events  proved,  quite  worth  the  discomfort.  The  next 
several  days  the  artillery  literally  swarmed  around  the  section.  Dead  Man's  Hill  became  the 
most  lively  of  places.  Batteries  of  all  calibres,  from  75's  to  220's  appeared  as  if  by  magic.  When 
one  woke  up  in  the  morning  there  would  be  another  battery  crowding  in  beside  you.  There  never 
had  been  such  a  concentration  of  artillery  in  one  sector  before.  Even  the  French  were  astounded. 
We  were  now  with  the  3d  Army  Corps,  U.  S.  and  a  part  of  the  First  Army. 

"  For  the  next  four  days  everyone  worked  feverishly,  under  camouflage  by  day  and  in  the  open 
by  night.  Ammunition  was  hauled  up  the  hill  by  hand;  emplacements  had  to  be  widened,  and 
cover  had  to  be  constructed  for  the  personnel  of  the  guns.  Never  a  shot  was  fired.  We  had  no 
orders,  but  everyone  knew  what  was  coming,  and  everyone  worked  with  his  utmost  speed  and 
energy,  and  each  night  found  a  new  regiment  moving  in.  Then  the  infantry  began  to  move  up 
and  we  sat  tight  waiting  for  the  order.  When  a  hostile  plane  flew  over  during  the  day,  the  hill 
presented  an  aspect  as  dead  as  its  name.  As  soon  as  it  had  been  driven  off  the  ravines  and  sur- 
rounding hills  were  seething  with  activity.  It  was  amusing  as  well  as  interesting  to  see  the  way 
the  game  was  being  played. 

"And  then,  at  10  o'clock  on  the  night  of  September  25th,  the  captains  were  assembled  in 
the  Colonel's  quarters.  We  were  told  that  H  hour  would  be  at  5.00  o'clock  on  the  following  morn- 
ing; that  we  would  begin  firing  at  3.00  o'clock  and  fire  until  H  hour;  that  the  back  areas  would 
be  smothered  by  our  "Heavies"  during  the  night;  that  the  infantry  would  go  over  at  H  hour. 
Of  course  we  had  been  given  our  objectives  several  days  before.  Intent  on  our  several  missions 
we  started  back  for  our  command  posts.  The  night  was  as  quiet  as  usual,  not  even  the  rattle  of 
a  machine  gun  bi'oke  its  death-like  stillness.  We  looked  at  our  watches,  having  just  synchronized 
them  with  the  Commanding  Oflicer.  It  was  two  minutes  to  eleven.  We  waited.  At  exactly 
eleven  o'clock  a  terrific  bombardment  from  our  rear  was  begun.  The  distinct  booming,  followed 
by  the  screeching  of  the  heavy  projectiles  as  they  passed  us  en  route,  became  more  and  more 
intense.  The  G.  P.  F.s  and  Longs  had  begun  the  party  on  schedule  time.  From  then  on  one 
could  not  hear  himself  talk,  and  the  medium  and  light  guns  had  not  begun.  All  night  long  this 
serenade  was  kept  up. 

"From  1.00  o'clock  we  "stood  to."  At  3.00  o'clock  a  shell  went  through  the  store  room  just 
above  us,  calibre  150,  and  blew  up  a  box  of  "gold  fish."  At  4.00  A.  M.  we  worked  in  gas  masks 
for  fifteen  minutes.   At  5.00  another  shell  blew  our  wireless  aerials  skyward. 

"  That  afternoon  I  was  sent  forward  to  reconnoiter  for  new  observing  stations  nearer  the  retreat- 
ing Hun  lines  as  they  had  passed  beyond  the  range  of  our  present  observatories.  I  passed  hundreds 
of  prisoners  being  retui-ned  fi-om  the  attack.  The  dead  of  course  had  not  yet  been  removed  and 
some  grewsome  sights  were  presented  to  the  unaccustomed  eye.  Happily  the  American  dead 
were  far  outnumbered  by  the  Boche.  In  fact  we  lost  very  few  men  in  the  attack,  as  the  artillery 
preparation  was  perfect.  The  Hun  prisoners  were  absolutely  terrified,  pounded  into  complete  sub- 
mission, by  that  tremendous  demonstration.  Our  Infantry  crossed  the  Forges  Brook,  mopped  up  the 
Bois  de  Forges,  which  had  so  long  menaced  their  positions,  took  several  small  towns  and  brought 
up  on  the  west  bank  of  the  Meuse,  which  seemed  to  be  an  insurmountable  barrier.  As  I  gazed 
upon  the  smoking,  ruined  country  from  the  new  observing  station,  the  thought  came  to  me,  as 
it  has  come  to  thousands  of  others,  that  the  Hun  must  be  paid  in  full  for  the  havoc  he  wrought." 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War  255 


CHAPTER   LXXIII 
BREAKING    THE    GREAT    HINDENBURG    LINE 

THE  attack  on  the  Hindenburg  Line  really  began  on  the  25th  of  September,  when  word  was 
passed  to  Colonel  William  B.  Taylor  that  his  regiment,  the  106th  Infantry,  the  old  14th 
and  23d  of  Brooklyn,  had  been  chosen  to  start  the  big  drive.  The  night  of  September  26th 
found  the  regiment  moving  along  shell  swept  roads  and  passing  through  villages  which  were  the 
last  word  in  desolation  and  ruin,  and  airiving  at  its  appointed  position  about  mid-day.  It  was 
necessary  that  they  begin  to  work  and  work  fast,  because  orders  which  they  had  received  said 
that  the  men  must  get  into  position  at  4 .00  A.  M.  It  was  hazy,  the  fog  beginning  to  rise  about  2 .00 
A.  M.  The  zero  hour  was  set  for  between  4.00  and  5.00  A.  M.  and  word  came  that  the  barrage  would 
last  about  thirty  minutes,  after  which  the  infantry  would  begin  to  advance.  The  other  regiments 
moved  up  on  the  27th  and  got  into  position  on  the  night  of  the  28th.  The  attack  on  the  29th  was 
opened  by  the  artillery  at  5.50  A.  M.  and  they  pounded  away  for  fifteen  minutes  with  a  terrific  fire. 
Then  the  tanks  began  to  move  out.  It  was  dawn  and  fairly  bright.  Suddenly  as  the  tanks  began  to 
mount  what  was  known  as  Guillemont  Farm,  there  was  a  flash  of  flame  followed  by  a  gigantic  crash 
as  the  mines  exploded,  one  after  another,  until  nine  of  the  tanks  were  removed  from  the  battle  line. 
Other  tanks  were  smashed  by  direct  hits  from  the  big  German  guns.  In  all  sixteen  of  the  forty-five 
tanks  that  moved  out  that  morning  were  destroyed  in  the  first  fifteen  minutes.  It  was  a  sickening 
feeling  that  came  to  the  Buffalo  men  when  they  saw  that  fearful  accident,  for  they  felt  that  inside  of 
the  tanks  they  would  find  nothing  but  the  charred  remains  of  those  who  had  formed  their  crews. 
One  of  the  Buffalo  boys  in  the  tank  brigade  that  moved  out  that  morning  was  Sergeant  Frank 
J.  Williams,  .Jr.,  Company  "C",  301st  Battalion  Tank  Corps.  Sergeant  Williams  was  the  only 
Buffalo  man  attached  to  that  tank  battalion.  In  fact,  as  far  as  is  known,  he  was  the  only  Buffalo 
man  serving  in  the  big  tanks.  They  had  what  was  known  as  a  "Mark  5"  battle  tank,  and  were 
headed  for  the  Knoll.  They  had  been  in  action  for  about  ten  minutes  when  their  tank  was  hit 
by  a  5.9  shell,  a  direct  hit.  Six  men  in  the  tank  were  killed,  the  others  badly  wounded.  Williams 
himself  was  terribly  lacerated  and  it  was  feared  for  a  long  while  that  he  would  not  recover. 
The  following  citation  will  serve  to  give  some  idea  of  his  service: 

"Sergeant  Frank  J.  Williams.  Jr.,  Company  ('.  :il)lst  Battalion  Tank  Corps,  is  recommended  for  the  award  of  the  Distinguished  Service  Cross 
in  view  of  his  conduct  in  action  as  noted  below: 

"(a)   September  29th.  1918,  from  5.50  A.  M.  to  11.00  P.  M. 

"(6)  East  of  Ronssoy  Map  'Etaves'  location  F-12-c. 

'*  (c)  The  attack  was  directed  against  the  Hindenburg  line  in  front  of  Le  Catelet.  It  was  made  by  the  27th  Division  American  E.  F.  supported 
by  301st  Battalion  Tank  Corps. 

"  id)  The  operation  was  the  assault  upon  the  trench  system  east  of  Ronssoy. 

"  ie)  Sergeant  Williams  was  in  a  tank  under  the  command  of  Lieutenant  H.  E.  Potter  when  it  was  put  out  of  action  by  a  direct  hit  from  enemy 
artillery.  Every  one  in  the  tank  was  either  killed  or  disabled  by  wounds.  Lieutenant  Potter  was  temporarily  blinded  and  was  badly  injured,  and 
Sergeant  Williams,  although  seriously  wounded,  himself,  assisted  in  dressing  his  wounds.  He  then  remained  with  Lieutenant  Potter  all  day 
attending  to  his  wounds  while  under  heavy  fire  from  an  enemy  trench  that  lay  between  them  and  our  first  line.  When  it  became  dark  he  assisted 
the  Lieutenant  back  through  the  German  position  to  our  lines.  If  it  had  not  been  for  the  attention  that  Lieutenant  Potter  received  he  would 
probably  have  died  from  loss  of  blood  and  he  would  certainly  have  been  taken  prisoner  as  he  was  helpless. 

"(/)  These  facts  came  under  the  observation  and  have  been  verified  by  a  verbal  report  from  Sergeant  Charles  E.  Kaufman  of  Company  C  " 
301st  Battalion  Tank  Corps,  and  the  attached  affidavit  of  Lieutenant  H.  E.  Potter. 

"(g)  Nearest  relative  Frank  J.  Williams,  261  Parkdale  Avenue,  Buffalo,  N.  Y. 

"lb)  1  am  of  the  opinion  that  Sergeant  Frank  J.  Williams,  Jr.,  Company  C,  301st  Battalion  Tank  Corps,  has  distinguished  himself  by  his  extra- 
ordinary heroism  in  connection  with  the  above  military  operation  to  an  extent  that  justified  the  award  recommended." 

Sergeant  Williams  was  still  badly  crippled  at  the  time  he  was  returned  to  Buffalo  after  his 
discharge  from  the  service. 

The  Hindenburg  offensive  proved  to  be  one  of  the  most  notable  battles  in  which  the  American 
forces  participated  in  France,  and  is  particularly  interesting  to  Buff"alonians  became  of  the  large 
number  of  Buffalo  men  engaged. 

The  series  of  operations  by  the  British  and  French  between  July  and  November,  1916,  com- 
monly called  the  battle  of  the  Somme,  so  weakened  the  German  front  between  Arras  and  Peronne 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War  257 

that  the  German  staff  found  it  necessary  to  establish  a  new  Hne  from  six  to  eight  miles  to  the 
rear.  It  was  constructed  during  the  winter  of  1916-1917  by  the  labor  of  prisoners  and  of  French 
and  Belgian  civilians.  This  was  called  the  Hindenburg  Line.  It  ran  from  the  region  of  Queant  in 
a  southeasterly  direction,  passing  three  or  four  miles  southeast  of  Cambrai  and  directly  east  of 
Saint  Quentin,  to  La  Fere  and  the  Oise  River.  Roughly  the  entire  German  defense  line  for  1917 
and  1918  came  to  be  called  the  Hindenburg  Line,  but  the  portion  described  was  the  Hindenburg 
Line  proper.  It  consisted  of  an  elaborate  series  of  deep  trenches,  protected  by  barb-wire  entangle- 
ments and  detached  cement  forts  for  machine  guns,  called  by  the  soldiers  "pill-boxes."  In  addi- 
tion, the  Germans  completely  devastated  the  country  from  which  they  retired,  destroying  all 
villages  and  farms,  cutting  down  trees  and  poisoning  wells  in  order  to  make  it  as  difficult  as  possible 
for  the  pursuing  Allied  armies  to  live  in  the  abandoned  country.  This  region  had  been  cleared 
up  by  the  British  to  the  extent  of  rebuilding  the  roads  and  bridges  and  reopening  water  supplies 
by  1918;  but  in  general  the  Hindenburg  Line  may  be  described  as  the  most  formidable  system 
of  trenches  German  ingenuity  could  contrive,  facing  an  artificial  desert,  six  to  eight  miles  wide. 

The  portion  of  the  Hindenburg  Line  with  which  the  27th  Division  was  concerned  ran  from  the 
region  of  Le  Catelet  south  to  Naui'oy,  a  distance  of  about  four  miles.  Here  the  basis  of  the  Hinden- 
burg system  was  the  Saint  Quentin  canal.  Emptied  of  water,  the  canal  made  a  wide  and  deep 
trench  where  thousands  of  men  could  be  massed,  secure  from  anything  but  direct  hits  by  high- 
angle  guns.  At  one  place  the  canal  tunneled  through  a  hill  and  here  the  German  troops  were 
absolutely  protected.  Canal  boats  drawn  into  the  tunnel  gave  them  good  housing,  and  no  shells 
could  reach  them. 

In  front,  or  west,  of  the  canal  the  country  for  a  width  of  one  to  two  miles  was  seamed  with 
infantry  trenches,  covered  with  machine-gun  forts  and  obstructed  by  mazes  of  barbed  wire. 
These  obstacles  had  to  be  overcome  before  the  canal  itself,  with  its  masses  of  German  reserves 
and  well-hidden  artillery,  could  be  reached,  while  still  farther  to  the  east  were  the  long-range 
batteries  from  which  high-explosive  shells  could  be  poured,  not  only  on  the  attacking  troops, 
but  on  their  reserves  and  supplies  miles  in  the  rear. 

Ronssoy  was  the  principal  point  where  the  27th  struck  the  outworks  of  the  Hindenburg  Line. 
Bony,  Gouy  and  Nauroy  are  the  chief  villages  on  the  line  itself  in  the  sector  through  which  the 
Buffalo  regiment  and  associates  were  to  make  their  drive. 

On  September  26th  the  Meuse-Argonne  offensive  had  started  with  an  artillery  crash,  the 
greatest  ever  recorded  in  history.  The  doughboys  said  the  guns  were  "hub  to  hub"  and  2,700 
of  them  were  firing. 

On  the  same  day  the  106th  Infantry  of  the  27th  Division  went  forward  to  straighten  out  the 
line  for  the  attack  on  Bony  and  the  Hindenburg  entrenchments.  It  was  found  necessary  to  take 
the  outer  defenses  to  prepare  the  way  for  the  main  attack  scheduled  for  September  29th.  General 
O'Ryan  would  have  preferred  to  send  his  entire  di\'ision  in  to  clean  up  those  defenses,  consist- 
ing of  the  Knoll,  Guillemont  Farm  and  Quennemont  Farm  but  General  Rawlinson  said  they 
could  not  afford  to  have  an  entire  division  cut  up  before  the  main  attack,  and  the  106th  Infantry 
was  sent  in  to  do  the  job  alone.  They  started  at  daybreak  September  27th.  The  battle  was 
terrific  all  day. 

Early  on  the  morning  of  the  27th  the  108th  Infantry  under  orders  from  the  Division  Commander 
left  their  bivouac  at  Tincourt  on  a  forced  march  along  a  railroad  track  to  the  front.  No  trains 
ran  east  of  Tincourt.  They  camped  that  night  on  the  side  of  a  hill  near  Longavesnes  and 
Villers-Faucon  just  back  of  the  battle  area.  They  had  a  march  of  about  nine  miles,  and  as  they 
tramped  along  the  road  in  the  afternoon,  the  ambulances  began  to  rattle  back.  Soon  they  met 
members  of  the  106th  Infantry  trudging  back,  some  holding  their  arms  with  pain,  another  with 
a  finger  shot  away,  another  gassed;  these  were  the  wreckage  of  the  fight  for  the  Knoll,  or 
rather  that  part  of  the  wreckage  still  able  to  make  headway  "under  their  own  steam." 

"  It's  hell  up  there, "  they  told  the  Buffalo  boys  as  they  passed  them  on  the  road,  but  the  "apple 
knockers"  just  took  a  tighter  grip  on  their  rifles  and  stepped  out  a  little  livelier  than  before. 


Buffalo's  Part  in  the  World  War  259 

The  106th  Regiment  had  gone  over  at  5.30  A.  M.  behind  a  ban-age,  but  met  stubborn  resist- 
ance along  the  entire  line  and  they  had  to  fight  every  yard  of  the  way.  In  spite  of  this,  however, 
the  Knoll,  Guillemont  Farm  and  Quennemont  Farm  were  taken.  Enfilading  fire  from  the  left 
made  the  position  on  the  Knoll  a  veritable  hell.  The  enemy  counter-attacked  and  fought  desper- 
ately in  an  attempt  to  recapture  the  heights. 

At  4  o'clock  in  the  afternoon  word  was  received  that  the  Americans  had  been  forced  to  with- 
draw. The  New  Yorkers  quickly  reorganized  their  line,  however,  and  at  5  P.  M.  had  regained 
possession  of  the  Knoll  in  one  of  the  bloodiest  engagements  of  the  war.  Heavy  fighting  con- 
tinued throughout  the  entire  day  in  and  about  Guillemont  and  Quennemont  Farms,  where  isolated 
pockets  of  enemy  machine  gun  nests  fired  into  our  lines  from  all  sides,  many  of  the  enemy  coming 
up  in  the  rear  of  our  troops  through  undergi'ound  passages. 

During  this  preliminary  engagement  three  officers  and  250  Gei-mans  of  other  ranks  were  cap- 
tured. A  reconnaissance  of  the  battle  ground  made  after  the  fight  showed  that  a  large  number  of 
enemy  dead  were  in  the  trenches,  which  was  eloquent  proof  of  the  sanguinary  character  of  the 
fighting.    The  number  of  German  dead  near  the  Knoll  was  enormous. 

Orders  were  dispatched  to  the  Commanders  of  the  107th  and  108th  to  relieve  the  106th.  Colonel 
Jennings'  report  of  the  operations  of  the  108th  put  in  civilian  language  follows:  From  bivouac 
camp  September  27th,  on  Ronssoy  via  Aizecourt,  a  march  of  about  eight  and  a  half  miles. 
Bivouac  was  made  just  west  of  Templeaux  Le  Geurard  on  the  afternoon  of  September  27th. 
Under  above  orders  a  representative  of  each  company  and  battalion  scout  section  reported 
at  the  106th  Infantry  headquarters.  It  was  impossible  to  arrange  the  details  of  relief  at  the  time 
owing  to  the  disorganized  conditions  existing  in  the  line  taken  over.  Routes  were  reconnoitered 
and  all  possible  information  gathered  as  to  the  location  of  units  and  headquarters  which  were  to 
be  relieved. 

At  2  A.  M.  September  28th,  the  march  of  the  108th  Regiment  was  resumed,  with  the  exception 
of  the  1st